Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Vulnerable
Listing and Conservation Advices Commonwealth Listing Advice on Pseudomys novaehollandiae (New Holland Mouse) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2010j) [Listing Advice].
 
Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Pseudomys novaehollandiae (New Holland Mouse) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2010k) [Conservation Advice].
 
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan required, the species would benefit from a nation-wide coordinated survey and monitoring program. As the species has a disjunct distribution across four States, there is a need for national coordination of threat abatement actions and for the sharing of research outcomes across jurisdictions (14/07/2010).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans
Other EPBC Act Plans Threat Abatement Plan for predation by feral cats (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2008zzp) [Threat Abatement Plan].
 
Threat Abatement Plan for Predation by the European Red Fox (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2008zzq) [Threat Abatement Plan].
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Inclusion of species in the list of threatened species under section 178 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (96) (14/07/2010) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2010g) [Legislative Instrument].
 
State Government
    Documents and Websites
NSW:New Holland Mouse - profile (NSW Office of Environment and Heritage (NSW OEH), 2014a) [Internet].
TAS:New Holland Mouse - Pseudomys novaehollandiae - Tasmanian Threatened Fauna Listing Statement (Tasmanian Threatened Species Section (Tas. TSS), 2009) [State Action Plan].
TAS:Pseudomys novaehollandiae (New Holland Mouse, Pookila): Species Management Profile for Tasmania's Threatened Species Link (Threatened Species Section (TSS), 2014tp) [State Action Plan].
VIC:Flora and Fauna Guarantee Action Statement No. 74, New Holland Mouse Pseudomys novaehollandiae (Seebeck, J., P. Menkhorst, B. Wilson & K.W. Lowe, 2003) [State Action Plan].
State Listing Status
TAS: Listed as Endangered (Threatened Species Protection Act 1995 (Tasmania): September 2012 list)
VIC: Listed as Threatened (Flora and Fauna Guarantee Act 1988 (Victoria): February 2014 list)
Non-statutory Listing Status
IUCN: Listed as Vulnerable (Global Status: IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: 2013.1 list)
VIC: Listed as Vulnerable (Advisory List of Threatened Vertebrate Fauna in Victoria: 2013 list)
Scientific name Pseudomys novaehollandiae [96]
Family Muridae:Rodentia:Mammalia:Chordata:Animalia
Species author (Waterhouse, 1843)
Infraspecies author  
Reference  
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images

Scientific name: Pseudomys novaehollandiae

Common name: New Holland Mouse

Conventionally accepted as Pseudomys novaehollandiae (AFD 2010).

A small, burrowing native rodent, the New Holland Mouse is similar in size and appearance to the introduced House Mouse (Mus musculus), although it can be distinguished by its slightly larger ears and eyes, the absence of a notch on the upper incisors and the absence of a distinctive 'mousy odour' (Menkhorst & Knight 2001).

The New Holland Mouse body is grey-brown in colour and with a dusky-brown tail that is darker on the dorsal side. The species has a head-body length of approximately 65–90 mm, a tail length of approximately 80–105 mm (10–15% longer than the body) and a hind foot length of approximately 20–22 mm (Menkhorst & Knight 2001).

Specimens of the New Holland Mouse from Tasmania are larger in weight than specimens from New South Wales (NSW) and Victoria; however, head-body length and skull measurements are similar between the Tasmanian and mainland forms of the species (Hocking 1980; Lazenby 1999; Tas. TSS 2009).

General distribution

The New Holland Mouse has a fragmented distribution across Tasmania, Victoria, NSW and Queensland. The species is now largely restricted to the coast of central and northern NSW, with one inland occurrence near Parkes (ACT ESDD 2013). In 2006, there were six to eight metapopulations of the species based on data from the NSW Atlas of Wildlife, the Victorian Atlas of Wildlife and the Tasmanian Natural Values Atlas (TSSC 2010j). At a landscape scale, the species appears to be clumped in its distribution, most likely due to its specific habitat requirements (Braithwaite & Gullan 1978; Fox & Fox 1978; Fox & Mckay 1981; Posamentier & Recher 1974). Historically, there were eleven metapopulations (TSSC 2010j).

Lack of survey data

A high percentage of New Holland Mouse populations were not surveyed between 1999 and 2009 (TSSC 2010j), and thus, it is difficult to estimate the species' actual distribution. However, given the number of sites from which the species is known to have disappeared between 1999 and 2009, it is possible that the species' distribution is actually less than current estimates (TSSC 2010j).

Extent of occurrence and area of occupancy

The species has not been confirmed at all previously known sites. Based on all known sites, the estimated extent of occurrence is approximately 108 000 km2 and the area of occupancy is estimated to be around 680 km2 (TSSC 2010j). However, by including only those sites from which the species was known to occur between 1999 and 2009, the extent of occurrence is estimated to be around 90 000 km2 and the species' area of occupancy is estimated to be around 420 km2 (TSSC 2010j).

Specific locations

In NSW, the New Holland Mouse is known from: Royal National Park (NP) and the Kangaroo Valley (Posamentier & Recher 1974); Kuringai Chase NP (Prosser et al. 2007); and Port Stephens to Evans Head near the Queensland border (Prosser et al. 2007).

In Tasmania, the New Holland Mouse is known from seven locations in the north-east of the State as well as Flinders Island (Hocking 1980; Pye 1991).

In Victoria, the New Holland Mouse is known from Anglesea (Otway Ranges, western Victoria), Loch Sport (Gippsland), Providence Ponds and Wilsons Promontory (Prosser et al. 2007).

In the Australian Capital Territory, the species has been reintroduced to Mulligans Flat Woodland Sanctuary (ACT ESDD 2013). It has likely been locally extinct in the area since the 1880s (ACT ESDD 2013).

Historic extent

Genetic evidence indicates that the New Holland Mouse once formed a single continuous population on mainland Australia, and the distribution of recent subfossils further suggests that the species has undergone a large range contraction since European settlement (Breed & Ford 2007).

Across the New Holland Mouse's range, the total population size of mature individuals is estimated to be less than 10 000 individuals (Menkhorst et al. 2008).

The population trend for the New Holland Mouse may be declining as indicated by fossils evidence found across a larger distribution where a more diverse range of habitats exist than present (Bilney et al. 2010; Tas. TSS 2009).

The majority of known New Holland Mouse populations occur in reserves (TSSC 2010j). See the Tasmanian listing advice (Tas. TSS 2009) and the Victorian action statement (Seebeck et al. 2003) for a summary of populations in reserves.

Landforms

The New Holland Mouse has been found from coastal areas and up to 100 km inland on sandstone country (Wilson & Laidlaw 2003). The species has been recorded from sea level up to around 900 m above sea level (Menkhorst et al. 2008).

Soils

Soil type may be an important indicator of suitability of habitat for the New Holland Mouse, with deeper top soils and softer substrates being preferred for digging burrows (Wilson & Laidlaw 2003).  In Victoria, the species has been recorded on deep siliceous podsols, sandy clay, loamy sands, sand dunes and coastal dunes (Menkhorst & Seebeck 1995 cited in Wilson & Laidlaw 2003). Other factors such as slope, geology and the amount of sun received in an area may also influence site selection (Wilson & Laidlaw 2003).

Vegetation associations

Across the species' range, the New Holland Mouse is known to inhabit the following types of habitat  (Fox & Fox 1978; Fox & Mckay 1981; Hocking 1980; Keith & Calaby 1968; Lazenby et al. 2008; Norton 1987; Posamentier & Recher 1974; Pye 1991; Wilson 1991):

  • open heathland
  • open woodland with a heathland understorey
  • vegetated sand dunes.

Specific vegetation

Due to the largely granivorous diet of the species, sites where the New Holland Mouse is found are often high in floristic diversity, especially leguminous perennials (Haering & Fox 1997; Kemper & Wilson 2008). The Victorian action statement has descriptions of the vegetation of sites where the New Holland Mouse has been found (Seebeck et al. 2003).

Fire ecology

On mainland Australia the species has been found to peak in abundance during the early to mid stages of vegetation succession three to five years after fire (Braithwaite & Gullan 1978; Fox & Fox 1978; Fox & Mckay 1981; Posamentier & Recher 1974).

Reproduction

Female New Holland Mice live up to two years and reach sexual maturity at 13 weeks of age. There are insufficient data on the longevity of males, who reach sexual maturity at 20 weeks of age (Tas. TSS 2009).

The New Holland Mouse breeds between late winter to early summer, sometimes extending into autumn. Gestation is approximately 32–39 days (Kemper & Wilson 2008) with young born diurnally in nest burrows (Kemper 1976, 1980b). One year old females typically produce one litter per season, though sometimes two, with two year old females producing three or four litters. Litter sizes range from 1–6. The young are suckled for 3–4 weeks (Kemper 1976, 1980b; Pye 1991; Tas. TSS 2009). The timing of breeding is related to abundance and quality of food (Kemper 1980b), which in turn is related to rainfall patterns and fire succession (Fox et al. 1993).

Movement

The New Holland Mouse is a social animal, living predominantly in burrows shared with other individuals (Kemper 1980a; Lazenby et al. 2008). The home range of the New Holland Mouse ranges from 0.44 ha to 1.4 ha (Lazenby 1999; Lazenby et al. 2008).

Fire ecology

The New Holland Mouse is suggested to shelter in burrows during fires. This may be an attribute that allows the species to peak in abundance in a relatively short time following fires compared with other species. The New Holland Mouse has been found to peak in abundance during early to mid stages of vegetation succession typically induced by fire, approximately three to five years after fire. The species is also recorded as increasing in abundance eight to nine years following sand mining in NSW (Fox 1982; Fox & Mckay 1981; Wilson 1991).

Some populations live in high density in vegetation that has been long excluded from fire, such as Wilson's Promontory in Victoria (Seebeck et al. 2003). One population has been observed in an area with fire excluded for 16 years (Seebeck et al. 2003).

The New Holland Mouse is nocturnal and omnivorous, with seeds forming a main component of its diet (Tas. TSS 2009), though leaves, fungi and invertebrates are consumed based on seasonal or floristic characteristics of individual sites (Wilson & Bradtke 1999). The species are proposed to play an important role in seed dispersal and fungal spore dispersal (Seebeck et al. 1996; Smith & Quin 1996).

The New Holland Mouse spends considerable time foraging above ground for food, predisposing it to predation by native predators and introduced species, including the Red Fox (Vulpes vulpes), Cat (Felis catus) and Dog (Canis familiaris) (Seebeck et al. 1996; Smith & Quin 1996).

The New Holland Mouse can be distinguished from the House Mouse by (Seebeck et al. 2003):

  • larger eyes 
  • dusky-brown tail that is 10–15% longer that the rest of its body
  • tail is darker on the dorsal surface.

Posamentier and Recher (1974) proposed that the optimum habitat for this species was heath which was actively regenerating after fire. The studies of Fox and McKay (1981) showed that New Holland Mouse populations survived wildfire and reached maximum abundance at two to three years post-fire.

Coastal heath vegetation undergoing early to mid-successional regeneration, as a result of habitat disturbances (e.g. fire, mining, clearing), appears to be preferred habitat in many areas (Braithwaite & Gullan 1978; Fox 1982; Kemper 1976; Opie 1983; Wilson 1991), although habitat at Wilson's Promontory consists of 20–30 year old vegetation where New Holland Mouse populations persist (Seebeck et al. 2003).

Habitat loss and modification

Loss and modification of habitat due to land development, forestry plantations, and agriculture, along with weed invasion and dieback caused by the fungus Phytophthora cinamomi, are considered threats to the New Holland Mouse and the habitat it requires (Seebeck et al. 1996).

Inappropriate fire regimes

Inappropriate fire management may result in a lack of habitat patches of suitable successional age, size and distribution required by the species (Seebeck & Menkhorst 2000).

Predation and competition

Predation by introduced species, including the Red Fox, Cat and Dog is a threat to the New Holland Mouse (Ford 2003; Seebeck et al. 1996; Smith & Quin 1996). Competition from introduced rodents, such as the House Mouse is suggested as a potential threat (Fox & Gullick 1989; Seebeck et al. 1996) though Haering and Fox (1997) found that the two species co-existed when floristic and structural elements of habitat allowed for microhabitat partitioning. One local case study found dietary separation between the two species, with the New Holland Mouse preferring seeds and vegetative material at times when the House Mouse was almost completely insectivorous (Cockburn 1980) (although in other environments, the House Mouse is omnivorous).

Climate change

Climate change has been identified as a potential threat to the New Holland Mouse through alteration and further fragmentation of the species' habitat. Brereton and colleagues (1995) modeled the impact of a number of potential climate change scenarios on the distribution of a range of small mammals, including the New Holland Mouse, and concluded that future climate change could result in a decline of up to 50% in distribution (TSSC 2010j). As rainfall has been shown to affect the length of the breeding season for the New Holland Mouse, a reduction in rainfall as a result of climate change may significantly threaten the species (TSSC 2010j). The interaction of these threats with each other may substantially increase risks to the species, for example fire may allow easier access/hunting for feral species (TSSC 2010j). Small, fragmented populations are also more vulnerable to local extinction through stochastic risks (TSSC 2010j).

Factors limiting effective management

The Tasmanian listing advice outlines the following factors that are limiting effective management of the New Holland Mouse (Tas. TSS 2009):

  • current distribution of the New Holland Mouse within Tasmania is unknown
  • lack of appropriate fire management planning
  • lack of understanding of the magnitude of threats to the species including the impact of the Cat and Fox
  • lack of understanding of the causal factors underlying the species' apparently specific habitat requirements including the effect of potential competition with the introduced House Mouse
  • the need for an assessment of the effectiveness of different monitoring methods in order to understand the probability of detecting the species and therefore interpret apparent ‘negative’ detection results
  • lack of understanding of the short and long term impacts of variations in rainfall on the population viability of the New Holland Mouse.

Commonwealth Conservation Advice

Refer to the Commonwealth Conservation Advice (TSSC 2010k) for information on research priorities and recovery priority actions to mitigate: habitat loss, disturbance and modification; invasive weeds; animal predation and competition; fire; disease, fungi and parasites; and inadequate conservation information.

Victorian Action Statement for the New Holland Mouse

The Action Statement for the New Holland Mouse (Seebeck et al. 2003) outlines measures to help recover the species, including the possibility of reintroducing the species into suitable habitat. Research outlined in this plan has been undertaken (Wilson & Laidlaw 2003).

Fire management is a key conservation issue in the action statement, although it is noted that other native fauna may not benefit from prescribed burning (Seebeck et al. 2003).

Advice for land managers

The Tasmanian listing statement (Tas. TSS 2009) identifies the following actions for land managers:

  • Protect dry heathlands, woodlands with a heathland understorey and vegetated sand dunes within 50 km of the coast. Avoid disturbance, grazing and burning too little or too often. Seek specialist advice and develop a fire management plan for your property.
  • Learn to recognise the New Holland Mouse habitat and to distinguish the New Holland Mouse from the introduced House Mouse.
  • Encourage specialists to conduct surveys for the New Holland Mouse to improve our knowledge of the distribution and ecological requirements for the species.
  • Practice responsible pet ownership. Desex and microchip pet cats and reduce their hunting impact by keeping them indoors at night.

Activity in the Australian Capital Territory

In 2013, the species was reintroduced to Mulligans Flat Woodland Sanctuary (ACT ESDD 2013). Individuals were sourced from the NSW central coast and, after a captive breeding program, approximately 90 were released in autumn and spring (ACT ESDD 2013).

Management documents for the New Holland Mouse and its habitat include:

  • Flora and Fauna Guarantee Action Statement No. 74 - New Holland Mouse Pseudomys novaehollandiae (Seebeck et al. 2003)
  • Living with Fire - Victoria's Bushfire Strategy (Vic. DSE/CFA 2008)
  • Threat Abatement Plan for Predation by Feral Cats (DEWHA 2008zzp)
  • Threat Abatement Plan for Predation by European Red Fox (DEWHA 2008zzq)
  • Threat Abatement Plan for Disease in Natural Ecosystems caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi (DEWHA 2009w)
  • Draft multi-species recovery plan for the Freycinet region (Tas. TSS 2008b).

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Grazing pressures and associated habitat changes Commonwealth Listing Advice on Pseudomys novaehollandiae (New Holland Mouse) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2010j) [Listing Advice].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Climate Change and Severe Weather:Climate change altering atmosphere/hydrosphere temperatures, rainfall patterns and/or frequency of severe weather events Commonwealth Listing Advice on Pseudomys novaehollandiae (New Holland Mouse) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2010j) [Listing Advice].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Habitat Shifting and Alteration:Habitat loss, modification and/or degradation Commonwealth Listing Advice on Pseudomys novaehollandiae (New Holland Mouse) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2010j) [Listing Advice].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:inappropriate conservation measures Commonwealth Listing Advice on Pseudomys novaehollandiae (New Holland Mouse) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2010j) [Listing Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Vulpes vulpes (Red Fox, Fox) Commonwealth Listing Advice on Pseudomys novaehollandiae (New Holland Mouse) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2010j) [Listing Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Felis catus (Cat, House Cat, Domestic Cat) Commonwealth Listing Advice on Pseudomys novaehollandiae (New Holland Mouse) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2010j) [Listing Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Canis lupus familiaris (Domestic Dog) Commonwealth Listing Advice on Pseudomys novaehollandiae (New Holland Mouse) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2010j) [Listing Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation by rats Commonwealth Listing Advice on Pseudomys novaehollandiae (New Holland Mouse) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2010j) [Listing Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, competition and/or habitat degradation Mus musculus (House Mouse) Commonwealth Listing Advice on Pseudomys novaehollandiae (New Holland Mouse) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2010j) [Listing Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Vegetation and habitat loss caused by dieback Phytophthora cinnamomi Commonwealth Listing Advice on Pseudomys novaehollandiae (New Holland Mouse) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2010j) [Listing Advice].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate prescribed regimes and/or vegetation management to control fire regimes Commonwealth Listing Advice on Pseudomys novaehollandiae (New Holland Mouse) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2010j) [Listing Advice].
Residential and Commercial Development:Residential and Commercial Development:Land reclamation and soil dumping due to urban and industrial development Commonwealth Listing Advice on Pseudomys novaehollandiae (New Holland Mouse) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2010j) [Listing Advice].

ACT Environment and Sustainable Development Directorate (ACT ESDD) (2013a). New Holland Mouse - returning to the ACT. [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.act.gov.au/cpr/conservation_and_ecological_communities/new_holland_mouse_-_returning_to_the_act.

Australian Faunal Directory (AFD) (2010). Australian Faunal Directory. [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/abrs/online-resources/fauna/afd/home. [Accessed: 30-May-2010].

Bilney, R.J., R. Cooke & J.G. White (2010). Underestimated and severe: Small mammal decline from the forests of south-eastern Australia since European settlement, as revealed by a top-order predator. Biological Conservation. 143:52-59.

Braithwaite, R.W. & P.K. Gullan (1978). Habitat selection on a Victorian heathland. Australian Journal of Ecology. 3:109-127.

Breed, B. & F. Ford (2007). Native mice and rats. Collingwood: CSIRO Publishing.

Brereton, R., S. Bennett & I. Mansergh (1995). Enhanced greenhouse climate change and its potential effect on selected fauna of south-eastern Australia: A trend analysis. Biological Conservation. 72:339-354.

Cockburn, A. (1980). The Diet of the New Holland Mouse (Pseudomys novaehollandiae) and the House Mouse (Mus musculus) in a Victorian Coastal Heathland. Australian Journal of Mammalogy. 3:31-34.

Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA) (2008zzp). Threat Abatement Plan for predation by feral cats. [Online]. Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/tap/cats08.html.

Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA) (2008zzq). Threat Abatement Plan for Predation by the European Red Fox. [Online]. Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/tap/foxes08.html.

Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA) (2009w). Threat abatement plan for disease in natural ecosystems caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi. [Online]. Canberra; ACT: Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/tap/phytophthora.html.

Ford, F. (2003). Conilurine Rodent Evolution: The role of ecology in modifying the evolutionary consequences of environmental change. Ph.D. Thesis. Townsville: Zoology and Tropical Ecology, James Cook University.

Fox B.J. (1982). Fire and mammalian secondary succession in an Australian coastal heath. Ecology. 63:1332-41.

Fox, B.J. & G. Gullick (1989). Interspecific competition between mice: a reciprocal field manipulation experiment. Australian Journal of Ecology. 14:357-66.

Fox, B.J. & G.M. McKay (1981). Small mammal responses to pyric successional changes in eucalypt forest. Australian Journal of Ecology. 9:241-252.

Fox, B.J. & M.D. Fox (1978). Recolonization of coastal heath by Pseudomys novaehollandiae (Muridae) following sand mining. Australian Journal of Ecology. 3:447-465.

Fox, B.J., P. Higgs & J. Luo (1993). Extension of the breeding season of New Holland Mouse: a response to above average rainfall. Wildlife Research. 20:599-605.

Haering, R. & B.J. Fox (1997). Habitat use by sympatric populations of Pseudomys novaehollandiae and Mus domesticus in coastal heathland. Australian Journal of Ecology. 22(1):69-80.

Hocking, G.J. (1980). The occurrence of the New Holland Mouse, Pseudomys novaehollandiae (Waterhouse) Tasmania. Australian Wildlife Research. 7:71-77.

Keith, K. & J.H. Calaby (1968). The New Holland Mouse, Pseudomys novaehollandiae (Waterhouse), in the Port Stephens district, New South Wales. CSIRO Wildlife Research. 13:45-58.

Kemper, C. (1976). The biology of the New Holland Mouse Pseudomys novaehollandiae. Ph.D. Thesis. Sydney: Macquarie University.

Kemper, C.M. (1980a). Description of Pseudomys novaehollandiae burrows located with radioisotopes. Australian Mammalogy. 4:141-143.

Kemper, C.M. (1980b). Reproduction of Pseudomys novaehollandiae (Muridae) in the Wild. Australian Wildlife Research. 7(3):385-402.

Kemper, C.M. & B.A. Wilson (2008). New Holland Mouse, Pseudomys novaehollandiae. In: Van Dyck, S. & R. Strahan, eds. The Mammals of Australia. Third Edition. Page(s) 643-644. Sydney, New South Wales, Australia: Reed New Holland.

Lazenby, B.T. (1999). Vegetation associations and spatial relations in the New Holland Mouse, Pseudomys novaehollandiae (Rodentia: Muridae) in Tasmania. Hons. Thesis. Tasmania: University of Tasmania.

Lazenby, B.T., T. Pye, A. Richardson & S.A. Bryant (2008). Towards a habitat model for the New Holland Mouse Pseudomys novaehollandiae in Tasmania - population vegetation associations and an investigation into individual habitat use. Australian Mammalogy. 29:137-148.

Menkhorst, P & F Knight (2001). A field guide to the Mammals of Australia. Victoria: Oxford University Press.

Menkhorst, P., C. Dickman, M. Denny, K. Aplin, D. Lunney & M. Ellis (2008). Pseudomys novaehollandiae - IUCN 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.4. [Online]. www.iucnredlist.org.

Norton, T.W. (1987). The ecology of small mammals in north-eastern Tasmania II. Pseudomys novaehollandiae and the introduced Mus musculus. Australian Wildlife Research. 14:431-435.

NSW Office of Environment and Heritage (NSW OEH) (2014a). New Holland Mouse - profile. [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/threatenedspeciesapp/profile.aspx?id=20253.

Opie, A.M. (1983). Report on the mammal fauna of Langwarrin Reserve, Victoria. Victoria: Ministry for Conservation.

Posamentier, H.G. & H.F. Recher (1974). The status of Pseudomys novaehollandiae (the New Holland Mouse). Australian Journal of Zoology. 18:66-71.

Prosser, S., M. Lock, K. Bodley, J. Groat, P. Myronuik & P. Courtney (2007). Husbandry Manual for the New Holland Mouse Pseudomys novaehollandiae. [Online]. Available from: http://www.aszk.org.au/docs/new_holland_mouse_may_07.pdf.

Pye, T. (1991). The New Holland Mouse (Pseudomys novaehollandiae) (Rodentia: Muridae) in Tasmania: a field study. Wildlife Research. 18:521-531.

Seebeck, J. & P. Menkhorst (2000). Status and conservation of rodents of Victoria. Wildlife Research. 27:357-369.

Seebeck, J., P. Menkhorst, B. Wilson & K.W. Lowe (2003). Flora and Fauna Guarantee Action Statement No. 74, New Holland Mouse Pseudomys novaehollandiae. [Online]. Victorian Department of Sustainability and Environment. Available from: http://www.dse.vic.gov.au/plants-and-animals/flora-and-fauna-guarantee-act-action-statements-index-of-approved-action-statements.

Seebeck, J., P. Menkhorst, B.A. Wilson & K.M. Lowe (1996). Flora and Fauna Guarantee Action Statement No. 74, New Holland Mouse Pseudomys novaehollandiae. Victoria: Department of Natural Resources and Environment.

Smith, A.P. & D. Quin (1996). Patterns and causes of extinction and decline in Australian conilurine rodents. Biological Conservation. 77:243-267.

Tasmanian Threatened Species Section (Tas. TSS) (2008b). Draft Greater Freycinet Region Threatened Species Recovery Plan 2008-2012. Hobart, Tasmania: Department of Primary Industries and Water.

Tasmanian Threatened Species Section (Tas. TSS) (2009). New Holland Mouse - Pseudomys novaehollandiae - Tasmanian Threatened Fauna Listing Statement. [Online]. Tasmania: Department of Primary Industries and Water. Available from: http://www.dpiw.tas.gov.au/inter.nsf/Attachments/LJEM-82933M/$FILE/New%20Holland%20Mouse%20Listing%20Statement.pdf.

Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC) (2010j). Commonwealth Listing Advice on Pseudomys novaehollandiae (New Holland Mouse). [Online]. Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Canberra, ACT: Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/species/pubs/96-listing-advice.pdf.

Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC) (2010k). Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Pseudomys novaehollandiae (New Holland Mouse). [Online]. Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Canberra, ACT: Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/species/pubs/96-conservation-advice.pdf.

Victorian Department of Sustainability and Environment and Country Fire Authority (Vic. DSE/CFA) (2008). Living with Fire - Victoria's Bushfire Strategy. [Online]. Available from: http://www.cfa.vic.gov.au/publications/bushfireStrategy.htm.

Wilson, B.A. (1991). The ecology of Pseudomys novaehollandiae (Waterhouse, 1843) in the Eastern Otway Ranges, Victoria. Wildlife Research. 13:233-247.

Wilson, B.A. & E. Bradtke (1999). The diet of the New Holland mouse, Pseudomys novaehollandiae (Waterhouse) in Victoria. Wildlife Research. 26(4):439-451.

Wilson, B.A. & W.S. Laidlaw (2003). Habitat characteristics for New Holland mouse Pseudomys novaehollandiae in Victoria. Australian Mammalogy. 25:1-11.

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This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Pseudomys novaehollandiae in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Fri, 22 Aug 2014 14:04:32 +1000.