Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Endangered
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan required, included on the Commenced List (1/11/2009).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans National Recovery Plan for the Smoky Mouse Pseudomys fumeus (Menkhorst, P. & L. Broome, 2008a) [Recovery Plan].
 
Other EPBC Act Plans Threat Abatement Plan for predation by feral cats (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2008zzp) [Threat Abatement Plan].
 
Threat Abatement Plan for Predation by the European Red Fox (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2008zzq) [Threat Abatement Plan].
 
Policy Statements and Guidelines Survey guidelines for Australia's threatened mammals. EPBC Act survey guidelines 6.5 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011j) [Admin Guideline].
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument].
 
State Government
    Documents and Websites
ACT:Smoky Mouse (Pseudomys fumeus): An endangered species. Action Plan No. 23 (Australian Capital Territory Department of Territory and Municipal Services (ACT TAMS), 1999a) [State Action Plan].
ACT:The Smoky Mouse (Pseudomys fumeus). An endangered species (Australian Capital Territory Department of Territory and Municipal Services (ACT TAMS), 2010a) [Information Sheet].
NSW:Smoky Mouse - profile (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2005kh) [Internet].
NSW:Smoky Mouse Threatened Species Information (NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service (NSW NPWS), 1999bu) [Information Sheet].
VIC:Flora and Fauna Guarantee Action Statement 196 - Smoky Mouse Pseudomys fumeus (Menkhorst, P., 2003) [State Action Plan].
State Listing Status
ACT: Listed as Endangered (Nature Conservation Act 1980 (Australian Capital Territory): 2013)
NSW: Listed as Critically Endangered (Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995 (New South Wales): December 2013)
VIC: Listed as Threatened (Flora and Fauna Guarantee Act 1988 (Victoria): February 2014)
Non-statutory Listing Status
IUCN: Listed as Endangered (IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: 2011.2)
VIC: Listed as Endangered (Advisory List of Threatened Vertebrate Fauna in Victoria: 2013)
Scientific name Pseudomys fumeus [88]
Family Muridae:Rodentia:Mammalia:Chordata:Animalia
Species author Brazenor,1934
Infraspecies author  
Reference  
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images
http://www.npws.nsw.gov.au/wildlife/thr_profiles/smkmse.pdf

Scientific name: Pseudomys fumeus

Common name: Konoom

Other names: Smoky Mouse

Conventionally accepted as Pseudomys fumeus (AFD 2010).

The Konoom is an Australian native rodent with pale grey to black fur, a grey to white belly and ears and feet that are flesh-coloured with sparse white hair. A ring of dark hairs may be present around the eye. The length of individuals, including the tail, is between 180–250 mm. The tail is narrow, flexible, sparsely furred, and white to pale pinkish grey underneath with a narrow dark strip along its upper surface and up to 145 mm in length. The ears are 18–22 mm long and the hind feet 25–29 mm long. Adult weight varies widely between 25–86 g (Edwards 2009; Ford 2008; NSW OEH 2012; Menkhorst 2003).

Animals from the Grampians and Otway Range in western Victoria tend to be larger and darker than those from east of Melbourne (Menkhorst & Knight 2001; Menkhorst & Seebeck unpub. data cited in Menkhorst 2003) and NSW (ACT TAMS 1999a).

The Konoom occurs in Victoria, NSW and the ACT, over a wide but disjunct distribution with small and fragmented populations (Menkhorst & Broome 2008a). The species was first recorded in NSW and the ACT in 1985 (Menkhorst & Broome 2008a).

In Victoria, the Konoom is known from the greater Grampian area, the Otway Range, the south-east highlands area (the Central Highlands and the Victorian Alps) and the East Gippsland lowland area (Menkhorst & Broome 2008a; Menkhorst 2003). Fossil records have been collected from caves in far western Victoria and eastern Victoria (Menkhorst & Broome 2008a).

In NSW, the Konoom is recorded from Kosciuszko National Park (NP), Bondo State Forest (SF), Buccleugh SF, Ingbyra SF, Nullica SF and South-East Forests NP (Menkhorst & Seebeck 1981; NSW OEH 2012). Fossil specimens have been collected in caves in the southern highlands, south-east Queanbeyan and south-west of Sydney (Menkhorst & Broome 2008a).

In the ACT, the Konoom is known from the Brindabella Range, Namadgi NP (ACT TAMS 1999a).

The Konoom is not easily detected, with trapping rate success considered low at usually less than 4%, although in good quality habitat higher capture rates are recorded (Menkhorst & Broome 2008). Previous studies and trapping effort include (Menkhorst & Broome 2008):

  • The summit of Mt William in the Grampians during the mid-late 1970s with 24 captures from 196 trapnights (12% success) (Menkhorst & Seebeck 1981).
  • The Victoria Range in the Grampians in 2002 with success of 19% (15 captures from 80 trap nights) (Menkhorst & Homan unpub. cited in Menkhorst & Broome 2008).
  • Trapping rates at Nullica were 12–15% in September 1994 and September 1997 (Ford 1998b cited in Menkhorst & Broome 2008; Jurskis et al. 1997).

There are no reliable data on which to base Konoom population estimates or to estimate trends. The species has irruptive demography based on resource availability and has ephemeral spatial and temporal abundance (Menkhorst & Broome 2008a). Populations can disappear rapidly, possibly caused by resource availability (associated with weather or time since fire), trappability, vegetation succession or predation (Menkhorst & Broome 2008a).

A detailed study at Mt William in the Grampians, suggested that at peak densities the Konoom may reach approximately ten animals per hectare (Cockburn 1981b). Populations in the Otway Ranges, coastal East Gippsland and the ACT have clearly declined with observers failing to detect the species over many years (last detected in 1985, 1979 and 1986, respectively). Populations at other monitored sites in the Grampians, Victorian eastern highlands and Eden hinterland are also declining (Menkhorst & Broome 2008a).

Surveys that have captured transient males may represent individuals moving between subpopulations in search of mates (Ford 1998b cited in Menkhorst 2003) and suggests that the Konoom exists over areas as a metapopulation (a group of populations separated spatially that have some interaction). Long-term survival of the population would therefore be contingent on recruitment and immigration between subpopulations, and the regional dynamics of resource availability (Menkhorst 2003).

The Konoom has been recorded in the following conservation reserves (Menkhorst & Broome 2008a; Menkhorst 2003):

  • Victoria: Grampians NP, Alpine NP, Croajingalong NP, Great Otway NP, Baw Baw NP, Lake Eildon NP, Yarra Ranges NP and Cape Conran Conservation Park
  • NSW: Kosciuszko NP and South East Forests NP
  • ACT: Namadgi NP.

The Konoom occurs in a wide variety of habitats, from heath to dry sclerophyll forest, especially along ridgetops with a heath understorey, and occasionally adjacent wetter habitats such as fern gullies. A characteristic of many localities, except those in wet gullies, is a floristically diverse shrub layer with members of the plant families Epacridaceae, Fabaceae and Mimosaceae well represented (Cockburn 1981a; Ford et al. 2003; Jurskis et al. 1997; Lee 1995; Menkhorst & Seebeck 1981). Ground cover is often dense and low, such as occurs in heaths, or grass tussocks, rocks and logs in more open habitats that provides shelter sites. Soil conditions also need to be conducive to burrowing and growth of hypogeal fungi, a major component of the diet (Menkhorst & Broome 2008a; Menkhorst 2003). Nesting burrows have been found in rocky localities among tree roots and under the skirts of Grass Trees (Xanthorrhoea spp.) (NSW NPWS 1999bu; NSW OEH 2012).

The Konoom is not found in disturbed areas (Menkhorst & Broome 2008a) and requires stable habitats, with access to well-developed, diverse, heathy understoreys in which to live and breed successfully (Menkhorst 2003). Capture sites range from near sea level to at least 1800 m altitude (Menkhorst & Broome 2008a).

The Konoom occurs in the Upland Basalt Eucalypt Forests of the Sydney Basin Bioregion, which is listed as Endangered under the EPBC Act (DSEWPaC 2012r).

The Konoom occurs in small colonies of a single male with up to five females. Burrows are large, complex, often over 25 metres in length and with a floor space of 10 m², with multiple nesting chambers. Colonies are based around patches of dense heath with suitable foraging resources (Ford et al. 2003; Woods & Ford 2000).

Breeding occurs from September to April. Males begin to secrete an oily, strongly musk-odoured substance that covers much of their body fur by late August, which remains present till late October. Those males that were resident in colonies were found to be more pungent than individuals found moving through areas (Ford 1998b cited in Menkhorst 2003). Studies at Nullica found nearly all females pregnant by the end of September (Menkhorst & Broome 2008).

One to two litters of three to four young are produced in a breeding season, with the majority of births observed from October-December based on lactating females caught in studies. Births in September have been recorded; however there was no survival of offspring or these females. Only those females occupying the best quality habitat survive to breed in a second year, and may breed earlier in the second year than their first (Cockburn 1981b).

Recruits to a population are found to decline in numbers during Autumn, especially males in sub-optimal habitat, as food resources dwindle. Only those that remain in, or move to, high quality habitat have a stronger probability of surviving during winter (Menkhorst & Broome 2008a).

The Konoom has a seasonal diet that is based on food availability and energetic demands, and relies on nitrogen-rich food sources (Cockburn 1981a). Seeds and fruits from leguminous shrubs and epacrid berries form the main diet in summer and autumn. Some invertebrates, such as Bogong Moths (Agrostis infusa), are taken in areas where they occur, for example in early summer as other resources become scarcer. Underground hypogeal (truffle-like) fungi, common round the roots of certain shrubs and grasses, predominate in their winter and spring diets, with some flowers, mosses, seeds and soil invertebrates also taken (ACT TAMS 2010a; Cockburn 1981a; NSW OEH 2012).

In spring, as the soil dries and fungi become unavailable, animals living in marginal habitats decline in numbers, especially males (Cockburn 1981b).

No home range data are published but calculations of average distance moved between captures indicate little difference in movement patterns between sexes or between preferred and marginal habitats (Cockburn 1981b). Trapping results from Native Dog Flat, Alpine NP in Victoria indicate that the species may have specific nest and runway areas, though further research is required to verify this theory (Edwards 2009).

The Survey Guidelines for Australia's Threatened Mammals (DSEWPaC 2011j) outline suitable methodology and timeframes for the surveying of the Konoom. Survey techniques recommended to detect the presence of the Konoom in areas up to five hectares include (DSEWPaC 2011j):

  • Daytime searches for potentially suitable habitat resources such as ridgetops with a northern aspect and a proportionately high cover of rock and potential food resources such as a dominance of Papilionaceae and Epacridaceae.
  • Collection of predator scats, owl casts or remains in predatory bird/mammal nests/dens.
  • Hair sampling device surveys using a mixture of rolled oats, peanut butter and pistachio nut oil for bait.
  • Elliott A/E trapping surveys.
  • Camera traps used in association with bait stations (Nelson et al. 2010).
  • Searches for road kills, particularly during hot weather.

As the abundance of the Konoom fluctuates over time (Ford et al. 2003), techniques suited for low population densities (for example, camera traps) need to be considered as primary detection techniques (DSEWPaC 2011j).

The Konoom is a member of the family Hydromyine, and can be distinguished from members of the Murinaea by having only four teats instead of 8–12 (NSW NPWS 1999bu). The species overlaps in distribution with the Bush Rat (Rattus fuscipes) and the House Mouse (Mus musculus), the Swamp Rat (Rattus lutreolus), the Black Rat (Rattus rattus) and the Heath Rat (Pseudomys shortridgei). The Konoom is larger than the House Mouse, smaller than the Black Rat and has a longer tail to body ratio and darker fur than the three native rats. Its pink feet also distinguish it from the dark-footed Swamp Rat and the Heath Rat (DSEWPaC 2011j).

Predation by introduced species

The relatively low reproductive rate of the Konoom combined with its use of vegetation with an open ground layer, and reliance on shallow burrows and surface nests for shelter make the species highly vulnerable to predation. Predators include introduced species and native predators such as the Spot-tailed Quoll (Dasyurus maculatus), pythons (Morelia spp.), owls (Tyto spp.) and goannas (Varanus spp.) (Menkhorst & Broome 2008a). Studies on Cat (Felis catus) predation of Pseudomys species show that the Cat will 'stake out' communal nests and potentially eliminate small breeding populations quickly (Ford et al. 2003; Risby et al. 2000 cited in Menkhorst & Broome 2008a). 

Predator control programs aimed at one species, for example Fox (Vulpes vulpes) control, may alter population dynamics of other predators, such as the Dingo (Canis lupus dingo), the Cat, the Spot-tailed Quoll, and goannas, with subsidiary affects on Konoom populations (Menkhorst & Broome 2008a).

Inappropriate fire regimes

The floristic composition and structure of heath and heathy forest plant communities are strongly influenced by fire regimes. Changes to floristics of an area due to frequent burning, such as repeated prescribed burns, has been shown to simplify heath understorey in dry forests and lead to increased predation levels, with the resultant loss of Pseudomys species (Catling 1986, 1991 cited in Menkhorst 2003).

Frequent burning may also impact on the fungal food resources, which prefer thick litter layers (Claridge & Cork 1997 cited in Menkhorst 2003), and remove hollow logs, which are used for hiding (Ford 1998b cited in Menkhorst 2003). Lack of burning is also deleterious and leads to the senescence of foraging shrubs. Intense, large-scale wildfires are liable to eliminate metapopulations. Fire regimes of moderate frequency (15–20 but up to 40 year intervals) and moderate intensity may maintain preferred understorey floristics at Konoom sites in heath and dry forests (Ford et al. 2003; Menkhorst 2003).

Timber harvesting

Clear-fell logging, and the associated soil disturbance and regeneration burns, destroy Konoom habitat (Menkhorst 2003). Whilst heath species regenerate quickly following clearing, it takes some time for these plants to provide food and for suitable nesting sites to become available. Intensively logged areas often form thick stands of regrowth consisting of Eucalyptus and Acacia species and the Konoom has not been shown to occupy this type of vegetation. The species may eventually re-inhabit logged areas once suitable habitat has established, however logging cycles undertaken in shorter time frames may not allow for this regeneration (Menkhorst & Broome 2008a).

Roads and tracks

The construction of roads and tracks in forests for logging and fire control activities is a threat to a ridge-dependent species such as the Konoom, reducing and fragmenting suitable habitat. This fragmentation can interrupt movement patterns of small mammals (Andrews 1990 cited in Menkhorst 2003). Roads and tracks are also likely to facilitate movement of the Fox (Catling & Burt 1995 cited in Menkhorst 2003) and the Cat, creating further predator pressure on local populations of the Konoom (Menkhorst 2003).

Habitat fragmentation

Habitat fragmentation, especially the proximity of forested areas to cleared freehold land, has been associated with an increased Fox abundance (Catling & Burt 1995 cited in Menkhorst 2003) that has been shown to impact on similar small mammal species, such as the Hastings River Mouse (Pseudomys oralis) (Smith et al. 1996 cited in Menkhorst & Broome 2008a).

Dieback caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi

Many of the plant families and genera characteristic of Konoom habitat are known to be susceptible to the Phytophthora cinnamomi, including the Epacridaceae (Epacris spp., Monotoca spp., Leucopogon spp.), Fabaceae (Daviesia spp., Pultanaea spp.), Dillenaceae (Hibbertia spp.), Tremandraceae (Tetratheca spp.) and Xanthorrhoeacae (Xanthorrhoea spp., Lomandra spp.).

A decline in understorey species richness of up to 60% has been recorded at sites infected with the Phytophthora cinnamomi (Kennedy & Weste 1986 cited in Menkhorst & Broome 2008a). This pathogen has been recorded affecting habitat in some areas known or predicted to contain Konoom populations, such as East Gippsland, the Victorian highlands and the Eden hinterland (Menkhorst & Broome 2008a). Studies on other small mammal groups have shown that this impact on vegetation is a significant variable as it affects vegetation diversity and density (Newell & Wilson 1993 cited in Menkhorst & Broome 2008a; Wilson et al. 1994 cited in Menkhorst & Broome 2008a). The pathogen is more active in low fertile soils, and areas of little leaf litter, likely due to antagonistic actions of other microflora in the litter layer. The impact of infection at some sites may be more virulent due to other stresses present, such as wildfire. The disease is of particular concern where it is widespread and the likelihood of soil movement is high, for example due to forestry activities.

Climate change

With the small amount of suitable habitat available to the Konoom, small increases in annual temperatures are predicted to impact on the species. With habitats shifting latitudinally, as well as to higher altitudes, the species' habitat is predicted to reduce in size to pockets of habitat in suitable bioclimatic conditions. These changes may increase the distances between populations, impacting on gene flows and population viability (Bennet et al. 1991). BIOCLIM modeling of habitat in Victoria suggests that with a 3 °C rise in temperature, there would be a 66 to 84 % decrease in available habitat in reserved areas known to contain the Konoom (Bennett et al. 1991).

The National Recovery Plan for the Konoom (Menkhorst & Broome 2008a) has categorised the species into five distinct biogeographic regions for management. These are the Grampians, Otway Range, South Eastern Highlands, coastal East Gippsland and Eden Hinterland. The recovery plan aims to protect the species and achieve a downlisting of the species by controlling threats at three management areas: the Grampians, South Eastern Highlands and Eden Hinterland. Specific objectives of the recovery plan include:

  • Designate protection zones around known populations.
  • Refine knowledge of the distribution and abundance.
  • Examine population partitioning.
  • Minimise predation by the Fox (Vulpes vulpes), the Cat (Felis catus) and the Wild Dog (Canis lupus familiaris).
  • Establish small mammal refuges.
  • Develop and test burning regimes to maintain and enhance habitat quality.
  • Study habitat preference, diet and the effects of disturbance on population survival and connectivity.
  • Establish a captive breeding colony of the species.
  • Establish and minimise risk of Phytophthora cinnamomi infection.
  • Increase community awareness and involvement.

The ACT Environment Department (ACT TAMS 2010a) outlines the following actions to protect the habitat of the Konoom within the ACT:

  • No fire trails or walking tracks to be constructed near areas most likely to comprise habitat, including the Bimberi Wilderness Area.
  • Feral Pig (Sus scrofa) control programs involving poisoned wheat baits will continue to be managed so as to avoid areas of likely habitat.
  • The conservation requirements of the species will be a consideration in the Bush Fire Fuel Management Plan covering Namadgi NP.

The NSW Office of Environment and Heritage outlines the following actions for management of the species in NSW (NSW OEH 2012):

  • Ensure that personnel planning and undertaking hazard reduction burns are aware of habitat protection zones.
  • Search for the species and suitable habitat in proposed logging areas.
  • Implement low impact grazing regimes in known high quality habitat.

Management documents relevant to the Knoom are at the start of the profile. The Smoky Mouse (Pseudomys fumeus) Fuel and Fire Suppression Guidelines (ACT TAMS undated) outlines management actions for fire events in habitat of the species within the ACT.

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Biological Resource Use:Logging and Wood Harvesting:Habitat disturbance due to foresty activities Species threats data recorded on the SPRAT database between 1999-2002 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2012i) [Database].
Pseudomys fumeus in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006st) [Internet].
Biological Resource Use:Logging and Wood Harvesting:Habitat loss, modification and degradation due to timber harvesting National Recovery Plan for the Smoky Mouse Pseudomys fumeus (Menkhorst, P. & L. Broome, 2008a) [Recovery Plan].
Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Indirect Ecosystem Effects:Loss and/or fragmentation of habitat and/or subpopulations National Recovery Plan for the Smoky Mouse Pseudomys fumeus (Menkhorst, P. & L. Broome, 2008a) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Oryctolagus cuniculus (Rabbit, European Rabbit) The threat posed by pest animals to biodiversity in New South Wales (Coutts-Smith, A.J., P.S. Mahon, M. Letnic & P.O. Downey, 2007) [Management Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Vulpes vulpes (Red Fox, Fox) Population regulation and dispersion of the smoky mouse, Pseudomys fumeus. 2. Spring decline, breeding success and habitat heterogeneity. Australian Journal of Ecology. 6:255-266. (Cockburn, A., 1981b) [Journal].
Pseudomys fumeus in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006st) [Internet].
Threat Abatement Plan for Predation by the European Red Fox (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2008zzq) [Threat Abatement Plan].
National Recovery Plan for the Smoky Mouse Pseudomys fumeus (Menkhorst, P. & L. Broome, 2008a) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Felis catus (Cat, House Cat, Domestic Cat) Population regulation and dispersion of the smoky mouse, Pseudomys fumeus. 2. Spring decline, breeding success and habitat heterogeneity. Australian Journal of Ecology. 6:255-266. (Cockburn, A., 1981b) [Journal].
Pseudomys fumeus in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006st) [Internet].
Threat Abatement Plan for predation by feral cats (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2008zzp) [Threat Abatement Plan].
National Recovery Plan for the Smoky Mouse Pseudomys fumeus (Menkhorst, P. & L. Broome, 2008a) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Canis lupus familiaris (Domestic Dog) The threat posed by pest animals to biodiversity in New South Wales (Coutts-Smith, A.J., P.S. Mahon, M. Letnic & P.O. Downey, 2007) [Management Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Vegetation and habitat loss caused by dieback Phytophthora cinnamomi Threat Abatement Plan for Dieback Caused by the Root-rot Fungus Phytophthora cinnamomi (Environment Australia (EA), 2001m) [Threat Abatement Plan].
National Recovery Plan for the Smoky Mouse Pseudomys fumeus (Menkhorst, P. & L. Broome, 2008a) [Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity) Pseudomys fumeus in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006st) [Internet].
National Recovery Plan for the Smoky Mouse Pseudomys fumeus (Menkhorst, P. & L. Broome, 2008a) [Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate prescribed regimes and/or vegetation management to control fire regimes Species threats data recorded on the SPRAT database between 1999-2002 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2012i) [Database].
Transportation and Service Corridors:Roads and Railroads:Development and/or maintenance of roads National Recovery Plan for the Smoky Mouse Pseudomys fumeus (Menkhorst, P. & L. Broome, 2008a) [Recovery Plan].

Australian Capital Territory Department of Territory and Municipal Services (ACT TAMS) (1999a). Smoky Mouse (Pseudomys fumeus): An endangered species. Action Plan No. 23. [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.act.gov.au/cpr/conservation_and_ecological_communities/threatened_species_action_plans.

Australian Capital Territory Department of Territory and Municipal Services (ACT TAMS) (2010a). The Smoky Mouse (Pseudomys fumeus). An endangered species. [Online]. Fact Sheet No. 23. Threatened Species and Communities of the ACT. Available from: http://www.environment.act.gov.au/cpr/conservation_and_ecological_communities/information_on_action_plans.

Australian Capital Territory Department of Territory and Municipal Services (ACT TAMS) (undated). Smoky Mouse (Pseudomys fumeus) Fuel and Fire Suppression Guidelines. [Online]. Available from: http://www.tams.act.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0018/176121/Smoky_Mouse_Pseudomys_fumeus.pdf.

Australian Faunal Directory (AFD) (2010). Australian Faunal Directory. [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/abrs/online-resources/fauna/afd/home. [Accessed: 30-May-2010].

Bennett, S., R. Brereton, I. Mansergh, S. Berwick, K. Sandiford & C. Wellington (1991). The potential effect of the enhanced greenhouse climate change on selected Victorian fauna. Technical Report No. 123. East Melbourne, Victoria: Arthur Rylah Institute, Department of Conservation and Environment.

Cockburn, A. (1981a). Population regulation and dispersion of the smoky mouse, Pseudomys fumeus. 1. Dietary determinants of microhabitat preference. Australian Journal of Ecology. 6:231-254.

Cockburn, A. (1981b). Population regulation and dispersion of the smoky mouse, Pseudomys fumeus. 2. Spring decline, breeding success and habitat heterogeneity. Australian Journal of Ecology. 6:255-266.

Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC) (2011j). Survey guidelines for Australia's threatened mammals. EPBC Act survey guidelines 6.5. [Online]. EPBC Act policy statement: Canberra, ACT: DSEWPAC. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/epbc/publications/threatened-mammals.html.

Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC) (2012r). Upland Basalt Eucalypt Forests of the Sydney Basin Bioregion. Species Profile and Threats Database. [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/cgi-bin/sprat/public/publicshowcommunity.pl?id=60.

Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA) (2008zzp). Threat Abatement Plan for predation by feral cats. [Online]. Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/tap/cats08.html.

Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA) (2008zzq). Threat Abatement Plan for Predation by the European Red Fox. [Online]. Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/tap/foxes08.html.

Edwards, J.C. (2009). Re-discovery of Smoke Mouse Pseudomys fumeus near Native Dog Flat, Alpine National Park, Victoria. The Victorian Naturalist. 26(1):13-17.

Ford, F. (2008). Smoky Mouse, Pseudomys fumeus. In: Van Dyck, S. & R. Strahan, eds. The mammals of Australia. Third Edition. Reed New Holland, Sydney, Australia.

Ford, F., A. Cockburn & L. Broome (2003). Habitat preference, diet and demography of the smoky mouse, Pseudomys fumeus (Rodentia: Muridae), in south-eastern New South Wales. Wildlife Research. 30:89-101.

IUCN (2011). IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. [Online]. Available from: http://www.iucnredlist.org/.

Jurskis, V.P., K.B. Hudson & R.J. Shiels (1997). Extension of the range of the smoky mouse Pseudomys fumeus (Rodentia: Muridae) into New South Wales with notes on habitat and detection methods. Australian Forestry. 60:99-108.

Lee, A.K. (1995). The Action Plan for Australian Rodents. Canberra: Australian Nature Conservation Agency, Endangered Species Program.

Menkhorst, P & F Knight (2001). A field guide to the Mammals of Australia. Victoria: Oxford University Press.

Menkhorst, P. (2003). Flora and Fauna Guarantee Action Statement 196 - Smoky Mouse Pseudomys fumeus. [Online]. Victorian Department of Sustainability and Environment . Available from: http://www.dse.vic.gov.au/plants-and-animals/flora-and-fauna-guarantee-act-action-statements-index-of-approved-action-statements.

Menkhorst, P. & L. Broome (2008). Background and Implementation Information for the Smoky Mouse Pseudomys fumeus National Recovery Plan. [Online]. Melbourne: Department of Sustainability and Environment. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/recovery/pseudomys-fumeus/pubs/pseudomys-fumeus-background.pdf.

Menkhorst, P. & L. Broome (2008a). National Recovery Plan for the Smoky Mouse Pseudomys fumeus. [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/recovery/pseudomys-fumeus/index.html.

Menkhorst, P.W. & J.H. Seebeck (1981). The distribution, habitat and status of Pseudomys fumeus Brazenor (Rodentia: Muridae). Australian Wildlife Research. 8:87-96.

Nelson, J., M. Main, R. Chick & M. Scroggie (2010). The status of Smoky Mouse populations at historic sites in Victoria, and an assessment of two non-invasive survey techniques. Athur Rylah Institute for Environmental Research.

New South Wales Office of Environment and Heritage (NSW OEH) (2012). Smoky Mouse - Pseudomys fumeus - profile. [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/threatenedspecies/.

NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW) (2005kh). Smoky Mouse - profile. [Online]. Available from: http://www.threatenedspecies.environment.nsw.gov.au/tsprofile/profile.aspx?id=10686.

NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service (NSW NPWS) (1999bu). Smoky Mouse Threatened Species Information. [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/resources/nature/tsprofileSmokyMouse.pdf.

Victoria Department of Sustainability and Environment (Vic. DSE) (2007). Advisory List of Threatened Vertebrate Fauna in Victoria - 2007. East Melbourne, Victoria: Department of Sustainability and Environment.

Woods, R.E. & F.D. Ford (2000). Observations on the behaviour of the smoky mouse Pseudomys fumeus (Rodentia: Muridae). Australian Mammalogy. 22:35-42. [Online]. Available from: http://www.publish.csiro.au/?act=view_file&file_id=AM00035.pdf.

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This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Pseudomys fumeus in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Fri, 18 Apr 2014 09:00:18 +1000.