In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.
|EPBC Act Listing Status||
Listed migratory - Bonn, JAMBA, ROKAMBA
|Adopted/Made Recovery Plans|
|Other EPBC Act Plans||
Wildlife Conservation Plan for Migratory Shorebirds (Australian Government Department of the Environment and Heritage (AGDEH), 2006f) [Wildlife Conservation Plan].
|Policy Statements and Guidelines||
Draft background paper to EPBC Act policy statement 3.21 (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2009bc) [Admin Guideline].
Shorebirds - A Vulnerability Assessment for the Great Barrier Reef (Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority (GBRMPA), 2011i) [Admin Guideline].
Federal Register of
List of Migratory Species (13/07/2000) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000b) [Legislative Instrument].
Declaration under section 248 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of Marine Species (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000c) [Legislative Instrument].
Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - Listed Migratory Species - Approval of an International Agreement (Commonwealth of Australia, 2007h) [Legislative Instrument].
Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - Update of the List of Migratory Species (12/03/2009) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2009q) [Legislative Instrument].
|Non-statutory Listing Status||
|Scientific name||Charadrius veredus |
This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.
International: It is not listed in the CAMBA agreement but the closely-related Caspian Plover (Charadrius asiaticus) is. The intent may have been to include this species, but taxonomic confusion possibly caused the inclusion of the Caspian Plover instead.
Scientific Name: Charadrius veredus
Common Name: Oriental Plover
Other names: Asiatic Dotterel, Eastern Dotterel, Oriental Dotterel, Eastern Long-legged Sand Plover, Eastern Long-legged Sand Plover, Greater Oriental Plover.
The Oriental Plover is a conventionally accepted species (Christidis & Boles 1994, 2008; Marchant & Higgins 1993). It was formerly considererd a subspecies of the Caspian Plover (Charadrius asiaticus) (Dement'ev & Gladkov 1951; Inskipp et al. 1996; Wiersma 1996), but after examination of numerous morphological and plumage sequence differences between the two (Vaurie 1964), they could no longer be considered conspecific.
The Oriental Plover is an elegant, medium-sized (length: 2125 cm; weight: 95 g) plover with long legs. Sexes differ when in breeding plumage, but are inseparable when in non-breeding plumage; juveniles are separable from adults.
Adults: In breeding plumage, the male has a whitish head and neck, except for a darker brown patch at the rear of the crown; the pale head and neck contrast with the rest of the upperparts, which are dark brown. In flight the upperwing appears dark brown with a narrow white line across the tips of the greater coverts. The underparts are white except for the breast, which is chestnut with a broad black border to its lower edge, contrasting with the white belly. In flight the underwing is uniform dark brown. The bill is black, the eyes are brown and the legs and feet vary from yellow or orange to fleshy or greenish. The female in breeding plumage appears similar to birds in non-breeding plumage, except the ear-coverts are browner and the breast is a bolder, less diffuse brown (Hayman et al. 1986; Marchant & Higgins 1993; Wiersma 1996).
In non-breeding plumage, both sexes have a brown crown and nape, a pale brown hindneck, and the rest of the upperparts are brown. The face is buff with slightly paler forehead, lores and supercilium, and the sides of the neck are buff. The chin and throat are pale buff, and the breast is pale brownish, with the rest of the underparts white (Hayman et al. 1986; Marchant & Higgins 1993; Wiersma 1996).
Juveniles: Juveniles are similar to adults in non-breeding plumage except that they have more conspicuous buff scaling on the fringes of the feathers of the upperparts and a mottled breast (Hayman et al. 1986; Marchant & Higgins 1993; Wiersma 1996).
The species is generally gregarious, and usually occurs in small parties or flocks of hundreds or occasionally thousands, though some are seen singly. They sometimes roost with other species of shorebirds, and often associate with Pratincoles (Glareola maldivarum), and sometimes with Inland Dotterels (Charadrius australis) (Marchant & Higgins 1993).
The Oriental Plover is a non-breeding visitor to Australia, where the species occurs in both coastal and inland areas, mostly in northern Australia. Most records are along the north-western coast, between Exmouth Gulf and Derby in Western Australia, and there are records at a few scattered sites elsewhere, mainly along the northern coast, such as in the Top End, the Gulf of Carpentaria and on Cape York Peninsula. The species also often occurs further inland on the 'blacksoil' plains of northern Western Australia, the Northern Territory and north-western Queensland ('the Gulf Country'). It is seldom recorded in southern Australia (Barrett et al. 2003; Blakers et al. 1984; Garnett 1989; Lane 1987; Marchant & Higgins 1993; Stewart et al. 2007). The species has also been recorded as a vagrant on Lord Howe Island and Christmas Island (Indian Ocean) (McAllan et al. 2004; Stokes et al. 1987).
Internationally important sites in Australia and maximum counts include:
- Eighty Mile Beach, Western Australia, 57 619
- Port Hedland Saltworks, Western Australia, 29 900
- Roebuck Bay, Western Australia, 8750
- Dampier Saltworks, Western Australia, 1830
- Lake Sylvester, Northern Territory, 1022 (Jaensch 1994; Lane 1987; Minton et al. 2003; Watkins 1993).
There is no estimate of the extent of occurrence of the Oriental Plover in Australia. The estimated global extent of occurrence has been estimated at 100 0001 000 000 km² (Birdlife International 2007d).
In November 1982, over 21 000 were recorded between Broome and Port Hedland (Marchant & Higgins 1993).
The area of occupancy of the Oriental Plover in Australia has been estimated at 11 500 km².
The species occurs at numerous and widespread sites in Australia, especially along the north-western (and to a lesser extent, northern) coast and at many scattered sites inland.
There are no current captive populations of this species and none has been reintroduced into the wild.
The Oriental Plover breeds at scattered sites mainly in northern and eastern Mongolia, from the Dzavhan Gol River and Khangai Ranges, east to the Kerulen River and south to the eastern Gobi Desert, and also in adjacent regions of north-western Manchuria and south-eastern Siberia (Arkhipov 2005; de Schauensee 1984; Échécopar & Hüe 1978; Kozlova 1975; Marchant & Higgins 1993; Vaurie 1964).
In the East Asian-Australasian Flyway, the Oriental Plover is mainly recorded passing through China, with only occasional records of birds on passage through the Korean Peninsula, Japan, Hong Kong, Philippines, South-East Asia, Micronesia and Melanesia (Beehler et al. 1986; Chalmers 1986; de Schauensee 1984; Dickinson et al. 1991; Gore & Won 1971; Orn. Soc. Japan 2000; Sheldon et al. 2001; Van Marle & Voous 1988). The species has also been recorded on southward passage on outlying islands in the Pacific Ocean (Lord Howe and Kermadec Islands) (McAllan et al. 2004; Oliver 1974), and on Christmas Island (Indian Ocean) (Stokes et al. 1987). Stragglers have been recorded in Malaysia (Glenister 1974) and on the Andaman Islands in the Indian Ocean (Grimmett et al. 1999b).
It appears that the entire global population spends the non-breeding season in northern Australia, in both coastal and inland areas (Bishop 2006; Stewart et al. 2007). A proportion of the population was formerly thought to winter in Indonesia (Hayman et al. 1986; Marchant & Higgins 1993), but this has now been discounted (Bishop 2006). Stragglers have also occurred in New Zealand (Marchant & Higgins 1993).
The Oriental Plover is not considered globally threatened (Wiersma 1996) and is classified as being of least concern (Birdlife International 2007d).
The entire global population of Oriental Plovers is considered to occur in Australia during the non-breeding season (Bishop 2006; Stewart et al. 2007), so that probably all of the population moves in and out of Australia's jurisdiction. As such, global threats affect the Australian population.
Populations in Australia are regularly surveyed during the Population Monitoring Program carried out by the Australasian Wader Studies Group, in which sites that regularly support good numbers of shorebirds are surveyed twice a year (winter and summer) in co-ordinated counts. These surveys began in 1981. Most of the regular survey sites, however, are located near the coast, and as the Oriental Plover is known to often occur well inland (Barrett et al. 2003; Blakers et al. 1984), a possibly significant proportion of the population would not be recorded in these surveys.
The current world population of Oriental Plovers is estimated at a minimum of 75 000 birds (Gosbell & Clemens 2006), or 70 000 birds (Birdlife International 2007d).
No population trends have been detected in the breeding grounds (Wiersma 1996), and the results of surveys in Australia are too patchy to determine any trends in the Australian non-breeding grounds.
The number of Oriental Plovers recorded during regular surveys in Australia may vary significantly between years; for example, the mean number recorded in the Summer Population Monitoring Counts 20002006 was 13 574, but individual counts varied from 0 up to 54 816 birds (Skewes 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2007; Wilson 2001). This is likely to reflect the coastal bias of the surveys (as the species is known to often occur inland), and is unlikely to be a true reflection of the numbers occurring in Australia.
There is no published information of the generation length of the Oriental Plover.
The entire population breeds in a restricted area centred on Mongolia and adjacent areas of south-eastern Siberia and north-eastern China. Little is known about the ecology of the species, so until researchers have a much greater understanding of the species, the population as a whole is vital for its long-term survival. Within Australia, two of the major staging areas are near Broome, where the vast majority of birds pass through on their arrival/departure in Australia. The maintenance of these sites would appear critical for the survival of the species.
The Oriental Plover is not known to hybridize with other species in the wild.
Of six sites in northern Australia which have been recognised as being of international importance for the species, none are in a conservation reserve, and two are actually in commercial saltworks (Bamford et al. 2008; Watkins 1993).
Immediately after arriving in non-breeding grounds in northern Australia, Oriental Plovers spend a few weeks in coastal habitats such as estuarine mudflats and sandbanks, on sandy or rocky ocean beaches or nearby reefs, or in near-coastal grasslands, before dispersing further inland (Bigg 1981; Bransbury 1985; Crawford 1972; Murlis et al. 1988; Serventy & Whittell 1976; Storr 1977, 1980, 1984b). Thereafter they usually inhabit flat, open, semi-arid or arid grasslands, where the grass is short and sparse, and interspersed with hard, bare ground, such as claypans, dry paddocks, playing fields, lawns and cattle camps (Boekel 1980; Carruthers 1966; Close 1982; Fletcher 1980; Pedler 1982; Storr 1980), or open areas that have been recently burnt (Boekel 1980; Chatto 2003; Crawford 1972; Garnett 1986; Storr 1977). At the onset of the Wet Season, some may move into lightly wooded grasslands (Storr 1977). Some remain in estuarine and littoral environments, and a few are occasionally recorded around terrestrial wetlands or flooded paddocks (Boekel 1980; Close 1982; McCrie 1984). Vagrants in southern Australia have been recorded in saltmarsh (Park 1983; Patterson 1983; Pedler 1982).
Oriental Plovers usually forage among short grass or on hard stony bare ground (McCrie 1984), but also on mudflats or among beachcast seaweed on beaches (Bigg 1981; Close 1982).
Oriental Plovers sometimes roost on soft wet mud or in shallow water of beaches and tidal mudflats (Bransbury 1985; Close 1982; Cox 1988; McCrie 1984; Serventy & Whittell 1976), and also occasionally in dry, open habitats, such as saltmarsh or paddocks (McCrie 1984; Park 1983; Patterson 1983).
The species does not breed in Australia. The secies breeds in western, northern and eastern Mongolia, with some irregular breeding grounds in Russia, close to the Mongolian border (Marchant & Higgins 1993). Oriental Plovers usually breed in arid elevated areas on extensive open upland flats, mountain ridges or plateaux where sparse vegetation such as moss, lichen or short grass is interspersed with patches of bare rock (Wiersma 1996).
The species does not rely on a listed threatened ecological community.
The species does not breed in Australia, and details of the age of sexual maturity and life expectancy are unknown. The closely-related Caspian Plover (Charadrius asiaticus) is thought to breed at two years old (Wiersma 1996).
Oriental Plovers breed from April to July, and chicks are tended by the female alone (Wiersma 1996). Other details of its breeding biology are unknown (Dement'ev & Gladkov 1951; Wiersma 1996). Many shorebirds which breed on the ground in the Siberian tundra and have precocial young which are vulnerable to predation by Arctic Foxes (Tomkovich & Weston 2007).
Little is known of this species' diet. It has only been recorded eating insects, including termites, beetles, grasshoppers, crickets and bugs (Berney 1907; van Tets et al. 1969).
The Oriental Plover sometimes feeds at night (Wiersma 1996). They feed with a running, stopping and pecking action typical of many species of plovers, gleaning and probing the substrate, and may forage in loose flocks, often with other waders and waterbirds (Lane 1987; Marchant & Higgins 1993).
The Oriental Plover is a migratory species, breeding in the Northern Hemisphere and flying south for the boreal winter (Dement'ev & Gladkov 1951; Lane 1987; Marchant & Higgins 1993; Wiersma 1996).
Departure from breeding grounds.
The species starts to leave breeding grounds in July, with males leaving first (Wiersma 1996).
Most birds are recorded on southern passage through eastern China, mainly in August and September (Cheng 1976; Hui 1992; La Touche 1931-34). There are few records of birds on passage elsewhere, with the species considered a rare passage visitor through Hong Kong (SeptemberOctober), on the Korean Peninsula, in Japan, the Philippines (SeptemberOctober), Malaysia and Indonesia (SeptemberNovember) (Chalmers 1986; Dickinson et al. 1991; Glenister 1974; Gore & Won 1971; Orn. Soc. Japan 2000; Wells 1999; White & Bruce 1986), suggesting that they may fly non-stop from China to the non-breeding grounds in Australia (Lane 1987). However, as many birds have completed about 80% of their moult when they arrive in northern Australia, it has been suggested that this moult may take place at a stop-over site (Branson & Minton 2006). Some birds are recorded on passage through Indonesia, mainly in September and October, but some until December (Ash 1984; Sheldon et al. 2001; White 1975; White & Bruce 1986), and New Guinea and the Solomon Islands in October and November (Beehler 1986; Coates 1985; Hadden 2004; Hicks 1990). Vagrants have been recorded, presumably on passage, on Christmas Island (Indian Ocean) between September and November (Stokes et al. 1987) and on Lord Howe Island in September and November (McAllan et al. 2004).
Australia: The entire population is thought to winter in Australia (Bishop 2006; Stewart et al. 2007). Oriental Plovers arrive in north-western Australia in early to mid-September, with numbers increasing during October and sometimes in November (Branson & Minton 2006; Collins 1995; Lane 1987; Marchant & Higgins 1993), which is later than most other species of shorebirds (C.D.T. Minton 2002, pers. comm.). Further east, the species has been recorded arriving in the Top End between late August and early October (Chatto 2003; Crawford 1972; Goodfellow 2001); and in northern Queensland, between September and December (Berney 1903, 1907; Carruthers 1966; Horton 1975). There are no movements recorded across Torres Strait (Marchant & Higgins 1993). Once in Australia, some may fly south across the continent (Marchant & Higgins 1993), as there are occasional records of small numbers in southern Australia, such as the western Nullarbor Plain in Western Australia (Brooker et al. 1979; Congreve & Congreve 1985a,1985b; Hooper & Wells 1989), Spencer Gulf and Gulf St Vincent in South Australia (Lane 1987) and the Mid-Murray Valley in northern Victoria (Emison et al. 1987). Other movements within Australia may be in response to rainfall and temperature (Lane 1987), with birds dispersing in wet conditions (Carruthers 1968; Corben 1972; Larkins & McGill 1978; Roberts 1975a), while occurrence in coastal areas often coincides with drought conditions (Carter 1904a; Dymond 1988; Emison et al. 1987; McCrie 1984). There are few records from coastal areas of northern Australia in March and April, suggesting that many Plovers may leave directly from inland areas; they generally leave Australia between February and April, with most having left by the end of March (Branson & Minton 2006; Marchant & Higgins 1993).
Other wintering grounds: It has been suggested that some Oriental Plovers spend the non-breeding season in Indonesia and Papua New Guinea (Coates 1985; Hayman et al. 1986; Marchant & Higgins 1993), but this is unlikely, and they probably all occur in Australia (Bishop 2006; Stewart et al. 2007). Very occasionally, vagrants have been recorded wintering in New Zealand (Marchant & Higgins 1993).
There are few records of the species on its northern passage: recorded moving north through Sumatra in April (Van Marle & Voous 1988), Sabah in April and May (Sheldon et al. 2001), Malay Peninsula mostly in February and March (Wells 1999), Hong Kong between mid-March and early June (Chalmers 1986) and mainland China in March and April (La Touche 193134). The Yancheng National Nature Reserve in China is of international importance during the northern migration (Barter 2002).
Arrival back at breeding grounds.
By late April at least some birds are near their breeding grounds in Mongolia (Kitson 1979).
Home ranges and territories are not maintained while the birds are in Australia.
When in Australia the species is in drab non-breeding plumage, and may be difficult to distinguish in large mixed-species flocks of shorebirds, especially from the superficially similar Greater Sand Plover, (Charadrius leschenaultia) and Lesser Sand Plover, (C. mongolus) (though both these species are distinctively smaller and more compact), and possibly the Pacific Golden Plover, (Pluvialis fulva) (Marchant & Higgins 1993). Thus, to untrained observers, Oriental Plovers may be difficult to detect when in mixed flocks of shorebirds.
The survey methods used successfully by the Australasian Wader Studies Group are twice-yearly counts of waders at 23 sites around Australia, undertaken in early February, when numbers are most stable during the non-breeding season, and again in JuneJuly to establish the population remaining in Australia during the breeding season in the Northern Hemisphere. Summer counts are the most useful, as they occur when the birds are present in Australia in their greatest numbers. Counts are usually conducted at high-tide, when the shorebirds are roosting. This is complemented by robust banding and leg-flagging programs (Barter 1993; Minton & Lane 1984). The main limitation to this is that while many Oriental Plovers occur in coastal areas where the surveys are conducted, a possibly significant proportion of the population does not, occurring instead on inland plains, where the birds are widely dispersed and densities are so low that surveys are impractical.
Though there are no threats that apply specifically to Oriental Plovers, there are a number of threats that will affect all migratory waders.
In Australia, the species occurs in sparsely-settled areas, and there are no immediate threats to its survival (Marchant & Higgins 1993). Little is known about the inland ephemeral wetlands that occur over vast areas of northern Australia, nor about the effects of grazing on this species' grassland habitat (Watkins 1993). If the pattern of grazing on these grasslands was to change or stop, or pastures were modified (for example, replaced by exotic grasses, or fertilized so that it grew denser) it could become too long or dense for use by Oriental Plovers. Neither of these scenarios appears likely.
With increasing tourist visitation around Broome, and subsequent development, increasing levels of disturbance from human recreation are likely (Rogers 1999b).
The species often forages on airfields at night, when large numbers may be struck by aircraft (van Tets et al. 1969). Oriental Plovers are occasionally recorded being killed by vehicles on roads (Marchant & Higgins 1993), but the occurrence of such incidents is likely to be greatly under-reported (C.D.T. Minton 2002, pers. comm.).
There are a number of threats that affect migratory waders in the East Asian-Australasian Flyway. During migration the species occurs only in small numbers in the Yellow Sea, and mainly in non-tidal habitats, so they are largely unaffected by land reclamation schemes in intertidal areas (Barter 2002, 2005c). Nevertheless, the greatest threat facing all migratory shorebirds is habitat loss, both direct and indirect (Melville 1997). Staging areas used by Oriental Plovers during migration are unknown (Branson & Minton 2006). These may be threatened by degradation, modification or may be lost altogether.
In addition, global warming and associated changes in sea level are likely to have a long-term impact on the breeding, staging and non-breeding grounds of all migratory shorebirds (Harding et al. 2007; Melville 1997).
Migratory shorebirds are also adversely affected by pollution, both on passage and in non-breeding areas (Harding et al. 2007; Melville 1997).
Disturbance from human activities, including recreation, shellfish harvesting, fishing and aquaculture is likely to increase significantly in the future (Barter et al. 2005; Davidson & Rothwell 1993).
The biological characteristic of the species which poses a key threat to its survival is that it regularly flies for thousands of kilometres over densely populated areas where pressure on natural resources, and the modification or destruction of key habitats will have serious detrimental effects on populations of migratory waders.
Of six sites in Australia identified as being of international importance, none are within a conservation reserve (Bamford et al. 2008; Watkins 1993). Important areas need to be identified and reserved, and threats to these important areas, both within Australia and internationally, need to be identified and mitigated. Birds Australia is currently co-ordinating the Shorebirds 2020 project, which aims to monitor shorebird populations at important sites throughout Australia; and Birdlife International is identifying sites and regions which are important to various species of birds, including shorebirds, and the processes that are affecting them. With this information, it will be possible to make informed decisions on the management of shorebird habitat. For example, many of the grasslands used by this species in Australia are important pastoral areas, but the effects of grazing on this species have not been studied; current grazing practices appear not to threaten this species (Watkins 1993), but cessation of grazing could potentially render the habitat unsuitable for Oriental Plovers (C.D.T. Minton 2002, pers. comm.).
The Department of the Environment and Heritage prepared a Wildlife Conservation Plan for Migratory Shorebirds (AGDEH 2006f) to support shorebirds in the East Asian-Australasian Flyway. Objectives of the plan are:
- To increase international cooperation for migratory shorebirds and ensure that countries of the East Asian-Australasian Flyway work together to conserve migratory shorebirds and their habitat.
- To identify, protect and sustainably manage a network of important habitat for migratory shorebirds across Australia to ensure that healthy populations remain viable in the future.
- To increase biological and ecological knowledge of migratory shorebirds, their populations, habitats and threats in Australia to better inform management and support the long term survival of these species.
- To raise awareness of migratory shorebirds and the importance of conserving them, and increase engagaement of decision makers and the community in Australia in activitites to conserve and protect migratory shorebirds and their habitat.
There have been no mitigation measures developed specifically for this species.
The only major study which has dealt specifically with the Oriental Plover in Australia is Branson and Minton (2006).
There is a detailed summary of all that is known of the species in Australasia in Marchant and Higgins (1993), and an international summary in Wiersma (1996). There are also general discussions and summaries of the ecology, conservation and threats of this species and other shorebirds in Geering and colleagues (2007), Barter (2002) and Watkins (1993).
The Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA 2008b) have prepared a draft North-West Marine Bioregional Plan: Bioregional Profile: A Description of the Ecosystems, Conservation Values and Uses of the North-West Marine Region that includes information on the Oriental Plover.
The Department's Wildlife Conservation Plan for Migratory Shorebirds (AGDEH 2006f) and The Action Plan for Australian Birds (Garnett & Crowley 2000) also contain actions aimed at the conservation of migratory birds within Australia.
The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.
|Threat Class||Threatening Species||References|
|Biological Resource Use:Hunting and Collecting Terrestrial Animals:Direct exploitation by humans including hunting||Wildlife Conservation Plan for Migratory Shorebirds (Australian Government Department of the Environment and Heritage (AGDEH), 2006f) [Wildlife Conservation Plan].|
|Climate Change and Severe Weather:Habitat Shifting and Alteration:Global warming and associated sea level changes||Wildlife Conservation Plan for Migratory Shorebirds (Australian Government Department of the Environment and Heritage (AGDEH), 2006f) [Wildlife Conservation Plan].|
|Climate Change and Severe Weather:Temperature Extremes:climate change||Wildlife Conservation Plan for Migratory Shorebirds (Australian Government Department of the Environment and Heritage (AGDEH), 2006f) [Wildlife Conservation Plan].|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:unspecified|
|Natural System Modifications:Natural System Modifications:Indirect and direct habitat loss due to human activities|
|Transportation and Service Corridors:Roads and Railroads:Vehicle related mortality|
Échécopar, R.D. & F. Hüe (1978). Les Oiseaux de Chine, de Mongolie et de Coree. Non-passereaux. Papeete, Tahiti, Les Editions du Pacifique.
Arkhipov, V.Y. (2005). Exceptional numbers of Oriental Plovers in southern Siberia in 2003. British Birds. 98:156-157.
Ash, J.S. (1984). Bird observations on Bali. Bulletin of the British Ornithological Club. 104:24-35.
Australian Government Department of the Environment and Heritage (AGDEH) (2006f). Wildlife Conservation Plan for Migratory Shorebirds. [Online]. Canberra, ACT: Department of the Environment and Heritage. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/migratory/publications/shorebird-plan.html.
Bamford M., D. Watkins, W. Bancroft, G. Tischler & J. Wahl (2008). Migratory Shorebirds of the East Asian - Australasian Flyway: Population estimates and internationally important sites. [Online]. Canberra, ACT: Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts, Wetlands International-Oceania. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/migratory/publications/shorebirds-east-asia.html.
Barrett, G., A. Silcocks, S. Barry, R. Cunningham & R. Poulter (2003). The New Atlas of Australian Birds. Melbourne, Victoria: Birds Australia.
Barter, M.A. (1993). Population monitoring of waders in Australia: why is it so important, how is it best done and what can we do?. Stilt. 22:13-15.
Barter, M.A. (2002). Shorebirds of the Yellow Sea: Importance, Threats and Conservation Status. Wetlands International Global Series No. 8, International Wader Studies 12. Canberra, ACT: Wetlands International.
Barter, M.A. (2005c). Yellow Sea-driven priorities for Australian shorebird researchers. In: Straw, P., ed. Status and Conservation of Shorebirds in the East Asian-Australasian Flyway. Proceedings of the Australasian Shorebirds Conference 13-15 December 2003, Canberra, Australia. Sydney, NSW: Wetlands International Global Series 18, International Wader Studies 17.
Barter, M.A., K. Gosbell, L. Cao & Q. Xu (2005). Northward shorebird migration surveys in 2005 at four new Yellow Sea sites in Jiangsu and Liaoning Provinces. Stilt. 48:13-17.
Beehler, B.M., T.K. Pratt & D.A. Zimmerman (1986). Field guide to the birds of New Guinea. Princeton, USA: Princeton University Press.
Berney, F.L. (1903). North Queensland notes on some migratory birds. Emu. 2:210--211.
Berney, F.L. (1907). Field notes on birds of the Richmond District, north Queensland. Emu. 6:106-115.
Bigg, R. (1981). Oriental Plovers near Newcastle. Australian Birds. 15:54.
Birdlife International (2007d). Species factsheet: Charadrius veredus. Viewed 22 February 2008. [Online]. Available from: http://birdlife.org.>.
Bishop, K.D. (2006). Shorebirds in New Guinea: their status, conservation and distribution. Stilt. 50:103-134.
Blakers, M., S.J.J.F. Davies & P.N. Reilly (1984). The Atlas of Australian Birds. Melbourne, Victoria: Melbourne University Press.
Boekel, C. (1980). Birds of Victoria River Downs Station and of Yarralin, Northern Territory. Part 1. Australian Bird Watcher. 8:171-193.
Bransbury, J. (1985). Waders of littoral habitats in south-eastern South Australia. South Australian Ornithologist. 29:180-187.
Branson, N.J.B.A. & C.D.T. Minton (2006). Measurements, Weights and primary wing moult of Oriental Plover from far north-west Australia. Stilt. 50:235-241.
Brooker, M.G., M.G. Ridpath, A.J. Estbergs, J. Bywater, D.S. Hart & M.S. Jones (1979). Bird observations on the north-western Nullarbor Plain and neighbouring regions, 1967-1978. Emu. 79:176-190.
Carruthers, R.K. (1966). Waders in the Gulf Country. Australian Bird Watcher. 2:211-214.
Carruthers, R.K. (1968). Notes on an influx of Oriental Pratincoles at Mt Isa. Emu. 68:216-217.
Carter, T. (1904a). Birds occurring in the region of the North-West Cape. Emu. 3:171-177.
Chalmers, M.L. (1986). Birds of Hong Kong. Hong Kong: Hong Kong Bird Watching Society.
Chatto, R. (2003). The Distribution and Status of Shorebirds Around the Coast and Coastal Wetlands of the Northern Territory. Northern Territory Parks and Wildlife Commission Technical Report 73.
Cheng, T.H. (1976). A Distribution List of Chinese Birds. Beijing, Scientific Press.
Christidis, L. & W.E. Boles (1994). The Taxonomy and Species of Birds of Australia and its Territories. Royal Australasian Ornithologists Union Monograph 2. Melbourne, Victoria: Royal Australasian Ornithologists Union.
Christidis, L. & W.E. Boles (2008). Systematics and Taxonomy of Australian Birds. Collingwood, Victoria: CSIRO Publishing.
Close, D.H. (1982). Recent records of the Oriental Plover. South Australian Ornithologist. 28:205-206.
Coates, B.J. (1985). The Birds of Papua New Guinea. Volume 1. Alderley, Queensland: Dove Publications.
Collins, P. (1995). The Birds of Broome. Broome, Western Australia: Broome Bird Observatory.
Congreve, D.P. & P. Congreve (1985a). Birds. Eyre Bird Observatory Report 3. 1982-1983. 9:20-42.
Congreve, D.P. & P. Congreve (1985b). Kanidal beach counts. RAOU Report. 9:50-65.
Corben, C. (1972). Notes on waders, gulls and terns in south west Queensland: summer 1971-72. Sunbird. 3:80-84.
Cox, J.B. (1988). Some records and notes on the identification of the Oriental Plover. South Australian Ornithologist. 30:120-121.
Crawford, D.N. (1972). Birds of Darwin area, with some records from other parts of Northern Territory. Emu. 72:131-48.
Davidson, N. & P. Rothwell (1993). Disturbance to waterfowl on estuaries. Wader Study Group Bulletin. 68.
de Schauensee, R.M. (1984). The Birds of China. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
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Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Charadrius veredus in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Sun, 21 Sep 2014 19:33:45 +1000.