Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Endangered
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan required, this species had a recovery plan in force at the time the legislation provided for the Minister to decide whether or not to have a recovery plan (19/2/2007).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans Matchstick Banksia Banksia cuneata Recovery Plan (Department of Environment and Conservation, 2009b) [Recovery Plan].
 
Other EPBC Act Plans Threat abatement plan for disease in natural ecosystems caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi (Department of the Environment, 2014a) [Threat Abatement Plan].
 
Threat Abatement Plan for Competition and Land Degradation by Feral Rabbits (Environment Australia (EA), 1999c) [Threat Abatement Plan].
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument].
 
State Government
    Documents and Websites
WA:Threatened flora of the Western Central Wheatbelt (Collins, J., 2009) [State Species Management Plan].
WA:Declared Rare and Poorly Known Flora in the Narrogin District (Durell, G.S. & R.M. Buehrig, 2001) [State Species Management Plan].
State Listing Status
WA: Listed as Endangered (Wildlife Conservation Act 1950 (Western Australia): September 2013 list)
Scientific name Banksia cuneata [9827]
Family Proteaceae:Proteales:Magnoliopsida:Magnoliophyta:Plantae
Species author A.S.George
Infraspecies author  
Reference Nuytsia 3: 457, figs 110-111 (11 Sep. 1981).
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Other illustrations Google Images

The Matchstick Banksia is a large shrub or small tree to 5 m (George 1981, 1999) with a dense canopy (Hopper et al. 1990). Flowers are at first pink, then turn cream and finally reddish; they are borne in cone-like clusters (Brown et al. 1998).

The species occurs in the Pingelly-Quairading area, east to south-east of Perth, in the central wheatbelt of WA (Taylor & Hopper 1988; Hopper et al. 1990; Stace & Coates 1991; Brown et al. 1998; George 1999). It is found on road verges, reserves and private land in remnants of natural vegetation over a range of 90 km (Stace & Coates 1991; Brown et al. 1998).

A survey by Millar in 1982 found five populations, occurring in two disjunct areas about 40 km apart, with a total of 450 plants. Only one of the five populations (300 plants) was on a conservation reserve. The remaining four occurred on narrow road verges and contained from 50-70 individuals (Millar 1982a; reported in Taylor & Hopper 1988). Most populations were contained in a small area of only 1-3 hectares (Coates & Sokolowski 1992).

Since 1982, more plants have been located. According to the recovery plan, in 1991 there were ten populations and a total of 550 plants; five of the populations contained 95% of the plants (Stace & Coates 1991). Between 1995 and 1999, Durell (1995; 1998; 1999) reported 11 populations and noted that the number of individual plants had increased since 1994, with natural recruitment occurring in several populations, especially in response to fire.

B. cuneata is restricted to patches of deep yellow or yellow-brown sandy soils (Taylor & Hopper 1988; Coates & Sokolowski 1992; Maguire & Sedgley 1997), which cover 10-15% of the general area, giving the species a fragmented distribution (Coates & Sokolowski 1992; Maguire & Sedgley 1997). The deep sands may possibly lie over an accessible aquifer (Stace & Coates 1991). Much of this area was cleared for agriculture some 50-60 years ago and the clearing and other disturbances have reduced the B. cuneata population size to c. 7% of its original distribution, the remainder occurring in remnants of native vegetation (Coates & Sokolowski 1992; Maguire & Sedgley 1997).

The area has hot dry summers and cool wet winters. Rainfall is between 369 and 442 mm pa (Stace & Coates 1991). B. cuneata occurs at elevations of 235-280 m around Quairading and Brookton, and at 300 m near Pingelly (Stace & Coates 1991; Brown et al. 1998).

Associated with the deep, sandy soils is a rich vegetation system dominated by species of the families Proteaceae, Myrtaceae and Leguminosae, a number of which are important for maintaining the permanent populations of honeyeaters, the major pollinators of B. cuneata (Coates & Sokolowski 1992).

It occurs in low woodland or tall shrubland/kwongan of B. prionotes (Acorn Banksia) and Xylomelum angustifolium (Woody Pear) (Taylor & Hopper 1988; Hopper et al. 1990; Brown et al. 1998; George 1999).

Flowering occurs from Sept. to Dec. (Patrick & Hopper 1982; George 1996b), or June to Dec. (Hopper et al. 1990). This species is largely bird-pollinated (Coates & Sokolowski 1992).

B. cuneata is a fire-sensitive species with thin bark and without the capacity for resprouting (George 1981; Lamont et al. 1991). Fire kills the plants but stimulates release of stored seed (Stace & Coates 1991). Follicles usually remain closed until burnt (George 1981, 1999) although some seed is released in the absence of fire. Pollinator availability may limit seed production. Seed viability is around ten years. Recruitment is affected by the vulnerability of seedlings to summer drought (Stace & Coates 1991).

Analyses of the mating patterns and genetic variation of this species showed significantly lower levels of outcrossing in two populations than reported for other Banksia species. This appeared to be due to increased biparental inbreeding associated with high plant density and reduced or altered pollinator activity as a result of habitat disturbance. The six populations studied were clearly divided into two population groups with significant gene flow between populations within groups but not between groups (Coates & Sokolowski 1992).

In 1991, mortality exceeded recruitment (Stace & Coates 1991). Since then, recruitment has been increased by exclusion (fencing) and baiting of rabbits. Rising ground water may increase mortality (Durell 1998).

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Agriculture and Aquaculture:Habitat modification and disturbance due to fencing Matchstick Banksia Banksia cuneata Recovery Plan (Department of Environment and Conservation, 2009b) [Recovery Plan].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Habitat Shifting and Alteration:Habitat modification with associated erosion Species threats data recorded on the SPRAT database between 1999-2002 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2012i) [Database].
Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Ecosystem Degradation:Decline in habitat quality Matchstick Banksia Banksia cuneata Recovery Plan (Department of Environment and Conservation, 2009b) [Recovery Plan].
Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Ecosystem Degradation:Habitat deterioration due to soil degradation and erosion Banksia cuneata in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006bv) [Internet].
Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Ecosystem Degradation:Wind damage Matchstick Banksia Banksia cuneata Recovery Plan (Department of Environment and Conservation, 2009b) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Oryctolagus cuniculus (Rabbit, European Rabbit) Matchstick Banksia Banksia cuneata Recovery Plan (Department of Environment and Conservation, 2009b) [Recovery Plan].
Banksia cuneata in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006bv) [Internet].
Recovery Plan for the Matchstick Banksia (Banksia cuneata) - 1992-2001 Page(s) 1-31. (Stace, H.M. & D.J.Coates, 1991) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation by weeds Matchstick Banksia Banksia cuneata Recovery Plan (Department of Environment and Conservation, 2009b) [Recovery Plan].
Species threats data recorded on the SPRAT database between 1999-2002 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2012i) [Database].
Banksia cuneata in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006bv) [Internet].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Vegetation and habitat loss caused by dieback Phytophthora cinnamomi Matchstick Banksia Banksia cuneata Recovery Plan (Department of Environment and Conservation, 2009b) [Recovery Plan].
Banksia cuneata in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006bv) [Internet].
Threat abatement plan for disease in natural ecosystems caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2009w) [Threat Abatement Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Problematic Native Species:Competition and/or grazing by parrots Matchstick Banksia Banksia cuneata Recovery Plan (Department of Environment and Conservation, 2009b) [Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Salinity Matchstick Banksia Banksia cuneata Recovery Plan (Department of Environment and Conservation, 2009b) [Recovery Plan].
Species threats data recorded on the SPRAT database between 1999-2002 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2012i) [Database].
Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Stress caused by rising water tables Matchstick Banksia Banksia cuneata Recovery Plan (Department of Environment and Conservation, 2009b) [Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity) Matchstick Banksia Banksia cuneata Recovery Plan (Department of Environment and Conservation, 2009b) [Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Other Ecosystem Modifications:Changes in hydrology leading to rising water tables and dryland salinity Banksia cuneata in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006bv) [Internet].
Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Poor recruitment (regeneration) and declining population numbers Matchstick Banksia Banksia cuneata Recovery Plan (Department of Environment and Conservation, 2009b) [Recovery Plan].
Transportation and Service Corridors:Roads and Railroads:Development and/or maintenance of roads Matchstick Banksia Banksia cuneata Recovery Plan (Department of Environment and Conservation, 2009b) [Recovery Plan].

Brown, A., C. Thomson-Dans & N. Marchant, eds. (1998). Western Australia's Threatened Flora. Como, Western Australia: Department of Conservation and Land Management.

Coates, D.J. & R.E.S. Sokolowski (1992). The mating system and patterns of genetic variation in Banksia cuneata A.S.George (Proteaceae). Heredity. 69:11-20.

Connell, S., B. Lamont & S. Bergl (1988). Rare & Endangered Matchstick Banksia. Australian Natural History. 22(8):354-355.

Durell, G. (1994a). Matchstick Banksia Recovery Team Annual Report 1994. Matchstick Banksia Recovery Team. CALM, Narrogin.

Durell, G. (1995). Banksia cuneata Recovery Plan Annual Report 1995. Page(s) 1-13. Department of Conservation and Land Management. CALM, Narrogin.

Durell, G. (1998). Matchstick Banksia Recovery Plan Annual Report 1998 Project number 349. Matchstick Banksia Recovery Team. CALM, Narrogin.

Durell, G. (1999). Matchstick Banksia Recovery Plan Annual Report 1999, NHT Project 6472. CALM, Narrogin.

George, A.S. (1981). The genus Banksia L.f. (Proteaceae). Nuytsia. 3(3):239-473. Perth, Department of Agriculture.

George, A.S. (1984e). An Introduction to the Proteaceae of Western Australia. Page(s) 112 pp. Kangaroo Press, Kenthurst, NSW.

George, A.S. (1996b). The Banksia Book. Sydney: SGAP.

George, A.S. (1999). Banksia. In: Orchard, A.E., H.S. Thompson & P.M. McCarthy, eds. Flora of Australia. 17B:175-251. Canberra: ABRS and Melbourne: CSIRO.

Hopper, S.D., S. van Leeuwen, A.P. Brown & S.J. Patrick (1990). Western Australia's Endangered Flora and other plants under consideration for declaration. Perth, Western Australia: Department of Consrvation and Land Management.

Kershaw, K. (1999). Banksia cuneata 1999 census and population condition. CALM, Narrogin.

Lamont, B.B., S.W. Connell & S.M. Bergl (1991). Seed bank and population dynamics of Banksia cuneata: the role of time, fire and moisture. Bot. Gaz. 152(1):114-122.

Maguire, T.L. & M. Sedgley (1997). Genetic diversity in Banksia and Dryandra (Proteaceae) with emphasis on Banksia cuneata, a rare and endangered species. Heredity. 79:394-401.

Meredith, L.D. & M.M. Richardson (1990). Rare or Threatened Australian Plant Species in Cultivation in Australia. Report Series No. 15. Page(s) 1-114. Canberra: Australian National Parks and Wildlife Service.

Millar, K.A.G. (1982a). Geographically restricted plants of the Wheatbelt of Western Australia. Rare & Geographically Restricted Plants of Western Australia. 15. Department of Parks & Wildlife, Perth.

Patrick, S.J. & S.D. Hopper (1982). Guide to the Gazetted Rare Flora of Western Australia: Supplement 1, Report No. 54. Page(s) 94 pp. Dept. of Fisheries & Wildlife, Perth.

Stace, H.M. & D.J.Coates (1991). Recovery Plan for the Matchstick Banksia (Banksia cuneata) - 1992-2001. Page(s) 1-31. WA CALM. CALM, Perth.

Taylor, A. & S.D. Hopper (1988). The Banksia Atlas. In: Australian Flora and Fauna Series. 8. Canberra: AGPS.

EPBC Act email updates can be received via the Communities for Communities newsletter and the EPBC Act newsletter.

This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Banksia cuneata in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Sat, 26 Jul 2014 03:19:43 +1000.