In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.
|EPBC Act Listing Status||
Listed migratory - Bonn
|Adopted/Made Recovery Plans|
|Other EPBC Act Plans||
Wildlife Conservation Plan for Migratory Shorebirds (Australian Government Department of the Environment and Heritage (AGDEH), 2006f) [Wildlife Conservation Plan].
|Policy Statements and Guidelines||
Draft background paper to EPBC Act policy statement 3.21 (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2009bc) [Admin Guideline].
Shorebirds - A Vulnerability Assessment for the Great Barrier Reef (Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority (GBRMPA), 2011i) [Admin Guideline].
Seagrass - A Vulnerability Assessment for the Great Barrier Reef (Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority (GBRMPA), 2011k) [Admin Guideline].
Federal Register of
List of Migratory Species (13/07/2000) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000b) [Legislative Instrument].
Declaration under section 248 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of Marine Species (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000c) [Legislative Instrument].
|Non-statutory Listing Status||
|Scientific name||Charadrius bicinctus |
|Species author||Jardine and Selby,1827|
This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.
Scientific name: Charadrius bicinctus
Common name: Double-banded Plover
In New Zealand, this species is known as the Banded Dotterel (see Pierce 1989). Other English names include Double-banded Dotterel and Chestnut-breasted Plover.
There are two recognised subspecies:
- nominate subspecies bicinctus, New Zealand and islands, migrating to Australia, Tasmania, Norfolk and Lord Howe Island
- subspecies exilis, Auckland Island (Marchant & Higgins 1993).
The Double-banded Plover is a medium sized dotterel, growing to approximately 20 cm and weighing 60 g. This species has a range of plumages according to age, sex and time of year. The breeding adult has white underparts except for two bands, a thin black band on the lower neck and a broad chestnut band on the breast. All have a short dark grey bill, black eye and yellowish, grey, green legs (New Zealand Birds 2005).
Adults in breeding plumage are unmistakable, being the only plover in the Australian region with two breast-bands. Non-breeding adults and juveniles can be confused with corresponding plumages of the Lesser Sand Plover and Large Sand Plover. The Double-banded Plover is characteristically smaller and has a finer bill, shorter legs, darker upperparts and characteristic double breast-tabs (Marchant & Higgins 1993).
The Double-banded Plover is generally found in pairs during the breeding season, but are gregarious in the non-breeding season. They often feed in small loose groups and form large communal roosts. Although they have a tendency to roost separately at times, they regularly mix with other waders (for example Curlew Sandpiper (Calidris ferruginea) and Red-Necked Stint (Calidris ruficollis)), both when roosting and feeding (C.D.T. Minton 2002, pers. comm.).
The Double-banded Plover can be found in both coastal and inland areas. During the non-breeding season, it is common in eastern and southern Australia, mainly between the Tropic of Capricorn and western Eyre Peninsula, with occasional records in northern Queensland and Western Australia (Marchant & Higgins 1993). The greatest numbers are found in Tasmania and Victoria, but numbers diminish to the north and west of these regions (C.D.T. Minton, 2002 pers. comm.).
The following is a list of sites of the Double-banded Plover in Australia of international (in bold) and national significance and maximum counts of the birds at these sites (Bamford et al 2008; Watkins 1993):
- Lough Calvert (Beeac), Victoria, 3700
- Boullanger Bay/Robbins Passage, 1200
- Werribee-Avalon, Victoria, 955
- Kangaroo Island, Tasmania, 865
- Corner Inlet, Victoria, 800
- Altona, Victoria, 631
- Shipwreck Point, Perkins Island, Tasmania,600
- Shallow Inlet/Sandy Point, 597
- Anderson's Inlet, Victoria, 550
- Westernport Bay, Victoria, 500
- Lake Bathurst, NSW, 500
- King Island, Tasmania, 370
- Derwent River, estuary and Pittwater, Tasmania, 367
- Swan Bay-Mud Islands, Victoria, 351
- Cape Portland-Musselroe Bay, Tasmania, 342.
At a local level, a 2003 study of the Double-banded Plover identified two important feeding and roosting sites for this species within the Botany Bay area. These were; Penrhyn Inlet, a small inlet with tidally exposed sand and mudflats on the northern side of Botany Bay used by the Double-banded Plover as a diurnal roost; and Sydney Airport which is used as a diurnal and nocturnal roost and feeding site (Ross & Weekes 2003).
The Double-banded Plover breeds only in New Zealand, where it is widespread. In the non-breeding season, part of the population remains in New Zealand, while the remainder migrates to Australia (C.D.T. Minton 2002, pers. comm.). This species is an uncommon visitor to Norfolk Island and Lord Howe Island, and a vagrant to Fiji, Vanuatu and New Caledonia (Marchant & Higgins 1993).
It is the only species of land bird that migrates from Australia to New Zealand (C.D.T. Minton 2002, pers. comm.) and is unique among waders in that much of the population undertakes an east-west migration (Bamford et al 2008; Pierce 1999).
Population estimates for the Double-banded Plover are: Flyway 50 000, Australia30 000 (Bamford et al 2008; Pierce 1999; Sagar et al. 1999; Watkins 1993).
The Double-banded Plover is not globally threatened (del Hoyo et al. 1996). Numbers on Auckland Island declined in the 1800s after the introduction of cats and pigs between 1807 and 1840, but the population on Enderby Island increased following an increase of suitable breeding areas due to the introduction of grazing animals (Walker et al. 1991).
In Australia, this species showed a decline between atlas surveys 20 years apart (Barrett et al. 2002b).
The Double-banded Plover is found on littoral, estuarine and fresh or saline terrestrial wetlands and also saltmarsh, grasslands and pasture. It occurs on muddy, sandy, shingled or sometimes rocky beaches, bays and inlets, harbours and margins of fresh or saline terrestrial wetlands such as lakes, lagoons and swamps, shallow estuaries and rivers. The species is sometimes associated with coastal lagoons, inland saltlakes and saltworks. It is also found on seagrass beds, especially Zostera, which, when exposed at low tide, remain heavily saturated or have numerous water-filled depressions. This species sometimes utilises kelp beds (R.J. Pierce in Marchant & Higgins 1993).
The Double-banded Plover is found on open grassy areas including short pasture, ploughed or newly cropped paddocks, swards, airstrips, and sports grounds such as golf courses or race-tracks near the coast and further inland (R.J. Pierce in Marchant & Higgins 1993).
The species is sometimes found on exposed reefs and rock platforms with shallow rock pools and also on coastal sand dunes. It sometimes takes advantage of floodwaters, drowned river valleys and occasionally areas of bare pumice or scoria (R.J. Pierce in Marchant & Higgins 1993).
At high altitudes in New Zealand, the Double-banded Plover utilises dry montane habitats with short vegetation, including subalpine meltwater basins and streams, cirques, tarns and swamps, tundra, fellfields, herbfields and tussock grasslands and also wet, mossy and shingly depressions below snow-banks (R.J. Pierce in Marchant & Higgins 1993).
On Chatham Island, the species inhabits boggy moorlands with sparse stunted bracken and heath. The Double-banded Plover is also found around sewage farms and saltworks, gravel roads and quarries, and (occasionally) artificial islands created by spoil heaps (Marchant & Higgins 1993).
Usually the Double-banded Plover spends winter on estuaries and other coastal habitats such as lagoons, saltmarsh, beaches and pasture. In inland New Zealand, some birds winter on gravel river deltas, lake shores and pasture (R.J. Pierce in Marchant & Higgins 1993).
The Double-banded Plover usually breeds in dry open areas of shingle, sand or stones, though mainly on old river terraces in valleys, delta or alluvial fans. They prefer stable, flat or gently sloping shingle banks of braided streams with substrate often graded, ranging from large stones to shingle, gravel and fine sand.
In coastal regions, the species breeds on sandy, shelly or shingly beaches, spits and backing dunes, especially around estuaries. They also use shingle and sandy beaches of lakes. The Double-banded Plover sometimes nests at high altitudes, including on Auckland Island, (up to 1646 m above sea level) in montane habitats, where breeding may also occur on bare rock. Other habitats include pasture, ploughed or stony paddocks, areas of bare pumice, gravel pits, quarries, gravel tracks and roads with wide gravel edges (Marchant & Higgins 1993). The species does not necessarily nest close to water, and is known to use racecourses and airstrips. On Chatham Island, the species breeds on sparsely covered, boggy, peaty moorlands with stunted bracken and heath (Marchant & Higgins 1993).
After breeding and before migration the Double-banded Plover remains close to inland and coastal breeding areas, on wide river deltas and river beds, drying ponds, lagoons, tidal flats, beaches, herbfields, pasture and saltmarsh. In inland areas, the species depends less on herbfields than during breeding, and often relies on expanses of bare shingle, sand and pumice (R.J. Pierce in Marchant & Higgins 1993).
This species often forages in river beds during cold weather (usually adults after breeding) and often uses wet paddocks during mild weather (usually juveniles). Occasionally the species wades into belly-deep water (Marchant & Higgins 1993).
The Double-banded Plover roosts on bare open areas or among vegetation and also on offshore islets. Roosting sites may be near feeding areas or hundreds of metres away (Marchant & Higgins 1993).
During strong winds the Double-banded Plover may shelter behind rocks, small clods of earth, clumps of vegetation or seaweed, or in depressions in the ground (Marchant & Higgins 1993).
The oldest known Double-banded Plover was at least 19.75 years old when recaptured, and the annual survival rate is thought to be around 78% (Barter 1989, 1991b; C.D.T Minton 2002, pers. comm).
Most Double-banded Plovers breed on inland riverbeds, and these birds tend to migrate to Australia. Others nest on coastal lagoons and estuaries, and some lowland pasture, but these birds tend to be more sedentary (Pierce 1999). Usually this species builds nests in flat, open, slightly elevated areas on sand, shells, gravel or shingle and sometimes tucks the nest among debris or low-lying shrubs or place the nest in a lee of stones. Nests consist of a scrape in the ground, lined with varying quantities of material such as small stones, small pieces of Raouli, Muehlenbeckia, lichen, moss, grass, twigs, other vegetable matter and dung (Marchant & Higgins 1993).
The Double-banded Plover breeds throughout New Zealand. Major breeding concentrations occur on the southern North Island and South Island, particularly:
- inland Hawke's Bay, including Nuhaka, Whakaki Lagoon, mouth of the Wairoa River and Mohaka, Tutaekuri, Ngaruroo and Tukituku Rivers (and their tributaries)
- Marlborough, including Wairau, Awatere, Flaxbourne, Waimea, Clarence, Hapuka, and Kowhai Rivers, Grassmere and Kaikoura Peninsula
- throughout Canterbury, and central and western Otago.
The species breeds more rarely on the east coast, where sites include Kakanui, Otago Peninsula, and the mouth of the Clutha River; and Southland, including Oreti and Aparima Rivers, Waituna-Tiwai and Mataura Rivers. It is also found on Ruapuke and Stewart Island (R.J. Pierce in Marchant & Higgins 1993).
The Double-banded Plover lays eggs from August or early September to early December or later (Marchant & Higgins 1993). It is the only shorebird utilising the East Asian-Australasian Flyway that breeds from September to December (Bamford et al 2008).
Typically the Double-banded Plover lays three eggs, usually two to four. The species can re-lay up to three times after failure, usually within one month. The eggs incubate for around 2527 days, and fledging period is about five to six weeks. Most young return to the breeding grounds and breed or try to breed in their first year, though a few return to breed in their second year. In one study of 99 eggs, 44 hatched (Marchant & Higgins 1993), but in another study, of 116 eggs in 40 nests, only 12 (10.4%) hatched and only one (0.8%) fledged.
Predators of the Double-banded Plover include: Swamp Harriers (Circus approximans), Australian Magpies (Gymnorhina tibicen), Kelp Gulls (Larus dominicanus), Cats (Felis catus), Dogs (Canis familiaris), Rats (Rattus spp) and Stoats (Mustela erminea). Of 41 nests monitored in the New Zealand Nest Record Scheme, at least one egg hatched in only 25 nests; of the sixteen nests that failed, eight were flooded (Phillips 1980).
The Double-banded Plover eats molluscs, insects, worms, crustaceans and spiders and sometimes seeds and fruits (Marchant & Higgins 1993).
Double-banded Plovers are diurnal and nocturnal. The species forages on vegetated shingle beds, closely cropped pasture, tilled ground and mudflats. In harbours, the species forages on pasture and sandflats at high tide. Feeding method varies with time, tide and weather. Their large eyes reflect the importance of visual location of prey (Marchant & Higgins 1993).
Little is known about the foraging of this species although some general observations of diets of young and adult birds have been made on the breeding grounds (Dann 1999b; Pierce 1989). Specifically, a population of Double-banded Plovers at Botany Bay, NSW, Australia are known to forage at night in the proximity of the Sydney Airport runways (Ross & Weekes 2003).
The Double-banded Plover is partly migratory and dispersive. Most birds undertake long-distance migrations to northern New Zealand or south-east and south-west Australia, but others are sedentary. Movement patterns vary regionally. Birds that breed inland or at high altitude are almost entirely migratory, probably because sources of food diminish in winter (for example breeding grounds above 600 m above sea level are often covered in snow). Destinations vary regionally (Marchant & Higgins 1993).
Birds breeding inland on the southern South Island migrate to Australia, while birds breeding in inland areas north of Christchurch mostly move within New Zealand. Birds breeding at coastal lagoons, ocean beaches and estuaries throughout New Zealand are mostly sedentary including those breeding on Southland coast, Lake Wainono, Washdyke Lagoon, Lake Ellesmere, Ashley, Kaikoura, Chatham Island and the beaches of the North Island (Marchant & Higgins 1993).
Few southern South Island birds move to the North Island. South Island birds that do move to the North Island mostly overwinter in the far North, whereas North Island breeders overwinter mostly in the Bay of Plenty and Auckland areas. Westland birds move mostly to Farewell Spit (Marchant & Higgins 1993).
The subspecies C. exilis (Auckland Island) is little studied, but probably partly dispersive. Part of the population winters on the tidal shoreline of Enderby Island and birds seem to remain in territories or overwinter in Carnley Harbour. While breeding, birds move nightly from fellfields to beaches to feed. Some roost on smaller islands at night, such as Rose and Ewing Island (Walker et al. 1991). These birds have a high wintering site fidelity (Pierce 1999).
The Double-banded Plover does not depart immediately following breeding. Instead it carries out its primary moult on breeding grounds (Barter & Minton 1987; C.D.T. Minton 2002, pers. comm.). Depending on the region, birds begin to leave territories during October and November, peaking in December, and join local flocks. Local flocking peaks during December and January. In inland areas of the southern South Island, these flocks persist until March and April with most departures occurring in February and March (Marchant & Higgins 1993; Pierce 1999).
The Double-banded Plover is highly faithful to its nesting site. Few movements are recorded during the breeding season. During incubation, the off-duty bird stays within 2 km of its nest. Birds which lose nests may move up to 10 km, possibly more, to find feeding areas at lakes or rivers (Marchant & Higgins 1993; Pierce 1999).
Movements to Australia are often preceded by movements of up to 200 km to staging areas, mainly on the east and south coasts of South Island (for example Lake Ellesmere). Only a few trans-Tasman migrants move north to staging areas in Marlborough. These movements to staging areas peak in January. Movements to the north of New Zealand occur from late December to March, peaking in February. There is high site-fidelity to staging areas. Some movements are south rather than north, for example some Marlborough birds move 65160 km south to Lake Ellesmere and Mackenzie Basin (Marchant & Higgins 1993; Pierce 1999).
The Double-banded Plover regularly occurs on Lord Howe Island in small numbers (fewer than 10), on passage and occasionally overwinter between February and July. There is some retro-migration, with Central Otago birds moving up to 300 km to the Southland coast before the trans-Tasman migration (Marchant & Higgins 1993; Pierce 1999).
Birds in both New Zealand and Australia return direct to breeding grounds from July, but mostly in August and early September (Marchant & Higgins 1993). About 90% leave during the first two weeks of August (C.D.T. Minton, 2002 pers. comm.; Pierce 1999). Trans-Tasman migrants appear to return on a broad front. One-year-old birds in Mackenzie Basin return later in the season than older birds (Marchant & Higgins 1993). Typically, no birds remain in Australia during the breeding season (C.D.T. Minton, 2002 pers. comm.).
Non-breeding Double-banded Plovers frequent harbours of north New Zealand and coastal areas and occasionally lakes of south-east and south-west Australia. They show high site-fidelity on wintering grounds (Marchant & Higgins 1993).
The biggest threat to Double-banded Plovers wintering in Australia would be cessation of grazing. At least three important wintering sites in Victoria have been rendered unsuitable in the last 20 years by the cessation of grazing (C.D.T. Minton, 2002 pers. comm.). In Australia and New Zealand, the species is favoured by clearing of wooded lands and conversion to pasture, where Double-banded Plovers regularly feed, roost and occasionally breed (Marchant & Higgins 1993).
The conversion of bare pumice nesting ground to a golf course is thought to have caused local extinction at one site. Flood mitigation and planting of willows (Salix spp) have decreased the amount of available nesting habitat (Marchant & Higgins 1993). The loss of wetlands in some regions of Australia has been severe and allocation of water from regulated river systems is also an issue. Including specific habitat in a reserve or protection zone is an important step towards conserving the habitat but does not in itself ensure an appropriate water supply (Maddock 2000).
Pollution, including nutrient enrichment and industrial discharge, and inappropriate land management practices can lead to habitat degradation. This could make birds more vulnerable to diseases and parasites.
The introduced coastal grass Spartina anglica invades intertidal flats rich in invertebrates and is regarded as potentially harmful to wader habitat (Melville 1997).
Disturbance, especially from human recreational activities, is another significant threat that has increased in recent years and which will probably continue to increase (Davidson & Rothwell 1993).
As of 1993, only one of the 13 nationally important sites listed in Watkins (1993) was fully protected within a conservation area.
It may be possible to rehabilitate some degraded wetlands (A. Morris 2002, pers. comm.) and it may also be possible to create artificial wader feeding or roosting sites to replace those destroyed by development (Harding et al. 1999; Straw 1999).
The Department of the Environment and Heritage (AGDEH 2006f) has implemented the Wildlife Conservation Plan for Migratory Shorebirds to assist in protecting species in the East Asian-Australasian Flyway.
The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.
|Threat Class||Threatening Species||References|
|Agriculture and Aquaculture:Agriculture and Aquaculture:Land clearing, habitat fragmentation and/or habitat degradation||Wildlife Conservation Plan for Migratory Shorebirds (Australian Government Department of the Environment and Heritage (AGDEH), 2006f) [Wildlife Conservation Plan].|
|Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:inappropriate conservation measures||Wildlife Conservation Plan for Migratory Shorebirds (Australian Government Department of the Environment and Heritage (AGDEH), 2006f) [Wildlife Conservation Plan].|
|Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Recreational Activities:Disturbance, especially from human recreational activities and development||Wildlife Conservation Plan for Migratory Shorebirds (Australian Government Department of the Environment and Heritage (AGDEH), 2006f) [Wildlife Conservation Plan].|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation||Salix spp. except S.babylonica, S.x calodendron & S.x reichardtii (Willows except Weeping Willow, Pussy Willow and Sterile Pussy Willow)|
|Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Alteration of hydrological regimes and water quality|
|Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Changes to hydrology including construction of dams/barriers|
|Natural System Modifications:Natural System Modifications:Indirect and direct habitat loss due to human activities|
|Pollution:Industrial and Military Effluents:Habitat degradation due to industrial discharge|
|Pollution:Pollution:Habitat degradation and loss of water quality due to salinity, siltaton, nutrification and/or pollution|
Australian Government Department of the Environment and Heritage (AGDEH) (2006f). Wildlife Conservation Plan for Migratory Shorebirds. [Online]. Canberra, ACT: Department of the Environment and Heritage. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/migratory/publications/shorebird-plan.html.
Bamford M., D. Watkins, W. Bancroft, G. Tischler & J. Wahl (2008). Migratory Shorebirds of the East Asian - Australasian Flyway: Population estimates and internationally important sites. [Online]. Canberra, ACT: Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts, Wetlands International-Oceania. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/migratory/publications/shorebirds-east-asia.html.
Barrett, G., A. Silcocks, S. Barry, R. Poulter & R. Cunningham (2002b). Australian Bird Atlas 1998-2001 Main Report To Environment Australia. Melbourne: Birds Australia.
Barter, M. (1989). Survival rate of Double-banded Plovers, Charadrius bicinctus bicinctus, spending the non-breeding season in Victoria. Stilt. 15:34-36.
Barter, M. (1991b). Addendum to: Survival rate of Double-banded Plovers, Charadrius bicinctus bicinctus, spending the non-breeding season in Victoria. Stilt. 19:5.
Barter, M., & C. Minton (1987). Biometrics, moult and migration of Double-banded Plovers, Charadrius bicinctus bicinctus, spending the non-breeding season in Victoria. Stilt. 10:9-14.
Dann, P. (1999b). Foraging behaviour and diets of Red-necked Stints and Curlew Sandpipers in south-eastern Australia. Wildlife Research. 27:61-68.
Davidson, N. & P. Rothwell (1993). Disturbance to waterfowl on estuaries. Wader Study Group Bulletin. 68.
del Hoyo, J., A. Elliott & J. Sargatal, eds. (1996). Handbook of the Birds of the World. Volume 3, Hoatzin to Auks. Barcelona: Lynx Edicions.
Harding, J., S. Harding & P. Driscoll (1999). Empire Point Roost: a purpose built roost site for waders. Stilt. 34:46-50.
Maddock, M. (2000). Herons in Australasia and Oceania. In: Kushlan, J.A. & H. Hafner, eds. Heron Conservation. Page(s) 123-149. Sydney, NSW: Academic Press.
Marchant, S. & P.J. Higgins, eds. (1993). Handbook of Australian, New Zealand and Antarctic Birds. Volume 2 - Raptors to Lapwings. Melbourne, Victoria: Oxford University Press.
Melville, D.S. (1997). Threats to waders along the East Asian-Australasian Flyway. In: Straw, P., ed. Shorebird conservation in the Asia-Pacific region. Page(s) 15-34. Melbourne, Victoria: Birds Australia.
Minton, C.D.T. (Australasian Wader Studies Group) (2005). Personal Communication.
Morris, A. (2002). Personal communication.
New Zealand Birds (2005). http://www.nzbirds.com. [Online]. Available from: http://www.nzbirds.com.
Phillips, R.E. (1980). Behaviour and systematics of New Zealand Plovers. Emu. 80:177-197.
Pierce, R. (1989). Breeding and social patterns of Banded Dotterels (Charadrius bicinctus) at Cass River. Notornis. 36:13-23.
Pierce, R. (1999). Regional patterns of migration in the Banded Dotterel (Charadrius bicinctus bicinctus). Notornis. 46:101-122.
Ross, G. & S. Weekes (2003). Nocturnal and diurnal habitat use by Double-banded Plover Charadrius bicinctus in Botany Bay, New South Wales, Australia. In: Fourth Australasian Shorebird Conference. Australian National University, Canberra. December 13-15, 2003.
Sagar, P.M., U. Shankar & S. Brown (1999). Distribution and numbers of waders in New Zealand, 1983-1994. Notornis. 46:1-44.
Straw, P. (1999). Habitat remediation - a last resort?. Stilt. 35:66.
Walker, K., P. Moore & G. Elliott (1991). The Auckland Island Banded Dotterel has apparently increased. Notornis. 38:257-265.
Watkins, D. (1993). A national plan for shorebird conservation in Australia. RAOU Report Series. 90.
This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.
Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Charadrius bicinctus in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Thu, 2 Oct 2014 14:45:06 +1000.