Species Profile and Threats Database

For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Endangered as Gingidia montana
Listing and Conservation Advices Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Gingidia montana (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008qc) [Conservation Advice].
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan required, included on the Commenced List (1/11/2009).
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans Northern Rivers Regional Biodiversity Management Plan (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010l) [Recovery Plan] as Gingidia montana.
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument] as Gingidia montana.
State Government
    Documents and Websites
NSW:NSW Threatened Species - Mountain Angelica - profile (NSW Department of Environment and Climate Change (NSW DECC), 2005i) [Internet].
NSW:Mountain Angelica - profile (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2005ex) [Internet].
NSW:Threatened Species Information: Gingidia montana (NSW National Parks & Wildlife Service (NSW NPWS), 1999f) [Internet].
State Listing Status
NSW: Listed as Endangered (Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995 (New South Wales): August 2014 list) as Gingidia montana
Scientific name Gingidia rupicola [86880]
Family Apiaceae:Apiales:Magnoliopsida:Magnoliophyta:Plantae
Species author I.Telford & J.J.Bruhl
Infraspecies author  
Reference P.B. Heenan, I.R.H. Telford and J.J. Bruhl (2013). Three new species of Gingidia from Australia and New Zealand segregated from G. montana. Aust Syst. Bot. 26(3): 196-209 [tax. nov.]
Other names Gingidia montana [12096]
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Other illustrations Google Images

Mountain Angelica is a strongly aromatic, hairless, erect, spreading perennial herb or shrub, usually about 20 cm high, and 30 cm wide, which can grow to 50 cm high (Peacock 1996). Leaves are pinnate, up to 60 cm long and are composed of 7–9 ovate to circular leaflets (2–2.5 cm long, 1.4–2 cm wide) with obtusely toothed margins. White flowers are borne on umbellike inflorescences with 8–12 subequal rays, usually 13–24 mm long. Inflorescences stalk to 15 cm long with 5–10 mm long bracts, 2–5 mm long bracteoles, and 2.5–6 mm long flower stalks. Fruit are egg-shaped and around 5 mm long (Harden 1992).

Mountain Angelica is restricted to a small area near Point Lookout and a nearby escarpment in New England National Park (NP), in the Northern Tablelands of NSW. This species occurs more or less continuously around the rock faces of this area for a distance of about 1 km (Briggs & Leigh 1996; NSW DECC 2005i; Peacock 1996).

Using data points from the Australian Virtual Herbarium (AVH) (CHAH 2008a), Mountain Angelica's estimated extent of occurrence is 36 km².

Using data points from the AVH (CHAH 2008a), the extent of occupancy for Mountain Angelica is 30 ha. This figure was calculated by allocating each discrete point a 10 ha buffer.

Mountain Angelica is recorded as having three good locations that are localised and not fragmented (CHAH 2008a; Quinn et al. 1995). Population details for Australia from Quinn and colleagues (1995) are:

Location Land Status Year of survey No. of plants Population health
Tyringham, Ebor Rd unknown 1955 unknown This is a questionable record.
High Cliffs New England NP 1967 2 good
Point Lookout New England NP 1995 2 good
Platypus Valley Lookout New England NP unknown 3 unknown

The Tyringham record is old and not considered a reliable record.

Mountain Angelica is cultivated at Mt Tomah Botanic Gardens, Blue Mountains; Royal Botanical Gardens, Hobart; and Australian National Botanic Gardens, Canberra (CHABG 1994).

Mountain Angelica is also found in New Zealand where it is not listed on that country's Threat Classification System; however, two affinities are listed (Gingidia aff. (a) (CHR 510570; Mt Burnett) and Gingidia aff. montana (b) (CHR 103349; North Otago)) (Hitchmough et al. 2005). In addition, the moth, Gingidiobora nebulosa, is listed under the Gradual Decline Threat Category: Mountain Angelica is the sole host of G. nebulosa and suffers from any browse reduction of Mountain Angelica (Hitchmough et al. 2005).

Reports of Mountain Angelica's population trends in New Zealand vary. Cameron and colleagues (1995) state that the species is threatened but populations are secure; Norbury (1996) states that the population is fragmented and threatened as a result of deer and rabbt grazing; Norbury (2001) states the species was formerly common but is now mostly restricted to refugia inaccessible to stock; and NSW NPWS (2003m) states that New Zealand populations have largely been eliminated by grazing.

In New Zealand this species is found in moist, open sites (Harden 1992; Hebe Society 2003; Quinn et al. 1995). Vegetation associations include natural Tall Tussock Grassland in alpine, and sub alpine, areas and Maori-altered Short Tussock Grassland in subhumid areas (Norbury 1996).

The relationship between trans-Tasman populations of Mountain Angelica is probably the result of a east-west dispersal event (after the breakup of Gondwana) from New Zealand to New England (Webb 1986). This is similar to the trans-Tasman relationship of the extremely localised Uncinia sinclairii in the Australian Alps (Webb 1986).

Population information is limited and there is no available information for trends of the population, however, remnant patches of Mountain Angelica are considered relatively secure from most threats due to inaccessible locations.

Australian populations of Mountain Angelica occur entirely within the New England National Park (Briggs & Leigh 1996).

Mountain Angelica grows in basalt or trachyte rock crevices, mostly on cliff faces, at altitudes of 1400–1750 m above sea level (Peacock 1996; Quinn et al. 1995). This species occurs in Snow Gum (Eucalyptus paucifolia) woodland and at the margins of Antarctic Beech (Nothofagus moorei) forest (NSW DECC 2005i).

This species is associated with the EPBC listed "White Box-Yellow Box-Blakely's Red Gum Grassy Woodland and Derived Native Grassland" threatened ecological community.

Mountain Angelica has small white flowers in clusters of eight to twelve (Harden 1992). It flowers from October to January (Quinn et al. 1995). Fruits are small and oval (NSW NPWS 1999f). This species is gynodioecious, with male plants functionally bisexual (to varying degrees) whereas females are uniformly unisexual (Lloyd 1980). Males produce proportionally more flowers than female plants, however, fruit production on each plant is similar (Lloyd 1980).

The extremely small size of Mountain Angelica's populations is of concern and may lead to extinction following stochastic events (Peacock 1996). Individual plants at Point Lookout are potentially vulnerable to heavy tourist traffic and illegal collection (NSW DECC 2005i; NSW NPWS 2003m). There may be no immediate threat to most individuals from people, weeds or fire because plants occur in inaccessible habitat.

While grazing by rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in New Zealand has been observed (Allen et al. 1995; Cameron et al. 1995), populations in Australia are yet to be impacted by rabbit grazing, though they are likely to be susceptible (Quinn et al. 1995).

Due to the low population size and limited distribution of the species a stochastic event could cause extinction (Peacock 1996). However, the nature of such an event is poorly defined.

The risk of fire has been determined as low because Mountain Angelica is located in an area of favourable climatic conditions and a topographically protected area. Ideally, fire is to be restricted from this species and minimal hazard reduction measures are recommended (RFS 2004). If such a prescription is not followed, extinction may occur.

The NSW Department of Environment and Climate Change suggests the following recovery actions for park managers (NSW DECC 2005i; NSW NPWS 2003m):

  • Collect seed for NSW Seedbank from varying provenances in collaboration with Sydney Royal Botanic Gardens Trust: ensure that seed collection does not impact on population viability.
  • Investigate seed viability, germination, dormancy and longevity (in natural environment and in storage).
  • Provide information to the public at Point Lookout (New England NP) on Mountain Angelica.
  • Ensure National Park users stay on established tracks.
  • Control visitor impact along walking tracks at Point Lookout.
  • Monitor population size, habitat condition and threats at known sites.
  • Map extent of known population; survey areas of potential habitat in areas near known population; inform NSW DECC of any new locations.
  • Consider locations of Mountain Angelica during park management planning.
  • Undertake rapid action to address any reduction in population health as the only known locality is at an environmental extreme.
  • Control illegal flower and plant collection.

Current management of this species is centred upon protection of the populations within New England National Park. Populations are be monitored for potential threats or decline.

The Plan of Management for New England National Park (NSW NPWS 1991) has a number of objectives and actions in place that directly affect the known populations of Mountain Angelica. In particular, Point Lookout (a feature adjacent to Mountain Angelica remnants) is managed as an attraction to this National Park with objectives to maintain services such as fencing, information signs, tracks and hard surface walkways. Flora management in the Park also has objectives to protect Mountain Angelica associations from unregulated visitors, weeds within the park, weeds from neighbouring land, and to implement monitoring programs to monitor population trends and adverse impacts from threats.

The Fire Management Strategy for New England National Park (NSW DECC 2007) aims to maintain the overall fuel hazard of the area where Mountain Angelica occurs to maintain an appropriate fire interval for the species.

No major studies of Mountain Angelica have been conducted in Australia; however, this species is mentioned in a number of studies from New Zealand relating to phylogenology (Mitchell et al. 1998) and landscape ecology (Sommerville et al. 1982).

There is currently no recovery plan for Mountain Angelica.

The Threat Abatement Plan for Competition and Land Degradation by Feral Rabbits (EA 1999c) is appropriate for the species as rabbits are identified as a potential threat to this species.

The New England National Park Plan of Management (NSW NPWS 1991) identifies key objectives and actions associated with the main location of this species (Point Lookout).

The New England National Park Fire Management Strategy (NSW DECC 2007) identifies key fire management strategies for the area where populations of this species are known.

The Threatened Species Hazard Reduction List (RFS 2004) identifies fire prescriptions suitable for this species (no fire; no slashing, trittering or tree removal).

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Biological Resource Use:Gathering Terrestrial Plants:Illegal collection Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Gingidia montana (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008qc) [Conservation Advice].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Climate Change and Severe Weather:Climate change altering atmosphere/hydrosphere temperatures, rainfall patterns and/or frequency of severe weather events Northern Rivers Regional Biodiversity Management Plan (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010p) [State Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human induced disturbance due to unspecified activities Northern Rivers Regional Biodiversity Management Plan (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010p) [State Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Recreational Activities:Soil disturbance and/or trampling due to bushwalking Gingidia montana in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006kf) [Internet].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Predation, competition, habitat degradation and/or spread of pathogens by introduced species Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Gingidia montana (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008qc) [Conservation Advice].
Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Low numbers of individuals Gingidia montana in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006kf) [Internet].

Allen, R.B., J.B. Wilson, C.R. Mason (1995). Vegetation change following exclusion of grazing animals in depleted grassland, Central Otago, New Zealand. Journal of Vegetation Science. 6:615-626.

Briggs, J.D. & J.H. Leigh (1996). Rare or Threatened Australian Plants - Revised Edition. Collingwood: CSIRO Publishing.

Cameron, E.K., P.J. de Lange, P.N.Johnson D.R. Given & C.C. Ogle (1995). Threatened and local plant lists (1995 revision). New Zealand Botanical Society Newsletter. 39:15-28.

Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria (CHAH) (2008a). Australia's Virtual Herbarium. [Online]. Canberra: Centre for Plant Biodiversity Research. Available from:

Council of Heads of Australian Botanic Gardens (CHABG) (1994). Census of plants in botanic gardens. [Online]. Canberra: Australian National Botanic Gardens. Available from:

Environment Australia (EA) (1999c). Threat Abatement Plan for Competition and Land Degradation by Feral Rabbits. [Online]. Biodiversity Group, Environment Australia. Available from:

Harden, G.J. (Ed.) (1992). Flora of New South Wales Volume 3. Kensington, NSW: University of NSW Press.

Hebe Society (2003). NZ Plants - Gingidia montana. [Online]. Available from: [Accessed 24 July 2008].

Hitchmough, R., L. Bull & P. Cromartry (2005). New Zealand Threat Classification System lists. Wellington: Science and Technical Publishing, Department of Conservation.

Lloyd, D.G. (1980). The Distribution of Gender in Four Angiosperm Species Illustrating Two Evolutionary Pathways to Dioecy. Evolution. 34 (1):123-134.

Mitchell, A.D., C.J. Webb & S.J. Wagstaff (1998). Phylogenetic relationships of species of Gingidia and related genera (Apiaceae, subfamily Apiodeae). New Zealand Journal of Botany. 36:417-424.

Norbury, D. (1996). The effect of rabbits in conservation values. Science for Conservation. 34. Wellington: Department of Conservation.

Norbury, G. (2001). Advances in New Zealand mammalogy 1990-2000: Lagomorphs. Journal of The Royal Societ of New Zealand. 31 (1):83-97.

NSW Department of Environment and Climate Change (NSW DECC) (2005i). NSW Threatened Species - Mountain Angelica - profile. [Online]. Available from:

NSW Department of Environment and Climate Change (NSW DECC) (2007). New England National Park, Cunnawarra National Park (part) Jobs Mountain Nature Reserve Fire Management Strategy (Type 2) Sheet 1 of 4. [Online]. NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service. Available from: [Accessed: 05-Jun-2008].

NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW) (2010l). Northern Rivers Regional Biodiversity Management Plan. [Online]. Coffs Harbour, New South Wales: DECCW. Available from:

NSW National Parks & Wildlife Service (NSW NPWS) (1991). New England National Park Plan of Management. [Online]. NSW Department of Environment and Climate Change. Available from: [Accessed: 05-Jun-2008].

NSW National Parks & Wildlife Service (NSW NPWS) (1999f). Threatened Species Information: Gingidia montana. [Online]. Hurstville: NSW NPWS. Available from: [Accessed 24 July 2008].

NSW National Parks & Wildlife Service (NSW NPWS) (2003m). Threatened Species of the New England Tablelands and North West Slopes of New South Wales. Page(s) 163 pp. Coffs Harbour: NSW NPWS & Armidale: University of New England.

Peacock, R.J. (1996). ROTAP Species of the Walcha/Nundle and Styx River Management Area.

Quinn, F., J.B. Williams, C.L. Gross & J. Bruhl (1995). Report on rare and threatened plants of north-eastern New South Wales. Armidale: University of New England.

Rural Fire Service (RFS) (2004). Threatened species hazard reduction list: Part 1-Plants. [Online]. Available from: [Accessed: 12-May-2008].

Sommerville, P., A.F. Mark & J.B. Wilson (1982). Plant succession on moraines of the upper Dart Valley, southern South Island, New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Botany. 20:227-244.

Webb, C.J. (1986). Breeding Systems and Relationships in Gingidia and Related Australasian Apiaceae. In: Barlow, B.A, ed. Flora and Fauna of Alpine Australasia: Ages and Origins. Melbourne: CSIRO Australia.

EPBC Act email updates can be received via the Communities for Communities newsletter and the EPBC Act newsletter.

This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Gingidia rupicola in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: Accessed Wed, 1 Oct 2014 14:22:09 +1000.