Land sector reporting

Overview of the land sector in Australia’s National Inventory

In Australia, the land sector covers approximately 769 million hectares and contributes about 1% of total-human induced greenhouse gas emissions to the annual national inventory through activities such as agricultural production and land clearing. The removal of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere by forest lands, croplands, grasslands and other vegetation also provides an important carbon sink.

Given the size of Australia’s land sector, it is not economically feasible or logistically practical to measure emissions and removals of greenhouse gases over such a large area with the use of direct emissions estimation methods alone e.g. field sampling. Given these national circumstances, the design of Australia’s national inventory system for the land sector relies heavily on the use of a modelling framework, to estimate the carbon stock change in biomass (above and belowground, litter and soil carbon resulting from land use and management activities).

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Full Carbon Accounting Model (FullCAM)

The Full Carbon Accounting Model (FullCAM) is the model used to construct Australia’s national greenhouse gas emissions account for the land sector.

FullCAM deals with both the biological and management processes which affect carbon pools and the transfers between pools in forest and agricultural systems. The exchanges of carbon, loss and uptake between the terrestrial biological system and the atmosphere are accounted for in the full/closed cycle mass balance model which includes all biomass, litter and soil pools.

Download the Full Carbon Accounting Model (FullCAM)

FullCAM is the calculation engine which supports the estimation of carbon stock change on forest and agricultural systems.

System Requirements: This application will run on Windows XP or higher and 2Gb RAM or more is recommended.

Land sector technical reports

A large body of work has been undertaken to design and develop Australia's land sector reporting capability, including FullCAM and the remote sensing program for forest cover change. This work is detailed in a range of technical reports.

Technical support

For FullCAM technical support please submit an query to If you have a query relating to using FullCAM for a Carbon Farming Initiative Methodology please contact