Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Vulnerable
Listing and Conservation Advices Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Acacia menzelii (Menzel's Wattle) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008gz) [Conservation Advice].
 
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan not required, included on the Not Commenced List (1/11/2009).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument].
 
State Government
    Documents and Websites
SA:South Australian Murray Darling Basin Threatened Flora Recovery Plan (Obst, C., 2005) [Report].
State Listing Status
SA: Listed as Vulnerable (National Parks and Wildlife Act 1972 (South Australia): June 2011 list)
Scientific name Acacia menzelii [9218]
Family Fabaceae:Fabales:Magnoliopsida:Magnoliophyta:Plantae
Species author J.Black
Infraspecies author  
Reference Transactions and Proceedings of the Royal Society of South Australia 41 (24 Dec. 1917) 45, t. XI.
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Other illustrations Google Images

Menzel's Wattle is a resinous, compact, rounded, erect shrub, growing to 2 m high (Orchard & Wilson 2001a). Branching occurs near ground level, resulting in numerous ascending stems. Branchlets have some hairs present (Obst 2005). The species has minute, yellow, globular flower heads (inflorescences) (Leigh et al. 1984; Cunningham et al. 1992; Orchard & Wilson 2001a). Seeds are longitudinally arranged, within the legume and have a large, fleshy aril (Jessop & Toelken 1986).

Menzel's Wattle is endemic to South Australia (Whibley & Symon 1992), where it occurs discontinuously from Mt Hack (Northern Flinders Ranges) to Brachnia, in the north, near Burra and to the Murray Bridge area in the south (ALA 2014; Davies 1992; Jessop & Toelken 1986; Leigh et al. 1984; Obst 2005; Orchard & Wilson 2001a). The species is most common in the area surrounding Monarto South in the eastern foothills of the Mt Lofty Ranges. The Northern Flinders Ranges populations are considered relicts (Davies 1995a).

The extent of occurrence of the species is approximately 36 422 ha (Obst 2005).

In 2006, the population of Menzel’s Wattle in the Murray-Darling Basin was estimated to be 5600 plants (DEHSA 2006a cited in TSSC 2008gz).

Twelve populations were identified in the Murray Mallee region in 1992, with a total of around 800 plants (Davies 1992). The size of populations is highly variable (ranging from one or two to hundreds of plants). The largest known population occurs in remnant vegetation near Kinchina; estimated to include 600 individuals, with at least 30 juvenile plants present (Australian Heritage Council 2008 cited in TSSC 2008gz).

A population is also known to occur on a pastoral lease at Mount Hack in the Flinders Ranges (on a high saddle of Sliding Rock Pound, at the eastern end of the Mt Hack Range) (Obst 2005). In 1993, this population contained about 200 individuals over an area of 8 ha. It had a healthy age structure including seedlings and only a few senescing (aging) plants (Davies 1995a).

Of the twelve populations recorded in the Murray Mallee region in 1992, three were conserved in Heritage Agreement Areas and three occurred in road reserves. The protected populations were not in better condition that those on other land tenure; the three conserved populations contained 8, 1 and 2 individuals respectively (Davies 1992). These populations also had no seedlings present, possibly due to moderate to heavy exotic grass invasion.

Menzel’s Wattle grows in calcareous, loamy substrate (Orchard & Wilson 2001a), where the average annual rainfall is 350-400 mm (Whibley & Symon 1992). It occurs as scattered shrubs; either on roadsides, or in low, open, shrubby woodland on more rocky sites which have only been partly cleared (Briggs pers. comm. cited in Leigh et al. 1984).

Menzel's Wattle is found in open Eucalyptus scrub (Orchard & Wilson 2001a), where associated species include Eucalyptus socialis (Red Mallee), E. incrassata (Ridge-fruited Mallee), Callitris preisii (Southern Cypress Pine), E. odorata (Peppermint Box), E. porosa (Mallee Box) and E. leucoxylon subsp. leucoxylon (Blue Gum) (Davies 1992 and 1995 cited in Obst 2005; Leigh et al. 1984; SA DEH no date; Whibley & Symon 1992; Whibley 1980 cited in Obst 2005).

In the Murray Mallee and Mount Lofty Ranges regions, Menzel’s Wattle grows on the gentle slopes of undulating plains and low rolling hills. The species frequently occurs amongst rock outcrops such as granite, on all aspects. Soils are various sands and red, brown and grey loams of pH 6-9.

In the Monarto region, the species occurs in various vegetation associations, including Red Mallee low open woodland and very low woodland; Eucalyptus dumosa (White Mallee) tall sparse shrubland; Mallee Box low woodland, very low woodland and open woodland; Peppermint Box low woodland and low open woodland; Southern Cypress Pine open woodland and low open woodland; and Peppermint Box associations with other eucalypts (Davies 1992).

In the Flinders Ranges region the site is on the eastern end of the Mount Hack Range, where the species grows on a west-facing slope of a saddle, at 840-890 m above sea level. Soil is reddish-brown, fine sandy loam, with a pH of 6. The species occurs between sloping terraces and slabs of quartzite (Davies 1995). The vegetation association is tall, open shrubland, dominated by Peppermint Box. When present, the species dominates the shrub stratum. Co-dominant shrubs include Dodonaea viscosa subsp. angustissima (Narrow-leaf Hop-bush), Cassinia laevis (Dead Finish) and Ozothamnus retusus. The sparse ground stratum is most frequently dominated by Goodenia vernicosa and Chrysocephalum semipapposum (Clustered Everlasting). Eutaxia microphylla (Common Eutaxia) and Lomandra multiflora subsp. dura occur less frequently (Davies 1995a).

Habitat that has been identified as critical to the survival of the species at the state level can be found in the South Australian Government ‘Murray-Darling Basin Threatened Flora Recovery Plan’ (Obst 2005).

Flowers are mainly borne between July and October, but can be produced as late as January (Davies 1992; Obst 2005).

Menzel’s Wattle is very similar to Acacia wilhelmiana (Leigh et al. 1984); however, the latter occurs only in NSW.

The main threats identified to Menzel’s Wattle are weed invasion, grazing, road maintenance, feral goats (Capra hircus), habitat fragmentation, inappropriate fire regimes, lack of recruitment and clearing (TSSC 2008gz).

Exotic grasses (such as Perennial Veldt Grass; Ehrharta calycina) and Bridal Creeper (Asparagus asparagoides) have been identified as particularly problematic weeds (TSSC 2008gz).

The impact of different threats varies between sites.

The Approved Conservation Advice for Menzel’s Wattle identifies a number of research and regional priority actions to aid the recovery of the species. Some of these actions include (TSSC 2008gz):

  • Research the species’ response to different fire regimes and, in particular, identify the effect of fire on recruitment;
  • Develop and implement a management plan for the control of annual exotic grasses and Bridal Creeper in the local region;
  • Develop and implement a management plan for the control and eradication of feral goats in the region;
  • Investigate options for linking, enhancing or establishing additional populations;
  • Establish populations in cultivation, where wild populations are at critically low levels (less than 50 mature individuals) and are in danger of extinction.

Seeds from two populations at Callington were collected in 2003 and have been placed in long-term storage at the Botanic Gardens of Adelaide Seed Conservation Centre and the Millennium Seed Bank Project (Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, England) (Obst 2005).

Documents relevant to the management of Menzel’s Wattle can be found at the start of the profile.

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Agriculture and Aquaculture:Land clearing, habitat fragmentation and/or habitat degradation Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Acacia menzelii (Menzel's Wattle) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008gz) [Conservation Advice].
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Grazing pressures and associated habitat changes Acacia menzelii in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006am) [Internet].
Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].
Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Indirect Ecosystem Effects:Loss and/or fragmentation of habitat and/or subpopulations Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Acacia menzelii (Menzel's Wattle) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008gz) [Conservation Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Asparagus asparagoides (Bridal Creeper, Bridal Veil Creeper, Smilax, Florist's Smilax, Smilax Asparagus) Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Acacia menzelii (Menzel's Wattle) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008gz) [Conservation Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation by weeds Acacia menzelii in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006am) [Internet].
Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, tramping, competition and/or habitat degradation Capra hircus (Goat) Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Acacia menzelii (Menzel's Wattle) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008gz) [Conservation Advice].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity) Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Acacia menzelii (Menzel's Wattle) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008gz) [Conservation Advice].
Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].
Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Poor recruitment (regeneration) and declining population numbers Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Acacia menzelii (Menzel's Wattle) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008gz) [Conservation Advice].
Transportation and Service Corridors:Roads and Railroads:Development and/or maintenance of roads Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Acacia menzelii (Menzel's Wattle) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008gz) [Conservation Advice].
Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].

Cunningham, G.M., W.E. Mulham, P.L. Milthorpe & J.H. Leigh (1992). Plants of Western New South Wales. Melbourne: Inkata Press.

Davies, R.J.P. (1992). Threatened Plants of the Murray Mallee, Mt Lofty Range and Kangaroo Island Region of South Australia. Conservation Council of South Australia.

Davies, R.J.P. (1995a). Threatened Plant Species Management in the Arid Pastoral Zone of South Australia. Pastoral Management Branch, Department of Environment and Natural Resources.

Jessop, J.P. & H.R. Toelken, eds. (1986). Flora of South Australia. Adelaide, South Australia: SA Government Printing Division.

Leigh, J., R. Boden & J. Briggs (1984). Extinct and Endangered Plants of Australia. Melbourne, Victoria: Macmillan.

Obst, C. (2005). South Australian Murray Darling Basin Threatened Flora Recovery Plan. [Online]. Report to the Threatened Species and Communities Section, Australian Government Department of the Environment and Heritage, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.sa.gov.au/files/542b195d-5854-46d1-aeb7-9e3701172106/SAMDB_Thr_Fl_Rec_Plan_05Jun.pdf.

Orchard, A.E. & A.J.G. Wilson, eds. (2001a). Flora of Australia, Volume 11B, Mimosaceae, Acacia Part 2. In: Flora of Australia. Canberra, ACT: ABRS & CSIRO.

Threatened Species Scientific Committee (2008gz). Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Acacia menzelii (Menzel's Wattle). [Online]. Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/species/pubs/9218-conservation-advice.pdf.

Whibley, D.J.E. & D.E. Symon (1992). Acacias of South Australia. Adelaide, South Australia: Flora and Fauna of South Australia Handbook Committee.

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This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Acacia menzelii in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Fri, 29 Aug 2014 13:32:41 +1000.