Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


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EPBC Act Listing Status Listed marine
Listed migratory - JAMBA
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
List of Migratory Species (13/07/2000) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000b) [Legislative Instrument].
 
Declaration under section 248 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of Marine Species (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000c) [Legislative Instrument].
 
Scientific name Calidris mauri [857]
Family Scolopacidae:Charadriiformes:Aves:Chordata:Animalia
Species author Cabanis, 1856
Infraspecies author  
Reference  
Distribution map Species Distribution Map not available for this taxon.
Illustrations Google Images

International:The species is listed on Appendix 1 of the Convention on Migratory Species (CMS-Bonn Convention).

Listed under the Japan-Australia Migratory Bird Agreement (JAMBA).

Scientific Name: Calidris mauri

Common Name: Western Sandpiper

Other names: Web-footed Sandpiper

The Western Sandpiper is a conventionally accepted species (Sibley & Monroe 1990; van Gils & Wiersma 1996).

The Western Sandpiper is a very small (length: 14–17 cm; weight: 20–35 g) sandpiper with short wings and a long, tapered body. Sexes are indistinguishable in both breeding and non-breeding plumage; juveniles are separable from adults (Higgins & Davies 1996).

In breeding plumage, the centre of the forehead and the crown are rufous with black streaks; the rest of the head is white with black streaks; the neck is grey; and the rest of the upperbody is black, with narrow, pale lines on the outer mantle; and the scapulars are black with rufous fringes, which form a bright patch of colour on the shoulder. The rump and uppertail coverts are white, and have a black line through the centre; and the uppertail is pale grey with a dark centre. The face is mainly white with black streaks, but there is a broad white supercilium, broadest behind the eye; the lores are distinctively narrow and dusky; there is a rufous patch on the ear coverts; and the chin and throat are white. The underparts are white, with black streaks on the upper breast, black arrowheads on the lower breast and flanks, and fine dark streaks on the sides of the vent and undertail-coverts. In flight the upperwings are plain brownish grey with darker primary coverts and flight feathers. The bill is black, the eyes dark brown, and the legs and feet are black.

In non-breeding plumage, the centre of the forehead and crown are pale grey with coarse black streaks, concolorous with the pale grey nape and neck, which are more finely streaked; the broad white supercilium gives the face a white appearance; and the ear coverts are pale grey with fine streaks and speckles. The upperparts are all pale grey with fine dark streaks; and the underparts are white, except for grey on the sides of the breast, and are covered with dark streaks, especially on the upper breast (Higgins & Davies 1996).

Juveniles have heads and necks which appear similar to non-breeding plumage, but the grey forehead and crown have a rufous tinge and coarse black streaking, and the ear coverts may have a rufous tone. The upperparts vary from rufous to grey, but the feathers of the mantle and the upper scapulars combine to form a black 'V', and the centre of the mantle and the fringes of the upper scapulars are always rich rufous-chestnut, contrasting with the grey of the lower scapulars and innerwing-coverts. The underparts are white with a rufous wash and dark streaking on the sides of the breast (Higgins & Davies 1996; Veit & Jonsson 1984).

In its normal range the species is gregarious, occurring in large, dense flocks; the species has not been recorded in Australia, but if it did occur, it would most likely occur singly, as records in New Zealand have all been of single birds (Higgins & Davies 1996).

There have been four unconfirmed reports in Australia, none of which have been accepted by the Birds Australia Rarities Committee:

  • Sandford, Tasmania, on 6 September 1969 (Thomas 1970)
  • Ticehurst Swamp, near Ivanhoe, NSW, on 11 May 1974 (Hobbs 1974)
  • Homebush Bay, NSW, 22-23 November 1978 (Pegler & McGill 1979)
  • West Byron, NSW on 22 November 2000 (unpublished- Birds Australia).

The species has not been recorded in Australia, so there are no estimates of its extent of occurrence in Australia. The estimated global extent of occurrence is 50 000–100 000 km² (Birdlife International 2007b).

There are no published estimates of the area of occupancy of the species.

There are no current captive populations of this species and none has been reintroduced into the wild.

There is no published information on the generation length of the Western Sandpiper, but they are thought to first breed when one year old, and the oldest bird recorded was nine years and two months old (van Gils & Wiersma 1996).

The species is widespread in North America, Central America and northern South America.

Though there are separate breeding populations in Siberia and Alaska, these populations join together to migrate south through North America, Central America and South America.

Breeding distribution
The Western Sandpiper breeds around the Bering Sea, in coastal areas of the eastern Chukotski Peninsula in north-eastern Siberia and also in northern and western Alaska (Bent 1962; Myers et al. 1982; van Gils & Wiersma 1996; Warnock & Bishop 1998).

On passage
Western Sandpipers which breed in Siberia migrate east across the Bering Strait and join with North American birds. Most then migrate south along the Pacific coast through Canada and the United States, though others migrate overland through the American interior to the Atlantic coast, with some birds continuing south through Mexico and Central America, or to islands in the Caribbean Sea (AOU 1983; Blake 1977).

Non-breeding distribution
Many Western Sandpipers overwinter at various sites along the migratory route, in coastal areas (mainly along the shores of the Pacific Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico, but also the shores of the Atlantic Ocean) of the United States, Mexico and islands in the Caribbean Sea, but others winter further south, in Central America, south to the Pacific coastline of northern Peru (AOU 1983; Bent 1962; Bishop & Warnock 1998; Blake 1977; Butler et al. 1996; van Gils & Wiersma 1996). Vagrants are occasionally recorded further afield, with records further west than usual, in central Siberia, Japan, Taiwan, Hawaii and New Zealand (AWB 1993; Higgins & Davies 1996; Orn. Soc. Japan 2000; Pratt et al. 1987), and further east than usual, including in western Europe and islands off north-western Africa (e.g. Azores, Canary Islands) (Cramp & Simmons 1983). There are no accepted records of the species in Australia (Higgins & Davies 1996).

The species is not globally threatened (van Gils & Wiersma 1996) and is classified as being of least concern (Birdlife International 2007b). The total population has been estimated at two–three million birds (van Gils & Wiersma 1996) or three and a half million birds (Birdlife International 2007b), though in some years it may be greater than four million birds (Bishop et al. 2000). The major threats to the species are loss and modification of wetland habitats at their stopover sites and non-breeding grounds (Mellink et al. 1997; Naranjo et al. 1994; Warnock & Takekawa 1995, 1996), and sandpipers may be adversely affected by pollution discharged into the sea from industry, oilfields and urban sources (Rattner et al. 1995; Warnock & Takekawa 1996; White et al. 1983).

The species has not been recorded in Australia.

The Western Sandpiper has been well surveyed, especially birds on migration through Canada and those wintering or migrating in the United States. There are also an increasing number of surveys being conducted further south, particularly in Mexico, using both ground and aerial surveys of stopover sites and wintering areas (e.g. Bolton & Szanto 2003; Buchanan & Evenson 1997; Carrera et al. 1998; Mellink et al. 1997; Page et al. 1997; Warnock & Takekawa 1996). In addition, there is a robust banding/leg-flagging program and several radio-tracking programs (e.g. Bishop & Warnock 1998; Bishop et al. 2004; Butler et al. 1987, 1996; Naranjo et al. 1994; Warnock & Bishop 1998; Warnock & Takekawa 1995, 1996).

The total population has been estimated at 2–6.5 million birds (Birdlife International 2007b; Bishop et al. 2000; van Gils & Wiersma 1996) ), though the more reliable estimates are between 2–3.5 million birds. It is the most numerous shorebird in the Pacific Flyway (Bishop et al. 2004).

Though there are no separate subspecies, the Western Sandpiper breeds in separate populations, one in north-eastern Siberia and the other in Alaska, but both populations intermingle when on migration (van Gils & Wiersma 1996).

No apparent trend has been described for the species.

The variation in population estimates may imply a fluctuation in the number of Western Sandpipers (Bishop et al. 2000).

The main breeding populations of the Western Sandpiper occur in northern and western Alaska.

The Western Sandpiper is not known to hybridize with other species in the wild.

Given the widespread distribution of this species, especially when on migration and in non-breeding grounds, it is likely to occur in many conservation reserves in a number of countries.

When on migration or in non-breeding areas the Western Sandpiper inhabits tidal mudflats and sandflats in sheltered lagoons, river deltas and estuaries (Andres & Browne 1998; Butler et al. 1987; Carrera et al. 1998; van Gils & Wiersma 1996; Warnock & Takekawa 1995), and also occurs at artificial salt-evaporation ponds (Page et al. 1997; Warnock & Takekawa 1996). They also occur at terrestrial wetlands, such as the margins of lakes and ponds (AOU 1983; van Gils & Wiersma 1996).

Feeding habitat
The Western Sandpiper specialises in foraging on intertidal mudflats, mainly in shallow water as the tide recedes (Carrero et al. 1998; Long & Ralph 2001; Warnock & Takekawa 1995). The species sometimes also feeds in drained and tidal saltponds in spring (Warnock & Takekawa 1995).

Roosting habitat
At high tide the species often roosts in terrestrial wetlands, levees between salt evaporation ponds or, occasionally, in open farmland, usually within 2 km of foraging areas (Carrera et al. 1998; Long & Ralph 2001; Warnock & Takekawa 1995, 1996). They may also roost on sandy beaches away from mudflats (Naranjo et al. 1994).

Breeding habitat
The species breeds in coastal tundra, usually vegetated with heathy sedge vegetation or stunted willows, birch or other shrubs, among well-drained, low dry ridges near shallow ponds or marshes (AOU 1983; Myers et al. 1982; Sandercock 1998; van Gils & Wiersma 1996).
The species does not rely on a listed threatened ecological community.

The Western Sandpiper breeds when one year old, and the oldest recorded bird was nine years two months old (van Gils & Wiersma 1996). Potential predators on the breeding grounds include foxes (Alopex lagopus) and (Vulpes vulpes), jaegers (Stercorarius spp) and Sandhill Cranes (Grus canadensis); the level of predation probably increases as the breeding season progresses (Sandercock 1998). When on migration, especially when over land, Western Sandpipers are often taken by raptors (Warnock & Bishop 1998).
The species does not breed in Australia (Higgins & Davies 1996; van Gils & Wiersma 1996).

Western Sandpipers lay their eggs when the snow has melted, usually between late May and early July (Bent 1962; Bishop & Warnock 1998; Myers et al. 1982; van Gils & Wiersma 1996). Nests are usually depressions in the ground on low, dry ridges, neatly lined with grass, moss and other plant material and surrounded by vegetation, such as grass or overhanging, stunted birch trees. Clutches usually comprise four eggs, but those laid later in the season may have three eggs. Eggs are incubated by both sexes for 21 or 22 days. The chicks are precocial, and may be attended by both parents. However, in Siberian-breeding birds, usually the female only attends. In Alaska the female often abandons the male during incubation, and the male attends the young until fledging (18–21 days) (Bent 1962; Myers et al. 1982; Sandercock 1998; van Gils & Wiersma 1996).

During the non-breeding season, they eat amphipods, bivalves, polychaete worms, insects and their larvae, such as fly larvae, beetles and ants, spiders and small snails, as well as seeds occasionally. On the breeding grounds, they eat insects, spiders and small crustaceans (Bent 1962; van Gils & Wiersma 1996).

The Western Sandpiper forages in flocks on moist substrates at or near the water's edge, or in shallow water, where it pecks at items on the surface, skims its bill over the surface of moist mud, or probes for food just below (Bent 1962; Carrera et al. 1998; van Gils & Wiersma 1996). It often forages at night (Warnock & Takekawa 1996).

The Western Sandpiper is a migratory species, breeding in the arctic and migrating to temperate, subtropical and tropical regions for the non-breeding period (Bent 1962; van Gils & Wiersma 1996).

Departure from breeding grounds
Birds breeding in Siberia leave their breeding grounds in small flocks in July and early August, and cross the Bering Strait to join with populations of birds which have bred in Alaska (Bent 1962; Butler et al. 1996; Myers et al. 1982).

Southern passage
The southern passage takes most birds along the Pacific coast of Canada and the United States, mainly in the second half of July and August, though some are recorded on passage as early as early July, and others as late as September (Butler et al. 1996; Senner & Martinez 1982). The route from breeding grounds may bypass south-eastern Alaska, with birds making landfall in southern British Columbia (Butler et al. 1996). A smaller proportion of birds migrate overland from British Columbia, diagonally across the Great Plains east of the Rocky Mountains, to the Atlantic, Gulf and Caribbean coastlines. The species is usually more numerous and widespread at inland sites on the southern migration (Butler et al. 1996; Senner & Martinez 1982). Migration is quick, with a series of short flights between stopover sites, where birds stay for one–three days (Bishop & Warnock 1998; Bishop et al. 2004; Warnock & Bishop 1998).

Non-breeding season
The species regularly winters along the Pacific coast (south of Washington), and is a regular winter resident on the southern Atlantic coast of the United States (south of North Carolina) and the coastline of the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea. Huge numbers winter in coastal Mexico and Panama, with smaller numbers further south, to northern Peru (AOU 1983; Blake 1977; Buchanan & Evenson 1997; Butler et al. 1996). In Colombia, numbers increase by mid-August, and peak in December, before declining steadily until the end of March (Naranjo et al. 1994). There is a trend for females to winter further south than males, and this is illustrated both by sex ratios in wintering grounds, and also in the timing of migration by each sex (Bishop et al. 2004; Butler et al. 1987; Harrington & Haase 1994; Naranjo et al. 1994).

Northern passage
Most birds on northern passage migrate along the Pacific coast, with much smaller numbers returning to the breeding grounds overland, so that many birds which have migrated south via the interior of the continent return along the coast (Bishop et al. 1996; Senner & Martinez 1982). At the major stopover site in San Francisco Bay there is a major influx at the end of March, peaking in late April and early May (Bishop et al. 2004). In southern British Columbia, birds move through from mid-April to late May (Butler et al. 1987), and in south-eastern Alaska, they are recorded on passage in April and May, with a peak in the first week of May (Andres & Browne 1998).

Return to breeding grounds
They arrive back at the breeding grounds in Alaska in May (Bishop & Warnock 1998).

During the non-breeding season, the home range of Western Sandpipers wintering in San Francisco Bay was measured at 22 km², with core areas of 11.6 km² in early winter, 9.6 km² in late winter and 6.3 km² in spring (Warnock & Takekawa 1995, 1996).

In some plumages, this species could be confused with similar shorebird species, especially the widespread and abundant Red-necked Stint (Calidris ruficollis), as well as the uncommon Little Stint (Calidris minuta), and other species which could possibly occur as vagrants in Australia, such as the Semipalmated Sandpiper (Calidris pusilla). A small vagrant shorebird such as this species would be difficult to detect if it was among a large flock of other small waders.

There are no viable methods to conduct surveys of the species in Australia, as there have been no confirmed records, and if the species did occur, it would be in very small numbers. It is most likely to be detected during the regular, twice-yearly, high-tide surveys by the Australasian Wader Studies Group of shorebirds at regular sites.

Australia
The species has not been recorded in Australia, so there are no threats that are relevant to the overall population of the species here. However, over-visitation by enthusiasts could be a threat should the species be found in Australia, though this is an unlikely event. General threats include pollution and loss of habitat, which affect most species of migratory shorebirds visiting Australia.

Elsewhere
The main threat to the species is the loss, drainage, modification or degradation of suitable wetland habitat at stopover sites and in non-breeding grounds resulting from the pressures of urban development, agriculture, and the damming and diverting of rivers (Butler et al. 1987; Mellink et al. 1997; Naranjo et al. 1994; Warnock & Takekawa 1995, 1996). Another habitat-related threat is the loss of suitable foraging habitat as it is invaded by exotic plants such as cordgrass (Spartinia alterniflora) (Buchanan & Evenson 1997); and the well-meaning conservation restoration of artificial salt-evaporation ponds back to saltmarsh is detrimental, as saltmarsh is the species' least-preferred habitat (Warnock & Takekawa 1995). Another major threat to the species is pollution discharged into the sea from industrial or urban sources, or oilfields (Rattner et al. 1995; Warnock & Takekawa 1996; White et al. 1983). The major oil-spill from the Exxon Valdez in 1989 was very near the species' most important stopover site, the Copper River Delta. The spill coincided with the autumn migration, illustrating how vulnerable this species is to such situations, despite its large population (van Gils & Wiersma 1996). Global warming and associated changes in sea level are likely to have a long-term impact on the breeding, staging and non-breeding grounds of migratory waders such as the Western Sandpiper (Harding et al. 2007). Disturbance from human activities, including recreation, shellfish harvesting, fishing and aquaculture is likely to increase significantly in the future (Davidson & Rothwell 1993).

The most likely catastrophic threat to the species is a major oil spill along its main migratory route.

As the Western Sandpiper is so populous there have been no threat abatement or recovery actions undertaken specifically for this species, but the species is included in the United States Shorebird Conservation Plan (Brown et al. 2001).

Some major studies on the Western Sandpiper include: Bishop and Warnock (1998), Bishop and colleagues (2004), Butler and colleagues (1987, 1996), Naranjo and colleagues (1994), Sandercock (1998), Warnock and Bishop (1998), and Warnock and Takekawa (1995, 1996).

There is a brief summary of all that is known about the Western Sandpiper, including threats, in van Gils and Wiersma (1996).

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Uncategorised:Uncategorised:threats not specified Calidris mauri in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006dy) [Internet].

American Ornithologists Union (AOU) (1983). Check-list of North American Birds. Lawrence, Kansas: American Ornithologists Union.

Andres, B.A. & B.T. Browne (1998). Spring migration of shorebirds on the Yakutat Forelands, Alaska. Wilson Bulletin. 110:326-331.

Asian Wetland Bureau (AWB) (1993). A Status Overview of Shorebirds in the East Asian-Australasian Flyway.

Bent, A.C. (1962). Life Histories of North American Shorebirds. New York: Dover Publications.

Birdlife International (2007b). Species factsheet: Calidris mauri. Viewed on 11 April 2008. [Online]. Available from: http://www.birdlife.org>.

Bishop, M.A. & N. Warnock (1998). Migration of Western Sandpipers: links between their Alaskan stopover areas and breeding grounds. Wilson Bulletin. 110:457-462.

Bishop, M.A., N. Warnock & J.Y. Takekawa (2004). Differential spring migration by male and female Western Sandpipers at interior and coastal stopovers. Ardea. 92:185-196.

Bishop, M.A., P. Meyers & P.F. McNeley (2000). A method to estimate migrant shorebird numbers at the Copper River Delta, Alaska. Journal of Field Ornithology. 71:627-637.

Blake, E.R. (1977). Manual of Neotropical Birds. Volume 1. Spheniscidae (Penguins) to Laridae (Gulls and Allies). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Bolton, M.R. & J. Szanto (2003). Fourteen years of shorebird surveys near Western Lake Erie. Ohio Cardinal. 26:140-144.

Brown, S., C. Hickey, B. Harrington & R. Gill (2001). United States Shorebird Conservation Plan. Manomet, Massachusetts, USA: Manomet Centre for Conservation Sciences.

Buchanan, J.B. & J.R. Evenson (1997). Abundance of shorebirds at Willapa Bay, Washington. Western Birds. 28:158-168.

Butler, R.W., F.S. Delgado, H. de la Cueva, V. Pulido & B.K. Sandercock (1996). Migration routes of the Western Sandpiper. Wilson Bulletin. 108:662-672.

Butler, R.W., G.W. Kaiser & G.E.J. Smith (1987). Migration chronology, length of stay, sex ratio, and weight of Western Sandpipers, (Calidris mauri) on the south coast of British Columbia. Journal of Field Ornithology. 58:103-111.

Carrera, Eduardo; Engilis, Andrew, Jr.; Lopez, Antonio Martinez; Nelson, Jeffery W.; Oring, Lewis W. (1998). Shorebird surveys in Ensenada Pabellones and Bahia Santa Maria, Sinaloa, Mexico: critical winter habitats for Pacific Flyway shorebirds. Wilson Bulletin. 110:332-341.

Cramp, S. & K.E.L. Simmons, eds. (1983). Handbook of the Birds of Europe, the Middle East and North Africa. The Birds of the Western Palearctic. Volume 3, Waders to Gulls. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Davidson, N. & P. Rothwell (1993). Disturbance to waterfowl on estuaries. Wader Study Group Bulletin. 68.

Harding, S.B., J.R. Wilson & D.W. Geering (2007). Threats to shorebirds and conservation actions. In: Geering, A., L. Agnew & S. Harding, eds. Shorebirds of Australia. Page(s) 197-213. Melbourne, Victoria: CSIRO Publishing.

Harrington, B.A. & B. Haase (1994). Latitudinal differences in sex ratios among nonbreeding Western Sandpipers in Puerto Rico and Ecuador. Southwestern Naturalist. 39:188-189.

Higgins, P.J. & S.J.J.F. Davies, eds (1996). Handbook of Australian, New Zealand and Antarctic Birds. Volume Three - Snipe to Pigeons. Melbourne, Victoria: Oxford University Press.

Hobbs, J.N. (1974). A Western Sandpiper in New South Wales. Australian Birds. 9:21-24.

Long, L.L. & C.J. Ralph (2001). Dynamics of habitat use by shorebirds in estuarine and agricultural habitats in northwestern California. Wilson Bulletin. 113:41-52.

Mellink, E., E. Palacios & S. Gonzalez (1997). Non-breeding waterbirds of the delta of the Rio Colorado, Mexico. Journal of Field Ornithology. 68:113-123.

Myers, J.P., O. Hildén & P. Tomkovich (1982). Exotic Calidris species of the Siberian Tundra. Ornis Fennica. 59:175-182.

Naranjo, L.G., R. Franke & W. Beltrán (1994). Migratory and wintering of Western Sandpipers on the Pacific coast of Colombia. Journal of Field Ornithology. 65:194-200.

Ornithological Society of Japan (Orn. Soc. Japan) (2000). Check-List of Japanese Birds. Tokyo, Japan: Orn. Soc. Japan.

Page, G.W., E. Palacios, L. Alfaro, S. Gonzalez, L.E. Stenzel & M. Jungers (1997). Numbers of wintering shorebirds in coastal wetlands of Baja California, Mexico. Journal of Field Ornithology. 68:562-574.

Pegler, J.M. & A.R. McGill (1979). Identification of a Western Sandpiper Calidris mauri and a comparison of the species with other small calidrids. Australian Birds. 14:30-32.

Pratt, H.D., P.L. Bruner & D.G. Berrett (1987). A Field Guide to the Birds of Hawaii and the Tropical Pacific. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press.

Rattner, B.A., J.Z. Capizzi, K.A. King, L.J. Le Captain & M.J. Melancon (1995). Exposure and effects of oilfield brine discharges on Western Sandpipers (Calidris mauri) in Nueces Bay, Texas. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. 54:683-689.

Sandercock, B.K. (1998). Chronology of nesting events in Western and Semipalmated Sandpipers near the Arctic Circle. Journal of Field Ornithology. 69:235-243.

Senner, S.E. & E.F. Martinez (1982). A review of Western Sandpiper migration in interior North America. Southwestern Naturalist. 27:149-159.

Sibley, C.G. & B.L. Monroe (1990). Distribution and Taxonomy of the Birds of the World. New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press.

Thomas, D.G. (1970). Western Sandpiper in Tasmania. Emu. 70:88-89.

van Gils, J. & P. Wiersma (1996). Scolopacidae (sandpipers, snipes and phalaropes) species accounts. In: del Hoyo, J., A. Elliott & J. Sargatal, eds. Handbook of the Birds of the World. Volume 3. Hoatzin to Auks. Page(s) 489-533. Barcelona: Lynx Edicions.

Veit, R.R. & L. Jonsson (1984). Field identification of smaller sandpipers within the genus Calidris. American Birds. 38:853-876.

Warnock, N. & M.A. Bishop (1998). Spring stopover ecology of migrant Western Sandpipers. Condor. 100:456-467.

Warnock, S.E. & J.Y. Takekawa (1995). Habitat preferences of wintering shorebirds in a temporally changing environment: Western Sandpipers in the San Francisco Bay estuary. Auk. 112:920-930.

Warnock, S.E. & J.Y. Takekawa (1996). Wintering site fidelity and movement patterns of Western Sandpipers Calidris mauri in the San Francisco Bay estuary. Ibis. 138:160-167.

White, D.H., C.A. Mitchell & T.E. Kaiser (1983). Temporal accumulation of organochlorine pesticides in shorebirds wintering on the south Texas coast, 1979-80. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. 12:241-245.

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This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Calidris mauri in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Sun, 20 Apr 2014 12:46:56 +1000.