Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Endangered as Prasophyllum frenchii
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans National Recovery Plan for the Maroon Leek Orchid Prasophyllum frenchii (Duncan, M, 2010) [Recovery Plan] as Prasophyllum frenchii.
 
Other EPBC Act Plans National Recovery Plan for Twenty-five Threatened Orchid taxa of Victoria, South Australia and New South Wales 2003-2007 (Coates, F., J. Jeanes & A. Pritchard, 2002) [Recovery Plan] as Prasophyllum frenchii.
 
Policy Statements and Guidelines Draft survey guidelines for Australia's threatened orchids (Department of the Environment, 2013b) [Admin Guideline].
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument] as Prasophyllum frenchii.
 
State Government
    Documents and Websites
VIC:Action Statement No. 154, Maroon Leek-orchid, Prasophyllum frenchii (Coates, F., 2003) [State Action Plan].
State Listing Status
SA: Listed as Endangered (National Parks and Wildlife Act 1972 (South Australia): June 2011 list) as Prasophyllum frenchii
VIC: Listed as Threatened (Flora and Fauna Guarantee Act 1988 (Victoria): February 2014 list) as Prasophyllum frenchii
Non-statutory Listing Status
VIC: Listed as Endangered (Advisory List of Rare or Threatened Plants in Victoria: 2005)
Scientific name Prasophyllum frenchii [9704]
Family Orchidaceae:Orchidales:Liliopsida:Magnoliophyta:Plantae
Species author F.Muell.
Infraspecies author  
Reference Mueller, F.J.H. von (1889) The Victorian Naturalist 6:126
Other names Prasophyllum hartii [49693]
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Other illustrations Google Images
http://www.anbg.gov.au/images/photo_cd/717332712442/056.html
http://www.anbg.gov.au/images/photo_cd/732131822184/093.html

Prasophyllum frenchii is conventionally accepted (CHAH 2013). The species was described in 1889 from specimens collected at Dandenong Creek near the Dandenong Ranges (Mueller 1889). In the 1920s P. frenchii was confused with a relatively distant taxa (probably what is now P. pyriforme or another taxa (see Rouse 2002)) and subsequently described as P. hartii from material collected at Bairnsdale, Victoria in November 1925 (Rogers 1925). It was not until examination of the type material of P. frenchii in the 1980s (Clements 1989) that it was realised that Rogers (1925), Nicholls (1969) and Willis (1970b) had misapplied P. hartii to P. frenchii (Jones 1988; Clements 1989). Many collections listed as P. frenchii refer to the old circumscriptions of the species (Victorian Workshop Participants 2000 pers. comm.).

In more recent times Prasophyllum frenchii has been confused or potentially confused with Coastal Leek-orchid (P. litorale), Alpine Marsh Leek-orchid (P. niphopedium), Marsh Leek-orchid (P. rogersii), Channelled Leek-orchid (P. canaliculatum), Tailed Leek-orchid (P. appendiculatum), Murfets Leek-orchid (P. murfetii) and Shelford Leek-orchid (P. fosteri) (Duncan 2005).

The Victorian plant census (Walsh & Stajsic 2007) includes the following taxa that may require formal description, although genetic differences from Prasophyllum frenchii may not be significant (Rouse 2002):

  • Prasophyllum sp. aff. frenchii 2 sensu Jeanes and Backhouse (2001), which occurs on Wilsons Promontory National Park (NP) (Jeanes & Backhouse 2001) and possibly the Yarram and Clyde areas.
  • P. sp. aff. frenchii A sensu Rouse (2002) (includes P. sp. aff. frenchii 1 sensu Jeanes and Backhouse (2001)), which is restricted to volcanic plains of western Victoria and south-east SA at Casterton, Orford and Hawkesdale (Rouse 2002). Now known as Prasophyllum viretrum (Walsh & Stajsic 2007).
  • P. sp. aff. frenchii B, sensu Rouse (2002), and includes P. canaliculatum sensu Ross (2000), which occurs in Shelley in north-east Victoria (Rouse 2002).

The Maroon Leek-orchid has a single, terete, erect, slender leaf to 60 cm long, that is green with a purplish base. The species has a slender to stout greenish stem to 60 cm tall, which bears 20–60 small (to 8 mm across), fragrant, variably coloured (usually greenish with reddish tonings) flowers in a relatively dense spike. The dorsal sepal is ovate with a pointed apex, and incurved to obliquely deflexed, while the lateral sepals are broadly lanceolate, erect, free, parallel and the tips are divergent and the margins inrolled. The labellum (largest upper petal) is broadly ovate with undulate margins, the base is pouched, and it is sharply recurved (at right-angles) just beyond the middle. The callus plate (raised structure on surface of labellum) is short, horse-shoe shaped, raised, fleshy, warty, somewhat irregular, and extends just beyond the bend in the labellum (Backhouse & Jeanes 1995; Bates 1994c; Bishop 1996; Jones 1988; Jeanes & Backhouse 2004; von Mueller 1889)

The Maroon Leek-orchid is widespread across southern Victoria in the Wannon, Gippsland Plain, Wilsons Promontory and East Gippsland regions (Conn 1993) and extending into the far south-east corner of South Australia (SA). Records from SA other than Piccaninnie Ponds Conservation Park (Cons. P) are erroneous and are either the Fleurieu Leek Orchid (Prasophyllum murfetii), P. pyriforme or P. litorale. Collections from Tasmania are likely to be Prasophyllum rostratum.

Collections at herbariums in Melbourne, Canberra and Adelaide come from Piccaninnie Ponds Cons. P in SA and the following sites in Victoria: Discovery Bay Coastal Park (CP), Poolaigelo, Kentbruck Settlement, Gorae West, Surry River, Portland, Mt Clay State Forest, Moggs Creek, Anglesea, Belmont, Brighton, Ringwood, Bayswater, Doncaster, Mulgrave, Healesville, Tonimbuk, Beaconsfield, Officer, Pakenham, Clyde, Wilsons Promontory NP, Alberton, Yarram, Woodside, Golden Beach, Lindenow, Bairnsdale, Gillingal, Genoa and Mallacoota.

The Maroon Leek-orchid is known to occur at seven locations and has an unknown status at six other locations. It has become extinct in at least a further 14 locations. These locations occur within the following three distinct regions: south-west Victoria/south-east SA; south-central Victoria; and south-east Victoria (Rouse 2006 pers. comm.). The following table identifies these locations:

State Region Status Site Collection Comment
SA Mount Gambier Extant Piccaninnie Ponds Cons. P, north side of Blue Lake Melbourne Herbarium 24/11/1963 About 120 plants occur at two sites in a total area of about 1 ha within the reserve and around 500 plants in an area of about 8 ha in the adjoining private property (Rouse 2006 pers. comm.).
Piccaninnie Ponds Cons. P and private property, 400 metres along north boundary track east of surf beach road Melbourne Herbarium and Canberra Herbarium
Victoria Portland Extant Discovery Bay CP (Quarry Road Swamp) Canberra Herbarium 23/11/2001 About 500 plants over an area of about 2 ha (Rouse 2006 pers. comm.).
Unknown Mt Clay State Forest, south end of Woolwash Road Melbourne Herbarium 21/11/1983 Searches failed to find plants in 2001 (Rouse 2002). Biomass reduction is possibly required to induce flowering at the site.
Extinct Gorae West private property Melbourne Herbarium November 1942 The cause of extinction appears to be conversion of habitat to agricultural land in the case of Gorae West (Nicholls 1969) and most likely in the other sites also.
Kentbruck, Adams private property Melbourne Herbarium December 1949
Portland Melbourne Herbarium 9/10/1947
Surry River near Portland, rail enclosure Melbourne Herbarium 28/9/1944
Inland South West Extinct Poolaigelo, 6 km South-west on east side of Dergholm Road private property Melbourne Herbarium 9/11/1964 The cause of extinction appears to be conversion of habitat to agricultural land. Searches of the site in 2001 failed to locate plants (Rouse 2002).
Western Otway Coast Extinct Moggs Creek Melbourne Herbarium 14/11/1930 The cause of extinction appears to be conversion of habitat to horse paddocks in case of Moggs creek (Rouse 2006 pers. comm.) and probably town expansion in the case of Anglesea and Belmont.
Anglesea (some taxonomic doubt) Melbourne Herbarium 25/11/1934
Belmont Adelaide Herbarium
Melbourne Extant Clyde Railway line (near Manks Road) Canberra Herbarium 9/11/2001 About 100 plants occur along rail line in an area of 0.2 ha (Lester & Sutton 2006).
Pakenham Railway line Jeanes (2001 pers. comm.) About ten plants occur along rail line in an area of 0.1 ha (Duncan 2005).
Unknown Tonimbuk private property Beauglehole (1983)  
Extinct Dandenong Creek between Yarra and Dandenongs Melbourne Herbarium Novermber 1889 Type site
Brighton, Creek Melbourne Herbarium October 1889 The cause of extinction appears to be conversion of habitat to agricultural land and then urban development as Melbourne expanded.
Officer Melbourne Herbarium 9/11/1930, 27/10/1940
Numerous collections from Mulgrave, Ringwood, Bayswater, Berwick and Healesville  
South Gippsland Extant Yarram (or Parkside) Aerodrome Melbourne Herbarium 14/11/1981, 21/11/1981 250 plants occur on aerodrome land in an area of 5 ha (Duncan 2005). A 2007 survey suggested that there was a "high concentration" of plants (Imbery 2007).
Golden Beach, Gippsland Lakes CP & roadside Melbourne Herbarium 50–100 plants occur in coastal park and roadside in an area of about 1 ha (Rouse 2006 pers. comm.).
Unknown Wilsons Promontory NP north of Darby River 3/11/1989 About ten plants (Jeanes 2001 pers. comm.), status possibly extinct (Coates 2003). The area has dried and vegetation denser (Rouse 2002), and the site is degraded (Coates 2003). The drying out is probably due to a drop in the watertable as a result of oil extraction from Bass Strait (Hatton et. al. 2004).
Wilsons Promontory NP Mt Singapore region Melbourne Herbarium 1966 Possibly extinct
Woodside Beach Road Beauglehole (1984b) Possibly extinct. Searches in the early 1990s failed to locate plants (Turner 2006 pers. comm.).
Extinct Old records from Alberton, Victoria Melbourne Herbarium The cause of extinction appears to be conversion of habitat to agricultural land.
Bairnsdale Extinct Bairnsdale Railway line near Marriage Lane W49, Lindenow Railway line Adelaide Herbarium 9/11/25, Melbourne Herbarium 18/10/1970 Approximately 20 plants were known in the early 1980s up to when herbicide spray was used in the mid 1980s to control rail side vegetation. No plants have been observed since then (Turner 2006 pers. comm.).
East Gippsland Extant Gillingal Station, Greenhills Nature Conservation Reserve (NCR) Canberra Herbarium 11/12/2001 Status about 250 plants occur in an area of 6 ha (Roe 2006).
Unknwon Croajingalong NP, Shipwreck Creek region Beauglehole (1981) 'A few plants' in the early 1970s (Turner 2006 pers. comm.) and 'a large number of plants' in the mid 1980s (Peisley 2006 pers. comm.). Requires fire to promote flowering (Turner & Peisley 2006 pers. comm.), though in the years following fuel reductions burns in 2000 no plants were observed (2006 pers. comm.). Drought in the 2000s may have caused declines (Peisley 2006 pers. comm.). The taxonomic status of plants at this site are unknown as the habitat they occupy, wet coastal heathland, differs from all other recorded sites (Rouse 2006 pers. comm.).
Croajingalong NP, Tobins Creek and Genoa Creek region Beauglehole (1981) 'About 50 plants' in the mid 1980s (Peisley 2006 pers. comm.). See comments for Shipwreck Creek.

The Maroon Leek-orchid distribution is severely fragmented. Most subpopulations occur in small isolated sites separated by large areas of unsuitable habitat. This fragmented distribution is in part due to the fragmented occurrence of swamp and wet grassland habitat in which the species occurs. Since 1900, fragmentation has become more severe due to a fairly uniform loss of subpopulations across the whole of the species range (Rouse 2006 pers. comm.).

The extent of occurrence of the Maroon Leek-orchid is 113 480 km2. The area of occupancy is less than 0.18 to 0.3 km2 (Duncan 2005; Rouse 2006 pers. comm.).

The habitat type in which the Maroon Leek-orchid occurs has been reasonably well surveyed, including a survey of remnant grassland sites along railway lines between Melbourne and Bairnsdale (Paget 1988). Permanent monitoring transects for the species were established at Clyde in 1998 and at Greenhills in 2004. Data has been obtained annually. Annual population counts are being implemented for the Pakenham, Piccaninnie Ponds Cons. P, Discovery Bay CP, Gippsland Lakes CP and Parkside Aerodrome sites (Duncan 2005).

The estimated total population size of the Maroon Leek-orchid is estimated at 1000–2000 mature individuals (Lister 2006; Roe 2006; Rouse 2002). The species is known to have seasonal fluctuations in flowering numbers at nearly all sites where it is known to occur (Rouse 2006 pers. comm.). It is likely that the current distribution and population size estimates are fairly accurate (Rouse 2006 pers. comm.).

Of the three regions where the Maroon Leek-orchid occurs, central southern Victoria has the least remaining plants and the most extinct sites. From herbarium records it appears that the species was once fairly widespread and common in the region where Melbourne's eastern suburbs are today. In order to maintain the genetic diversity of the species, protection of the Clyde site, (the largest of the two existing populations in central southern Victoria), is probably of the highest priority. Other extremely important sites are Piccaninnie Ponds Cons. P in SA, and the following Victorian sites: Discovery Bay CP, Parkside Aerodrome, Gippsland Lakes CP and Greenhills NCR (Rouse 2006 pers. comm.).

The Maroon Leek-orchid has been recorded from six conservation reserves: Piccaninnie Ponds Cons. P (Ramsar site), Discovery Bay CP, Wilsons Promontory NP (unknown population status), Gippsland Lakes CP (Ramsar site), Greenhills NCR and Croajingolong NP (unknown population status). None of these reserves are being actively managed for this species. Active management for the species is being carried by the Victorian Government at Parkside Aerodrome and on the two railway easements at Clyde and Pakenham (Duncan 2005).

The Maroon Leek-orchid grows mainly in open sedge swampland or in wet grassland and wet heathland generally bordering swampy regions. Sites are generally low altitude, flat and moist (Backhouse & Jeanes 1995). Soils are generally moderately rich damp sandy or black clay loams (Backhouse & Jeanes 1995). Climate is mild, with an annual rainfall of 600–1100 mm, occurring predominantly in winter and spring (Rouse 2006 pers. comm.).

The Maroon Leek-orchid often grows associated with the following grass and sedge genera: kangaroo grass (Themeda spp.), wallaby grass (Rytidosperma spp.), twig-rush (Baumea spp.) and sword-sedge (Lepidosperma spp.) and sometimes with saw-sedge (Gahnia spp.), tussock grass (Poa spp.) and speargrass (Austrostipa spp.). Associated taller stratum species include Woolly Teatree (Leptospermum lanigerum), Swamp Paperbark (Melaleuca ericifolia) and Scented Paperbark (Melaleuca squarrosa). Orchid species that are known to grow or have grown sympatrically include Thick-lipped Spider-orchid (Caladenia tessellata), Purple Diuris (Diuris punctata), Small Wax-lip Orchid (Glossodia minor), Slender Onion-orchid (Microtis parviflora), Sale Plains Leek-orchid (Prasophyllum chasmogamum), Sweet Leek-orchid (Prasophyllum odoratum s.l.), Gorae Leek-orchid (Prasophyllum diversiflorum), Metallic Sun-orchid (Thelymitra epipactoides), Blue Star Sun-orchid (Thelymitra holmesii) and Shy Sun-orchid (Thelymitra planicola) (Rouse 2006 pers. comm.).

Threatened species and ecological community associations

The Maroon Leek-orchid occurs in Central Gippsland Plains Grassland (Gippsland Lakes CP) and South Gippsland Plains Grassland (Parkside Aerodrome and Clyde Railway) both of which are listed as threatened under the Flora and Fauna Guarantee Act 1988 (Victoria) (FFG Act). There is a Victorian Government action statement for these communities (DSE 2004).

The Maroon Leek-orchid occurs (or occurred) with the Gorae Leek-orchid (Prasophyllum diversiflorum) (Gorae West), the Metallic Sun-orchid (Thelymitra epipactoides) (Gippsland Lake Coastal Park and Poolaigelo), Thick-lipped Spider-orchid (Caladenia tessellata) (Shipwreck Creek) and Austral Toadflax (Thesium australe) (Greenhills NCR), which are listed under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (EPBC Act) (Beauglehole 1984b; DSE 2005b; Turner & Rouse 2006 pers. comm) and the FFG Act (DSE 2006a). Action Statements under the FFG Act have been prepared for Thelymitra epipactoides, Thesium australe and Diuris punctata (DSE 2006b).

Reproduction

The Maroon Leek-orchid flowers from October to December (Jeanes & Backhouse 2000). Flowering is stimulated the year following biomass reduction either via pulse grazing (single short period of grazing), fire or slashing (Duncan 2005). It is unknown which insect species pollinates the Maroon Leek-orchid (Rouse 2006 pers. comm.), though Prasophyllum species tend to be less specific than other genera (Jones 1988).

Reproduction for leek-orchids is entirely from seed, which is ripe and dispersed three to eight weeks after flowering (Jeanes 2001 pers. comm.). Seed capsules have been observed in the field, but it is unknown if these are the product of insect pollination or autogamy (self fertilisation). Plants probably produce a single replacement tuber each year, but their longevity is unknown. Mycorrhizal relationships are unknown (Jeanes 2001 pers. comm.). Hybridisation has not been observed (Rouse 2006 pers. comm.).

Population fluctuations

Leek-orchids (Prasophyllum spp.) mature at five years and usually do not flower two years in succession (DEH 2005g). As a result, extreme above-ground population number fluctuations are observed. Also, plants may only put up a small (1 cm length) leaf during growth periods (DEH 2005g; Rouse 2006 pers. comm.). During dormancy, plants persist as underground tubers and it is unknown how long dormancy can last. Rates of dormancy may be greater during dry conditions or vegetation thickening. Conversely, the main conditions for promotion of flowering is opening of vegetation by fires or mechanical means and good rainfall (Rouse 2006 pers. comm.).

The Maroon Leek-orchid generally occurs in open grassland or sedgeland sites which makes them relatively easy to detect. While a few other Prasophyllum species have been known to occur with the species, none of these are likely to be confused with the Maroon Leek-orchid. Species that that could be confused with the Maroon Leek-orchid are not known to grow sympatrically with it (Rouse 2006 pers. comm.).

The Maroon Leek-orchid is similar to the unnamed taxa Prasophyllum sp. aff. frenchii A and P. sp. aff. frenchii B (Rouse 2002). The Maroon Leek-orchid can be distinguished from P. sp. aff. frenchii A by non-completely opening flowers with shorter broader sepals and petals, raised horse-shoe shaped verrucose structure at apical end of callus plate (raised linear apical end of callus plate in P. sp. aff. frenchii A) and labellum constricting beyond bend (tapering in P. sp. aff. frenchii A). The Maroon Leek-orchid can be distinguished from P. sp. aff. frenchii B by non-completely opening flowers with broader tepals, shorter broader labellum with undulate margins (entire in P. sp. aff. frenchii B) and a raised horse-shoe shaped verrucose structure at apical end of callus plate (lacking any prominent raised structure in P. sp. aff. frenchii B) (Rouse 2006 pers. comm.).

The Maroon Leek-orchid is similar to the Marsh Leek-orchid (Prasophyllum niphopedium) and Prasophyllum litorale, but can be distinguished by its generally dark coloured flowers with short, broad perianth segments, and its labellum which is broad and sharply curved near the apex, with a fleshy, horse-shoe shaped callus.

Surveys for the Maroon Leek-orchid should be conducted in November or early December. Plants cannot be detected or identified at other times of the year. Searches should be carried out in known vegetation associations the year following a biomass reduction (fire or slashing) if possible (Rouse 2006 pers. comm.). Due to extreme seasonal fluctuations in the numbers of flowering individuals monitoring must be carried out over many years to determine actual population trends. If possible the numbers of other orchid species in the local area should also be monitored. This data will help in determining seasonal differences (bad versus good flowering years) (Rouse 2006, pers. comm.).

Preferred habitat of the Maroon Leek-orchid has been heavily cleared for agriculture and much of the habitat that remains has been seriously degraded. Four populations are known to occur in coastal parks or nature conservation reserves and all remaining populations are small and mainly occur in railway, roadside, private property or airfield reserves (Jeanes 2001 pers. comm.).

Threats to the Maroon Leek-orchid include weed invasion (including pasture grasses), inappropriate burning regimes, herbicide spraying and heavy vehicles moving over sites (Backhouse & Jeanes 1995). The site at Bairnsdale where approximately 20 plants were known in the early 1980s was lost when herbicide spray was used in the mid 1980s to control rail side vegetation (Turner 2006 pers. comm.). Weeds and the absence of fire causes vegetation thickening that excludes the Maroon Leek-orchid.

Site-specific threats to the Maroon Leek-orchid include:

 Site Known threats Potential
Piccaninnie Ponds Cons. P and private property Grazing and trampling by sheep (only on private property), kangaroos and rabbits (Duncan 2005); weed invasion by pasture grasses (Rouse 2006 pers. comm.). Vehicle movement along the park boundary and in the private property (Rouse 2006 pers. comm.); hydrological change (Duncan 2005); inundation caused by climate change
Discovery Bay Coastal Park Grazing by caterpillars affected the majority of plants in 2001 (Rouse 2006 pers. comm.). Hydrological change (Duncan 2005); inundation caused by climate change
Clyde Railway Line Weed invasion by perennial pasture grasses, blackberries (Rubus spp.), Gorse (Ulex europaeus) and watsonia (Watsonia spp.); absence of fire (Duncan 2005). Direct herbicide application and indirect herbicide and fertiliser drift from surrounding farmland (Rouse 2006 pers. comm.)
Pakenham Railway Line Weed invasion by perennial pasture grasses and gladioli (Gladiolus spp.) (Duncan 2005). absence of fire; machinery disturbance related to the Fast Rail Project (Duncan 2005). Direct herbicide application and indirect herbicide and fertiliser drift from surrounding farmland (Rouse 2006 pers. comm.)
Parkside Aerodrome General weed invasion; machinery disturbance (Duncan 2005).  
Gippsland Lakes Coastal Park Grazing by rabbits and kangaroos; absence of fire (Rouse 2006 pers. comm.). Vehicle disturbance (Rouse 2006 pers. comm.); inundation caused by climate change
Greenhills NCR Weed invasion by pasture grasses, blackberries, Sweet Briar Rose (Rosa rubiginosa) and thistle (Roe 2006); cattle grazing (Rouse 2006 pers. comm.).  
Darby River, Wilsons Promontory NP Absence of fire (Coates 2003; Rouse 2006 pers. comm.); vegetation change, caused by a drop in the water table, from swamp paperbark (Melaleuca spp.) to coast tea tree (Leptospermum spp.) and wattle (Acacia spp.) (Jeanes & Backhouse 2001; Rouse 2002). Drops in the water table as a result of oil extraction from Bass Strait have been reported (Hatton et al. 2004).  
Mount Clay State Forest Biomass reduction (fire) is probably required to promote flowering (Rouse 2006 pers. comm.).  
Croajingalong NP Biomass reduction (fire) is probably required to promote flowering (Turner & Peisley 2006 pers. comm.), although no plants were observed in the years following a fuel reduction burn at Shipwreck Creek (burn in year 2000) (Rouse 2006 pers. comm.). Drought may be a factor contributing to loss of plants in this region (Peisley 2006 pers. comm.; Rouse 2006 pers. comm.).  

National recovery plan

The National Recovery Plan for the Maroon Leek Orchid Prasophyllum frenchii (Duncan 2010) outlines actions to meet an overall objective of minimising the probability of extinction of the Maroon Leek-orchid in the wild and to increase the probability of populations becoming self-sustaining in the long term.

Victorian government management plans

The action statement for the Central Gippsland Plains Grassland and South Gippsland Plains Grassland (DSE 2004) is relevant to Maroon Leek-orchid populations in Parkside Aerodrome, Clyde Railway and Gippsland Lakes CP. Management actions for biomass reduction, weed control, pest control and grazing control may impact the species.

Gillingal Station was purchased in September 2000 and named Greenhills NCR. It was setup to protect significant areas of montane grassland and grassy woodland. A Management Statement has been prepared for the site (DSE 2005b). Management actions for biomass reduction, weed control, pest control and grazing control may impact the species.

Most management plans for terrestrial orchids tend to try and promote high annual flowering numbers and discourage conditions which promote prolonged periods of plant dormancy. It is unknown if this strategy is more beneficial for the population than allowing plants to undergo periods of prolonged dormancy between less frequent floral stimulating events (Rouse 2006 pers. comm.).

Government funded program

The Field Naturalists Club of Victoria received $3950 of funding through the Threatened Species Network Community Grants in 2006-07, part of which was for the management of Plains Grassland (South Gippsland) Community habitat to enable threatened plant species (including the Maroon Leek-orchid) to flourish, and to implement a recovery action for this species through ecological burn, weed control and monitoring.

Management plans for this species Maroon Leek-orchid are at the start of the profile.

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Agriculture and Aquaculture:Land clearing, habitat fragmentation and/or habitat degradation The Orchids of Victoria (Backhouse, G.N. & J.A. Jeanes, 1995) [Book].
Prasophyllum frenchii in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006uh) [Internet].
National Recovery Plan for the Maroon Leek Orchid Prasophyllum frenchii (Duncan, M, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Grazing pressures and associated habitat changes Prasophyllum frenchii in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006uh) [Internet].
National Recovery Plan for the Maroon Leek Orchid Prasophyllum frenchii (Duncan, M, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Climate Change and Severe Weather:Climate change altering atmosphere/hydrosphere temperatures, rainfall patterns and/or frequency of severe weather events National Recovery Plan for the Maroon Leek Orchid Prasophyllum frenchii (Duncan, M, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Climate Change and Severe Weather:Reduced rainfall caused by climate change National Recovery Plan for the Maroon Leek Orchid Prasophyllum frenchii (Duncan, M, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Ecosystem Degradation:Decline in habitat quality Prasophyllum frenchii in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006uh) [Internet].
Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Indirect Ecosystem Effects:Loss and/or fragmentation of habitat and/or subpopulations National Recovery Plan for the Maroon Leek Orchid Prasophyllum frenchii (Duncan, M, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Mechanical disturbance during construction, maintanance or recreational activities Prasophyllum frenchii in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006uh) [Internet].
National Recovery Plan for the Maroon Leek Orchid Prasophyllum frenchii (Duncan, M, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Recreational Activities:Soil disturbance and/or trampling due to bushwalking National Recovery Plan for the Maroon Leek Orchid Prasophyllum frenchii (Duncan, M, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Oryctolagus cuniculus (Rabbit, European Rabbit) Prasophyllum frenchii in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006uh) [Internet].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Gladiolus undulatus (Wild Gladiolus) National Recovery Plan for the Maroon Leek Orchid Prasophyllum frenchii (Duncan, M, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Ulex europaeus (Gorse, Furze) Prasophyllum frenchii in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006uh) [Internet].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Rosa rubiginosa (Sweet Briar, Briar Rose, Sweet Briar Rose, Eglantine) Prasophyllum frenchii in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006uh) [Internet].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Rubus fruticosus aggregate (Blackberry, European Blackberry) Prasophyllum frenchii in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006uh) [Internet].
National Recovery Plan for the Maroon Leek Orchid Prasophyllum frenchii (Duncan, M, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Watsonia spp. (Watsonia, Bulbil Watsonia, Wild Watsonia, Bugle Lily) Prasophyllum frenchii in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006uh) [Internet].
National Recovery Plan for the Maroon Leek Orchid Prasophyllum frenchii (Duncan, M, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation by weeds Prasophyllum frenchii in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006uh) [Internet].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation caused by exotic pasture species National Recovery Plan for the Maroon Leek Orchid Prasophyllum frenchii (Duncan, M, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, tramping, competition and/or habitat degradation Ovis aries (Sheep) Prasophyllum frenchii in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006uh) [Internet].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, tramping, competition and/or habitat degradation by deer National Recovery Plan for the Maroon Leek Orchid Prasophyllum frenchii (Duncan, M, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Vegetation and habitat loss caused by dieback Phytophthora cinnamomi A Review of the Biology and Ecology of Eriostemon ericifolius A. Cunn. ex Benth Page(s) 16. (Gross, C L & Mackay, D, 1998) [Report].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Predation, competition, habitat degradation and/or spread of pathogens by introduced species The Orchids of Victoria (Backhouse, G.N. & J.A. Jeanes, 1995) [Book].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:unspecified Prasophyllum frenchii in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006uh) [Internet].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Problematic Native Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Acacia longifolia subsp. sophorae (Coast Wattle) National Recovery Plan for the Maroon Leek Orchid Prasophyllum frenchii (Duncan, M, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Problematic Native Species:Competition, predation and/or habitat degradation by kangaroos and wallabies Prasophyllum frenchii in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006uh) [Internet].
National Recovery Plan for the Maroon Leek Orchid Prasophyllum frenchii (Duncan, M, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Alteration of hydrological regimes and water quality Prasophyllum frenchii in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006uh) [Internet].
Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Changes in hydrology including habitat drainage National Recovery Plan for the Maroon Leek Orchid Prasophyllum frenchii (Duncan, M, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity) Prasophyllum frenchii in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006uh) [Internet].
National Recovery Plan for the Maroon Leek Orchid Prasophyllum frenchii (Duncan, M, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate prescribed regimes and/or vegetation management to control fire regimes The Orchids of Victoria (Backhouse, G.N. & J.A. Jeanes, 1995) [Book].
Pollution:Agricultural Effluents:Herbicide application Prasophyllum frenchii in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006uh) [Internet].
Transportation and Service Corridors:Roads and Railroads:Development and/or maintenance of roads National Recovery Plan for the Maroon Leek Orchid Prasophyllum frenchii (Duncan, M, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Transportation and Service Corridors:Roads and Railroads:Development of roads and railroads National Recovery Plan for the Maroon Leek Orchid Prasophyllum frenchii (Duncan, M, 2010) [Recovery Plan].

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This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Prasophyllum frenchii in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Tue, 22 Jul 2014 21:35:35 +1000.