Species Profile and Threats Database

For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Endangered as Trachymene scapigera
Listing and Conservation Advices Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Trachymene scapigera (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008we) [Conservation Advice].
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan not required, included on the Not Commenced List (1/11/2009).
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans
Other EPBC Act Plans Threat abatement advice for predation, habitat degradation,competition and disease transmission by feral pigs (2013) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2014p) [Threat Abatement Plan].
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument] as Trachymene saniculifolia.
Amendment to the list of threatened species under section 178 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (11/04/2007) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2007f) [Legislative Instrument] as Trachymene scapigera.
State Government
    Documents and Websites
NSW:Review of the Threatened Species Conservation Act Flora Schedules: Recommendations to the Scientific Committee: Final Summary Report December 2002 (Hogbin, P., 2002) [Report].
NSW:NSW Threatened Species - Mountain Trachymene - profile (NSW Department of Environment and Climate Change (NSW DECC), 2005b) [Internet].
State Listing Status
NSW: Listed as Endangered (Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995 (New South Wales): December 2013 list) as Trachymene scapigera
Scientific name Trachymene scapigera [9367]
Family Apiaceae:Apiales:Magnoliopsida:Magnoliophyta:Plantae
Species author (Domin) B.L.Burtt
Infraspecies author  
Reference Burtt, B.L. (1941) The Journal of Botany 79: 46
Other names Trachymene saniculifolia [22694]
Didiscus scapiger [49226]
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images

The current conservation status of Mountain Trachymene, Trachymene scapigera, under Australian and State Government legislation, is as follows:

National: Listed as Endangered under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999.

New South Wales: Listed as Endangered under the Threatened Species Conservation Act 1992 under the name Trachymene saniculifolia.

Scientific name: Trachymene scapigera

Common name: Mountain Trachymene

Previously included in Trachymene saniculifolia which occurs on the Philippine Islands, Borneo and New Guinea, but differs in bearing leafy stems arising from the basal rosettes (Hart & Henwood 2006).

Mountain Trachymene is a perennial, rhizomatous, robust herb, that grows to 10 cm high. Leaves occur in basal rosettes. The lamina is 3–5-lobed to dissected, broad ovate in outline, 0.8–2 cm long and 1–3.5 cm wide. Segments are ovate to cuneate, 0.5–1.8 cm wide, and covered by sparse long hairs.

The petioles are 3–4 cm long, umbels are 10–23 mm in diameter, and 20–50 flowers on 12–35 cm long peduncles arise from the base. Bracts are 10–14 and 2.5–7.5 mm long. Flowers are bisexual or female. Petals are 1.1–1.2 mm long and white. The ovary is 2-locular. The fruit is broad ovate to orbicular, 3–5 mm long, brown; with one or both mericarps maturing. Mericarps are 2.5–3.6 mm wide and are smooth. Flowers appear from December to March with the ripened small fruit allowing for seed dispersal in April (Hart 2002).

Until recently, Mountain Trachymene was known only from the type specimen collected in 1899 by Blakely near Jenolan Caves west of Sydney, and was presumed to be extinct (Leigh & Briggs 1992). In the 1980s, Mountain Trachymene was rediscovered growing along the banks of the Boyd River in the Kanangra Boyd National Park (NP), approximately 200 km west of Sydney. At this location there are two known populations of Mountain Trachymene separated by about 4 km (Mackenzie 1996).

Using data points from the Australian Virtual Herbarium (AVH) (CHAH 2008a), Mountain Trachymene's estimated extent of occurrence is 10 km².

Using data points from the AVH (CHAH 2008a), the extent of occupancy for Mountain Trachymene is 30 ha. This figure was calculated by allocating each discrete point a 10 ha buffer.

Mountain Trachymene is cultivated at Adelaide Botanic Gardens, South Australia, and Mt Annan Botanic Gardens, Campbelltown, NSW (CHABG 1994).

Due to Mountain Trachymene's rhizomatous growth habit the number of individuals known to exist is difficult to assess (Hart & Henwood 2006).

The population discovered at Jenolan Caves in 1899 has not been relocated.

The only known populations of Mountain Trachymene occur within the Kanangra Boyd NP (NSW NPWS 1999r); this Plan of Management for this Park actively manages threatened flora and the Park's Fire Management Strategy takes sites of threatened flora into consideration.

Mountain Trachymene is restricted to flat or gently sloping ground in the riparian zone of Boyd River. Habitat type can vary. At one site, this species is distributed along a Leptospermum thicket that borders the banks of the river within a Eucalyptus woodland. At another site, individuals occur upon a gravel patch situated beside the river (Mackenzie 1996).

Associated species include Eucalyptus pauciflora, E. dalrympleana, E. macarthurii, Hakea microcarpa, Kunzea parvifolia, Persoonia oxycoccoides, Poa sieberiana, Patersonia sericea, Lomandra filiformis, Xanthosia dissecta, Goodenia bellidifolia, Stylidium graminifolium, Thysanotus tuberosus, Hypoxis hygrometrica, Leptospermum obovatum, Lomatia myricoides, Derwentia derwentiana and Blechnum nudum (NSW NPWS 1999as).

Despite being perennial, the above ground parts of Mountain Trachymene die back over winter. In late April, the leaves begin changing colour, turning red and yellow. Over the next few months of winter, the leaves turn brown and die with total foliage loss occurring for many patches around July. By October, regrowth of the foliage commences and seedlings emerge in the field. The species flowers from December until March. The fruit ripens and the seed begins dispersing in April (Mackenzie 1996).

Mountain Trachymene exhibits restricted primary seed dispersal; however, given the buoyancy of seed, the potential exists for secondary dispersal via water in the event of the river flooding. The seed has an initial high viability, but viability deteriorates over time (from 70% to 2% over a one year period). Such short-term seed viability prevents the species from developing a substantial soil stored seedbank. The absence of a large seedbank for this species means that the present year's seed crop is the major source of recruitment. As a result the population will be more vulnerable to disturbances that affect the reproductive output such as grazing. Mountain Trachymene is also capable of reproducing clonally via rhizomes, often leading to the formation of dense mats or patches of plants (Mackenzie 1996).

As the species is dormant over winter, surveying of this species are limited to the flowering period: December-March.

The main population of Mountain Trachymene is bisected into two sub-populations by a heavily used camping ground and access road, thus rendering the plants potentially vulnerable to human disturbance. Grazing may also be a threat to this species' persistence by contributing to lower rates of establishment (Mackenzie 1996).

All populations occur within a National Park and are thus relatively secure, however, regular monitoring is needed to identify threats. If human disturbance threatened the species' persistence then appropriate management actions (e.g. fencing or relocation of camping ground) may be required. The NSW Department of Environment and Climate Chage (2005) provides a number of recovery actions:

  • Restrict access to sites, where necessary.
  • Undertake targeted bush regeneration works, where required.
  • Assess whether habitat management in the form of fencing or relocation of camping grounds is required.
  • Monitor for ongoing threats to this species.
  • Survey sites and potential habitat to assess threats and determine recovery strategies.
  • Collect seed for NSW Seedbank of all known provenances. Develop collection program in collaboration with the Sydney Royal Botanic Gardens Trust.
  • Investigate ecology (herbivory response, establishment rates, and fire ecology) and reproductive aspects such as seed viability, germination, dormancy and longevity.
  • Undertake Feral Pig (Sus scrofa) control, where required.
  • Incorporate a suitable fire regime for the species into land management practices.

An important study of Mountain Trachymene's population biology and reproduction ecology was conducted by Mackenzie (1996).

Kanangra Boyd National Park Plan of Management and Fire Management Strategy (NSW NPWS 2001; NSW NPWS 2006).

The Threat Abatement Plan for the control of Feral Pigs provides management considerations for threats posed by this animal (AGDEH 2005p).

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Grazing pressures and associated habitat changes Trachymene scapigera in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006vy) [Internet].
Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Indirect Ecosystem Effects:Restricted geographical distribution (area of occupancy and extent of occurrence) Trachymene scapigera in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006vy) [Internet].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Recreational Activities:camping Trachymene scapigera in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006vy) [Internet].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, tramping, competition and/or habitat degradation Sus scrofa (Pig) Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Trachymene scapigera (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008we) [Conservation Advice].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity) Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Trachymene scapigera (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008we) [Conservation Advice].

Australian Government Department of the Environment and Heritage (AGDEH) (2005p). Threat Abatement Plan for Predation, Habitat Degradation, Competition and Disease Transmission by Feral Pigs. [Online]. Available from:

Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria (CHAH) (2008a). Australia's Virtual Herbarium. [Online]. Canberra: Centre for Plant Biodiversity Research. Available from:

Council of Heads of Australian Botanic Gardens (CHABG) (1994). Census of plants in botanic gardens. [Online]. Canberra: Australian National Botanic Gardens. Available from:

Hart, J.M. (2002). Trachymene scapigera (Domin) B.L.Burtt. PlantNET - The Plant Information Network System of Botanic Gardens Trust, Sydney. [Online]. Sydney, Australia: Botanic Gardens Trust. Available from:

Hart, J.M. & M.J. Henwood (2006). A revision of Australian Trachymene (Apiaceae: Hydrocotyloideae). Australian Systematic Botany. 19:11-57.

Leigh, J.H. & J.D. Briggs (Eds) (1992). Threatened Australian Plants. Overview and Case Studies. New South Wales National Parks and Wildlife Service.

Mackenzie, B.D.E. (1996). Population biology and reproduction ecology of Trachymene scapigera. Hons. Thesis. Sydney: University of Sydney.

NSW Department of Environment and Climate Change (NSW DECC) (2005b). NSW Threatened Species - Mountain Trachymene - profile. [Online]. Available from:

NSW National Park and Wildlife Service (NSW NPWS) (2006). Kanangra Boyd National Park Fire Management Strategy. Department of Environment and Climate Chanage.

NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service (NSW NPWS) (1999as). Atlas of New South Wales Wildlife. Hurstville: NSW NPWS.

NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service (NSW NPWS) (1999r). Threatened Species Information: Trachymene saniculifolia. [Online]. Hurstville: NSW NPWS. Available from:

NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service (NSW NPWS) (2001u). Kanangra Boyd National Park Plan of Management. [Online]. Department of Environment and Climate Change. Available from:

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This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Trachymene scapigera in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: Accessed Wed, 17 Sep 2014 04:51:27 +1000.