Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed marine as Puffinus pacificus
Listed migratory - JAMBA as Puffinus pacificus
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans
Other EPBC Act Plans Threat Abatement Plan 2006 - Bycatch of Seabirds for the Incidental Catch (or By-catch) of Seabirds During Oceanic Longline Fishing Operations (Australian Government Department of the Environment and Heritage (AGDEH), 2006q) [Threat Abatement Plan].
 
Policy Statements and Guidelines Marine bioregional plan for the Temperate East Marine Region (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2012aa) [Admin Guideline].
 
Marine bioregional plan for the North-west Marine Region (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2012y) [Admin Guideline].
 
Marine bioregional plan for the South-west Marine Region (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2012z) [Admin Guideline].
 
Offshore and foraging pelagic seabirds - A Vulnerability Assessment for the Great Barrier Reef (Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority (GBRMPA), 2011h) [Admin Guideline].
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
List of Migratory Species (13/07/2000) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000b) [Legislative Instrument] as Puffinus pacificus.
 
Declaration under section 248 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of Marine Species (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000c) [Legislative Instrument] as Puffinus pacificus.
 
Scientific name Ardenna pacifica [84292]
Family Procellariidae:Procellariiformes:Aves:Chordata:Animalia
Species author (Gmelin, 1789)
Infraspecies author  
Reference  
Other names Puffinus pacificus [1027]
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images

The current conservation status of the Wedge-tailed Shearwater, Ardenna pacifica, under Australian Government legislation and international convention, is as follows:

National: Listed as Migratory and Marine under the name Puffinus pacificus under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999.

International: Listed under the name Puffinus pacificus under the Japan-Australia Migratory Bird Agreement (JAMBA).

Listed as Least Concern on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (IUCN 2010).

Scientific name: Ardenna pacificus

Common name: Wedge-tailed Shearwater

Other common names: Little Muttonbird, Wedge-tailed Muttonbird, Wedge-tailed Petrel, Mourningbird

Previously Puffinus pacificus (Christidis & Boles 1994), the Wedge-tailed Shearwater is now accepted as Ardenna pacifica (Christidis & Boles 2008).

The Wedge-tailed Shearwater has a body length of 46–47 cm, and a wing span of 97–99 cm, brown eyes, lead grey bill, and flesh coloured feet with distinctive white toenails (Lindsey 1986; Onley & Scofield 2007). The species has two colour morphs:

  • a dark morph where the birds are entirely dark brown with blackish flight feathers of which primaries and secondaries can have pale bases
  • a pale morph where the birds are similar to the dark except the underparts are mostly white, this morph is more common in the northern hemisphere.

The Wedge-tailed Shearwater breeds on the east and west coasts of Australia and on off-shore islands. The species is common in the Indian Ocean, the Coral Sea and the Tasman Sea (Lindsey 1986). Areas where breeding occurs include (Lindsey 1986):

  • Cocos-Keeling Island (Western Australia (WA))
  • islands off the west coast of WA
  • islands and cays of the Great Barrier Reef (Queensland)
  • islands along the eastern coast of eastern Australia, including Montague Island (New South Wales (NSW))
  • Lord Howe Island and Norfolk Island (NSW).

Dark and pale morphs may differ in distribution. In the eastern Pacific Ocean, pale morphs are more common north of 10° N and close to the continental coast, whilst dark morphs are more common south of 10° N and far from land (Marchant & Higgins 1990). In Australia, approximately 20% of birds breeding at Shark Bay, WA, are pale morphs (Start & Morris 1989).

The Wedge-tailed Shearwater is widespread across the Indian and Pacific Oceans. In the Indian Ocean it has been recorded in the Malagasy region, the Seychelles, islands off WA and Cocos-Keeling Island. In the Pacific Ocean it has been recorded from the Bonin Islands to Montague Island, Vanuatu, New Caledonia, Fiji, Samoa, Pitcairn Island and the Revilla Gigedo Islands (Lindsey 1986; Marchant & Higgins 1990). The species is virtually absent from the south-west Pacific between New Zealand and Samoa from June–September. Large numbers have been noted in the Bismarck Sea and off northern Papua New Guinea until September (Marchant & Higgins 1990).

In the Pacific Ocean, the Wedge-tailed Shearwater occurs in an area similar to its breeding range, but in the Indian Ocean the pelagic foraging range in the non-breeding season extends further north (Marchant & Higgins 1990).

The overall approximation of Wedge-tailed Shearwaters is approximately 5 200 000 birds (Birdlife International 2009jk). At WA breeding sites there are at least one million breeding pairs (Burbidge et al. 1996) and in New South Wales (NSW) there are 43 000–54 000 breeding pairs (Priddel 1996).

The Wedge-tailed Shearwater is a pelagic, marine bird known from tropical and subtropical waters. The species tolerates a range of surface-temperatures and salinities, but is most abundant where temperatures are greater than 21 °C and salinity is greater than 34.6 %. In tropical zones the species may feed over cool nutrient-rich waters. The species has been recorded in offshore waters of eastern Victoria and southern NSW, mostly over continental slope with sea-surface temperatures of 13.9–24.4 °C (Drummond 1985; Reid et al. 2002) and usually off the continental shelf in north-west Australia (Collins & Jessop 1997; Marchant & Higgins 1990).

The species was noted to decline in numbers off Christmas Island (Pacific Ocean) during an El Niño Southern Oscillation, when surface-temperatures were high and food supply poor (Smithers et al. 2003). A similar decline occurred at colonies on islands in the Great Barrier Reef where chick survival declined during warming sea surface temperatures (Smithers et al. 2003). In WA, an ongoing study of islands in the North West Shelf area show a correlation between El Niño conditions and a lower number of eggs laid (Dunlop et al. 2002).

Breeding

The Wedge-tailed Shearwater breeds colonially and is rarely seen alone during this period. Small flocks are formed at the start of the breeding season and birds often gather in large flocks (up to 600 have been recorded in one flock) in areas where food is concentrated (Marchant & Higgins 1990; Reid et al. 2002).

The species breeds throughout its known range, mainly on vegetated islands, atolls and cays, but one colony is known on the Australian mainland. Twenty-five per cent of Australian breeding occurs within the Great Barrier Reef and the largest breeding colony is recorded at the Capricorn-Bunker group of islands (Congdon et al. 2007).

The species usually excavates burrows on flat or flattish areas with dense grassy and tussocky vegetation but much depends on the nature of soil and terrain, as at some sites burrows are below the cover of trees and shrubs. In deep soft soil, burrows can be 2+ metres long, such as those among Lomandra longifolia on Montague Island, NSW. At sites with sandy vegetated screes or stable dunes or on flats of shell grit, burrows are approximately to 1.5 m long, parallel with the surface or steeply dipping (Marchant & Higgins 1990).

A number of breeding sites have been studied, with the following specific conditions recorded:

  • On Solitary Island, NSW, some burrows have been recorded only about 20 cm long. At sites where the soil is not developed, or if areas of soil are fully occupied, nests may be in natural cavities between rocks, in crevices or under ledges and rocks, under Saltbush (Nitraria spp.) and other thick vegetation, under grass tussocks, in tunnels in grass or in natural holes in travertine (Marchant & Higgins 1990).
  • On Cabbage Tree Island, NSW, in areas without soil, the species nests among stands of Cabbage Palms (Livistona australe), and burrows may be dug in rotten stems of fallen palms up to 1.5 m long (Marchant & Higgins 1990).
  • At the Capricorn Group, Queensland, nests are in areas of closed climax forest dominated by Pisonia (Hill & Barnes 1989), and the species is suggested to prefer climax forest or shrubland, rather than areas regenerating after cyclone damage or fire (Marchant & Higgins 1990).
  • At Heron Island, nesting birds tolerate human activity as nests are made within the boundaries of a resort and research station, under buildings and beside busy paths (Hill & Barnes 1989; Marchant & Higgins 1990).
  • At Muttonbird Island, NSW, in three years, 32%, 47%, 54% of occupied burrows sampled produced a fledgling. Most losses were of eggs (55.8% survival) and not of chicks (78.8% survival) (Marchant & Higgins 1990).
  • At Mudjimba Island, south-east Queensland in 1997–98, approximately 1013 fledglings survived from approximately 1204 pairs, which equates to an 84% success (Dyer 2000).

Breeding - timing

The Wedge-tailed Shearwater breeds in summer with birds at lower latitude colonies arriving later than birds at higher latitude colonies, although laying times are similar (Dyer & Carter 1997). Numbers of non-breeding birds build up slowly in colonies until constituting about half the birds present. A number of breeding sites have been studied, with specific timing recorded (Garkaklis et al 1998; Marchant & Higgins 1990):

Location State Arrival Laying Fledgling
East coast sites and Lord Howe Island  NSW  Early August to early September Late November to early December Late April to early May
Norfolk Island   Mid to late October With eggs December to early February Late May to early June
North West Shelf WA   Late October to Early November  
Rottnest Island WA Early to late August Late November Mid May
Houtman Abrolhos WA   Mid November Mid May
Islands south of Jurien Bay WA   Mid November onwards Mid May 
Heron Island Queensland Mid October    Late May to Early June
Capricorn Group Queensland Mid October   Until late May
Willis Island Queensland  October   Early May 

Breeding - raising young

While raising chicks, male and females forage differently, with females undertaking longer foraging trips and also diving to less depth in pursuit of prey than males. Conversely, males provision chicks at a higher rate than females. Prey sourced is similar for both sexes (Peck & Congdon 2006). Adults in the Great Barrier Reef undertake short one to four day foraging trips with interspersed eight to ten day longer trips to cooler waters with greater foraging resources (Congdon et al. 2007).

Chicks are fed approximately every 1–2 days (Baudini 2002). Three to four week old chicks can survive between six and twelve days without provisioning, and older chicks from five to eight weeks have been recorded going without feeding for up to twenty days. However, mortality rates of chicks does increase if they are not fed in eight to ten days (Congdon et al. 2007).

Daily changes in sea surface temperature can affect the Wedge-tailed Shearwaters capacity to feed and to provision chicks through changes in availability of prey when temperatures rise (Congdon et al. 2007; Peck et al. 2004). Consistent high temperatures over a breeding season can have a catastrophic impact on colonies and fledging success (Congdon et al. 2007).

In Australia, Wedge-tailed Shearwaters have been observed feeding along the junction between inshore and offshore water masses. In tropical waters, they mainly forage within the Equatorial Countercurrent, extending north and south into Equatorial Currents, and birds may be associated with current boundaries and associated upwellings (Drummond 1985; Reid et al. 2002).

When foraging at sea the inverse is found, birds are often alone or in small groups. However they will congregate into large flocks that often include other seabird species around fishing boats or to attack large shoals of fish/shrimp swarms (Lindsey 1986).

Hunting

When feeding, Wedge-tailed Shearwaters fly less than ten metres above the surface of the ocean and dive to a depth of two to three metres. Birds often settle on the surface of the water, especially after feeding or before migration. In rough weather birds have been recorded to loaf in lees of islands and in harbours (Marchant & Higgins 1990).

Food is taken by contact-dipping, dipping, surface-seizing and, rarely, deep-plunging. In one study, dipping consisted 78% of all feeding and pursuit-plunging 17% (n = 71). At the Seychelles, 83% of 23 birds researched dived to a mean maximum depth of 14 ± 23 m (range 1–66 m). This diving ability gives the Wedge-tailed Shearwaters access to additional, deeper prey inaccessible to most other tropical seabirds (Burger 2001).

Diet

There is no detailed analysis of the diet of Australian adult Wedge-tailed Shearwater's, however tropical residing Wedge-tailed Shearwater birds are known to mostly consume fish, some cephalopods, insects, jellyfish and prawns. In Australia, one study found chicks' stomachs contained jellyfish, cephalopods and fish. Stomach-oil consisted of triglycerides and cholesterol (Marchant & Higgins 1990).

On islands in north-west Hawaii, fish comprised 67.0% by volume of stomach contents sampled and 73.3% by number, cephalopods 28.6% and 23.1%, with very small proportion of crustaceans, insects and coelenterates. The mean length of all prey was 5.7 cm. Of the fish, a wide variety was taken, particularly species of Mullidae and Decapterus macrosoma; cephalopods were mostly Symplecoteuthisn spp. (Ommastrephidae) (Marchant & Higgins 1990).

In tropical waters, Wedge-tailed Shearwater flocks have been recorded feeding on schooling fish with Sooty Terns (Sterna fusca), White Terns (Gygis alba), noddies (Anous spp.), boobies (Sula spp.), Spotted Dolphins (Stenella attenuata), Spinner Dolphins (S. longirostris), Common Dolphins (Delphinus delphis) and Rough-toothed Dolphin (Steno bredanensis). Large flocks have been observed feeding in association with tuna off WA (Marchant & Higgins 1990), and with turtles in the east Pacific (Pitman 1993).

Movement patterns of the Wedge-tailed Shearwater are poorly known but populations at the northern and southern extremities of the known range are migratory, departing nests in early April to early May and spending the non-breeding season in the tropics. Migratory populations from the southern hemisphere winter in Tropics north of the equator; those from WA probably travelling to north to the Indian Ocean, whilst those from NSW and Lord Howe Island go north to Papua New Guinea and then west to the Philippines. Tropical breeding populations may spend the non-breeding season near breeding islands (Marchant & Higgins 1990). Further information on movement patterns associated with breeding can be found in the Life Cycle section.

Few birds have been seen in July–October in the Coral Sea and at Raine Island birds have been recorded in burrows in July and may not travel far (Marchant & Higgins 1990). The species has been recorded at Ashmore Reef in August–November (Pike 1993; Dyer & Carter 1997). One banded adult (2+ years old) on Muttonbird Island, NSW, was recovered 21 years later (Anon. 2000g).

Movements of population in the southern Great Barrier Reef are unknown (Marchant & Higgins 1990). Birds may disperse for winter over nearby waters centering on Coral Sea mounts and the eastern edge of the Australian Continental Shelf where upswellings may provide greater food resources. These areas are also considered highly important for Great Barrier Reef nesting birds in the breeding season (Congdon et al. 2007).

The Wedge-tailed Shearwater's dark morph is most likely to be confused with the Flesh-footed Shearwater (Ardenna carneipes), the Sooty Shearwater (A. griseus) or the Short-tailed Shearwater (A. tenuirostris) (Marchant & Higgins 1990). The pale morph is similar to Buller's Shearwater (A. bulleri) or the Pink-footed Shearwater (A. creatopus) (Warham 1996).

Although there is variability of breeding timing across its Australian range, the species is generally found at breeding sites between October and April (Marchant & Higgins 1990).

The following table presents a threats summary for the Wedge-tailed Shearwater:

Threat Risk Details Source
Harvesting for human consumption Historic Harvesting for human consumption previously occurred on North Keeling Island and North West Island, Queensland. Stokes and colleagues (1984)
Guano mining Historic At Freycinet Island, WA, hard ground and rubble left by guano mining in the 1900s last century made the area unsuitable for burrowing. Dyer and colleagues (1995)
Trampling Low High density colonies on soft sand are at particular risk of burrow damage from trampling. Some colonies occur where cattle graze and these sites suffer from erosion. Marchant and Higgins (1990), WBM Oceanics and Claridge (1997)
Construction Low Red Bluff, NSW, was partly destroyed by construction of drains. The colony at Slope Island, WA, declined after a salt-company began operations and nest sites and protective vegetation were destroyed. Marchant and Higgins (1990)
Weeds Low Invasive vegetation, such as Lantana (Lantana camara) and Prickly Pear (Opuntia stricta) may restrict burrowing. Dyer (2000)
Oil pollution  Low  As a deep, pursuit plunging diver, the Wedge-tailed Shearwater is at risk from oil pollution. Oil pollution has been blamed for the deaths of scores to hundreds of individuals near North West Island, in the Great Barrier Reef, Queensland. Dann and Jessop (1994), Walker (1994)
Long-line fishing  Low  The Wedge-tailed Shearwater is also moderately susceptible to being caught by long-line fishing operations. AGDEH (2006)
Predation Moderate Vulnerable to Foxes (Vulpes vulpes), rats (Rattus spp.), feral Cats (Felis catus), lizards (Varanus spp.), snakes and gulls (Larus spp.). On Kermadec Island (New Zealand), cats and rats have caused a significant decline in the breeding population. At one site, construction of a causeway allowed predators to access breeding colonies. Marchant and Higgins (1990)
Parasites Low Several species of mites and ticks were found in shearwater burrows on Masthead Island, Queensland, but their effects on fecundity and survival are unknown. Shaw (1999)
Climate change  Low Climate change may have an effect on the species through changes in sea temperatures which will alter food resources and subsequent ability of the species to reproduce. Smithers and collegues (2003) found that elevated sea surface temperatures in the southern Great Barrier Reef had a negative effect on Wedge-tailed Shearwater chick provisioning by adults. Dunlop and colleagues (2002) found that the El Niño Southern Oscillation delayed the breeding of WA colonies and effected their breeding success.

On Montague Island, NSW, in a fifty year study of breeding in three shearwater species, the proportion of Wedge-tailed Shearwaters breeding has increased. It has been suggested that this trend indicates that sea surface temperature changes may be favouring this species (MIP 2010) and causing range fluctuations.

Congdon and colleagues (2007), Dunlop and colleagues (2002), MIP (2010), Smithers and colleagues (2003)

Visiting seabird breeding colonies in the Great Barrier Reef

The Guidelines for Managing Visitation to Seabird Breeding Islands (WBM Oceanics & Claridge 1997) provides information to relevant land managers to:

  • understand the mechanisms of human impacts on breeding seabirds
  • place value on aggregations of breeding seabirds
  • identify potential and actual impact sources and likely control/mitigation measures
  • identify relevant management concerns and approaches
  • identify appropriate site and region specific ways of implementing control/mitigation measures.

Incidental catch of seabirds

The Threat Abatement Plan for the incidental catch (or bycatch) of seabirds during oceanic longline fishing operations (AGDEH 2006q) identifies a number of actions that aim to reduce the incidence of seabird catch, including:

  • mitigation through the deployment of fishing techniques to reduce bird catch (e.g. line weighting, night hook-setting, bird-scaring line, fresh bait and offal retainment)
  • education and enforcement of a risk-based compliance strategy
  • research and development of new mitigation techniques
  • trialling of new mitigation measures and devices.

Major studies on the Wedge-tailed Shearwater include:

  • Monitoring of breeding colonies on Montague Island, NSW, since the 1960s (MIP 2010).
  • Monitoring of breeding colonies on islands on the North West Shelf (Airlie, Serrurier and Varanus Islands), WA, since 1985–86 as part of the monitoring of three offshore petroleum sites. Since 1994–95 these sites have used video-scope observation techniques to monitor burrows and lessen disturbance (Dunlop et al. 2002).
  • A review of seabird studies and climate impacts in the Great Barrier Reef area (Congdon et al. 2007).

Management documents for the Wedge-tailed Shearwater can be found at the start of this profile.

Marine bioregional plans have been developed for four of Australia's marine regions - South-west, North-west, North and Temperate East. Marine Bioregional Plans will help improve the way decisions are made under the EPBC Act, particularly in relation to the protection of marine biodiversity and the sustainable use of our oceans and their resources by our marine-based industries. Marine Bioregional Plans improve our understanding of Australia's oceans by presenting a consolidated picture of the biophysical characteristics and diversity of marine life. They describe the marine environment and conservation values of each marine region, set out broad biodiversity objectives, identify regional priorities and outline strategies and actions to address these priorities. Click here for more information about marine bioregional plans.

The Wedge-tailed Shearwater has been identified as a conservation value in the South-west (DSEWPaC 2012z), North-west (DSEWPaC 2012y) and Temperate East (DSEWPaC 2012aa) marine regions. See Schedule 2 of the South-west Marine Bioregional Plan (DSEWPaC 2012z), the North-west Marine Bioregional Plan (DSEWPaC 2012y) and the Temperate East Marine Bioregional Plan (DSEWPaC 2012aa) for regional advice. Maps of Biologically Important Areas have been developed for Wedge-tailed Shearwater in the South-west (DSEWPaC 2012z), North-west (DSEWPaC 2012y) and Temperate East (DSEWPaC 2012aa) marine regions and may provide additional relevant information. Go to the conservation values atlas to view the locations of these Biologically Important Areas. The "species group report card - seabirds" for the South-west (DSEWPaC 2012z), North-west (DSEWPaC 2012y) and Temperate East (DSEWPaC 2012aa) marine regions provide additional information.

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Grazing pressures and associated habitat changes Puffinus pacificus in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006we) [Internet].
Biological Resource Use:Fishing and Harvesting Aquatic Resources:Incidental capture and drowning by longline fishing Puffinus pacificus in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006we) [Internet].
Threat Abatement Plan for the incidental catch (or by-catch) of seabirds during oceanic longline fishing operations (Environment Australia, 1998) [Threat Abatement Plan].
Lord Howe Island Biodiversity Management Plan (NSW Department of Environment and Climate Change (NSW DECC), 2007b) [Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Hunting and Collecting Terrestrial Animals:Direct exploitation by humans including hunting Puffinus pacificus in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006we) [Internet].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Habitat Shifting and Alteration:Habitat loss, modification and/or degradation Norfolk Island Region Threatened Species Recovery Plan (Director of National Parks (DNP), 2010a) [State Recovery Plan].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Habitat Shifting and Alteration:Habitat modification, destruction and alteration due to changes in land use patterns Norfolk Island Region Threatened Species Recovery Plan (Director of National Parks (DNP), 2010a) [State Recovery Plan].
Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Ecosystem Degradation:Decline in habitat quality Norfolk Island Region Threatened Species Recovery Plan (Director of National Parks (DNP), 2010a) [State Recovery Plan].
Energy Production and Mining:Mining and Quarrying:Habitat destruction, disturbance and/or modification due to mining activities Puffinus pacificus in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006we) [Internet].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Pennisetum clandestinum (Kikuyu) Norfolk Island Region Threatened Species Recovery Plan (Director of National Parks (DNP), 2010a) [State Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Lantana camara (Lantana, Common Lantana, Kamara Lantana, Large-leaf Lantana, Pink Flowered Lantana, Red Flowered Lantana, Red-Flowered Sage, White Sage, Wild Sage) Puffinus pacificus in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006we) [Internet].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Opuntia stricta (Common Prickly Pear, Erect Prickly Pear, Common Pest Pear, Spiny Pest Pear, Smooth Pest Pear, Sour Prickly Pear, Australian Pest Pear, Gayndah Prickly Pear, Dillen Prickly Pear, Pipestem Prickly Pear) Puffinus pacificus in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006we) [Internet].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Vulpes vulpes (Red Fox, Fox) Puffinus pacificus in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006we) [Internet].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Felis catus (Cat, House Cat, Domestic Cat) Puffinus pacificus in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006we) [Internet].
Norfolk Island Region Threatened Species Recovery Plan (Director of National Parks (DNP), 2010a) [State Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Rattus rattus (Black Rat, Ship Rat) Norfolk Island Region Threatened Species Recovery Plan (Director of National Parks (DNP), 2010a) [State Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Canis lupus familiaris (Domestic Dog) Lord Howe Island Biodiversity Management Plan (NSW Department of Environment and Climate Change (NSW DECC), 2007b) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation by rats Puffinus pacificus in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006we) [Internet].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Predation, competition, habitat degradation and/or spread of pathogens by introduced species Puffinus pacificus in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006we) [Internet].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Problematic Native Species:Competition, predation and/or habitat degradation caused by Harriers (Circus spp. ) Lord Howe Island Biodiversity Management Plan (NSW Department of Environment and Climate Change (NSW DECC), 2007b) [Recovery Plan].
Pollution:Garbage and Solid Waste:Ingestion and entanglement with marine debris Norfolk Island Region Threatened Species Recovery Plan (Director of National Parks (DNP), 2010a) [State Recovery Plan].
Lord Howe Island Biodiversity Management Plan (NSW Department of Environment and Climate Change (NSW DECC), 2007b) [Recovery Plan].
Pollution:Pollution:Pollution due to oil spills and other chemical pollutants Puffinus pacificus in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006we) [Internet].
Transportation and Service Corridors:Roads and Railroads:Vehicle related mortality Lord Howe Island Biodiversity Management Plan (NSW Department of Environment and Climate Change (NSW DECC), 2007b) [Recovery Plan].
Transportation and Service Corridors:Transportation and Service Corridors:Road and rail maintenance works Puffinus pacificus in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006we) [Internet].

Anonymous (2000g). Recovery round-up. Corella. 24:51-52.

Australian Government Department of the Environment and Heritage (AGDEH) (2006q). Threat Abatement Plan 2006 - Bycatch of Seabirds for the Incidental Catch (or By-catch) of Seabirds During Oceanic Longline Fishing Operations. [Online]. Available from: http://www.aad.gov.au/default.asp?casid=20587.

Baudini, C.L. (2002). Provisioning patterns of Wedge-tailed Shearwaters and their their relation to chick body condition. The Condor. 104:823-831.

Birdlife International (2009jk). Species Factsheet: Wedge-tailed Shearwater Puffinus pacificus. [Online]. Available from: http://www.birdlife.org/datazone/species/index.html?action=SpcHTMDetails.asp&sid=3928.

Burbidge, A.A., R.E. Johnstone & P.J. Fuller (1996). The status of seabirds in Western Australia. In: Ross, G.J.B., K. Weaver & J.C. Greig, eds. The Status of Australia's Seabirds: Proceedings of the National Seabird Workshop, Canberra, 1-2 November 1993. Page(s) 57-71. Canberra: Biodiversity Group, Environment Australia.

Burger, A.E. (2001). Diving depths of shearwaters. Auk. 118:755--759.

Christidis, L. & W.E. Boles (1994). The Taxonomy and Species of Birds of Australia and its Territories. Royal Australasian Ornithologists Union Monograph 2. Melbourne, Victoria: Royal Australasian Ornithologists Union.

Christidis, L. & W.E. Boles (2008). Systematics and Taxonomy of Australian Birds. Collingwood, Victoria: CSIRO Publishing.

Collins, P. & R. Jessop (1997). The occurrence of three species of shearwater at Broome, North-western Australia. Australian Bird Watcher. 17:94-96.

Congdon, B.C., C.A. Erwin, D.R. Peck, G.B. Baker, M.C. Double & P. O'Neill (2007). Vulnerability of seabirds on the Great Barrier Reef to climate change. Johnson, J & P. Marshall, eds. Climate change and the Great Barrier Reef. Canberra: Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority.

Dann, P. & R. Jessop (1994). The effects of oil on birds - an evalution of birds at risk along the Great Barrier Reef and a brief general review of the effects of oil on individuals and populations. Workshop on Oiled Seabird Cleaning and Rehabilitation. Workshop Series No. 15. Townsville: Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority.

Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA) (2008). The North Marine Bioregional Plan: Bioregional Profile: A Description of the Ecosystems, Conservation Values and Uses of the North Marine Region. [Online]. Canberra: DEWHA. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/resource/north-marine-bioregional-plan-bioregional-profile-description-ecosystems-conservation.

Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA) (2008a). The South-West Marine Bioregional Plan: Bioregional Profile: A Description of the Ecosystems, Conservation Values and Uses of the South-West Marine Region. [Online]. Canberra: DEWHA. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/resource/south-west-marine-bioregional-plan-bioregional-profile-description-ecosystems-conservation.

Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA) (2008b). North-West Marine Bioregional Plan: Bioregional Profile: A Description of the Ecosystems, Conservation Values and Uses of the North-West Marine Region. [Online]. Canberra: DEWHA. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/coasts/mbp/publications/north-west/bioregional-profile.html.

Drummond, R. (ed.) (1985). Victorian Bird Report 1984. Melbourne: Bird Observers Club.

Dunlop, J.N., P. Long, I. Stejskal & C. Surman (2002). Inter-annual variations in breeding participation at four Western Australian colonies of the Wedge-tailed Shearwater Puffinus pacificus. Marine Ornithology. 30:13-18.

Dyer, P.K. (2000). Wedge-tailed Shearwaters on Mudjimba Island, Queensland: numbers and breeding success. Corella. 24:15--18.

Dyer, P.K. & J.L. Carter (1997). Synchronous breeding: Wedge-tailed Shearwaters Puffinus pacificus in eastern Australia. Emu. 97:305-309.

Dyer, P.K., G.J.E. Hill & A. Barnes (1995). Three decades of burrow estimates for Wedge-tailed Shearwaters on the Capricorn Group. Emu. 95:272-279.

Garkaklis, M.J., C.V. Sims, J.S. Bradley & R.D. Wooller (1998). The breeding phenology of Wedge-tailed Shearwaters Puffinus pacificus on Rottnest Island, Western Australia. Emu. 98:317-319.

Hill, G.J.E. & A. Barnes (1989). Census and distribution of Wedge-tailed Shearwater Puffinus pacificus burrows on Heron Island, November 1985. Emu. 89:135--139.

International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) (2010). IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.4. [Online]. Available from: http://www.iucnredlist.org.

Lindsey, T.R. (1986). The Seabirds of Australia. Angus and Robertson, Sydney.

Marchant, S. & P.J. Higgins (1990). Handbook of Australian, New Zealand and Antarctic Birds. Volume One - Ratites to Ducks. Melbourne, Victoria: Oxford University Press.

Montagu Island Partners (MIP) (2010). Montagu Island Studies. http://mipartners.blogspot.com/. [Online]. Available from: http://mipartners.blogspot.com/. [Accessed: 21-Apr-2010].

Onley, D. & P. Scofield (2007). Albatrosses, Petrels and Shearwaters of the World. London: Christopher Helm.

Peck, D.R. & B.C. Congdon (2006). Sex-specific chick provisioning and diving behaviour in the wedge-tailed shearwater Puffinus pacificus. Journal of Avian Biology. 37:245-251.

Peck, D.R., B.V. Smithers, A.K. Krockenberger & B.C. Congdon (2004). Sea surface temperature constrains wedge-tailed shearwater foraging success within breeding seasons. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 281:259-266.

Pike, G.D. (1993). Birds of Ashmore Reef. Wingspan. 11:12--13.

Pitman, R.L. (1993). Seabird associations with marine turtles in the Eastern Pacific Ocean. Colonial Waterbirds. 16:194--201.

Priddel, D. (1996). The status of seabirds in New South Wales. In: Ross, G.J.B., K. Weaver & J.C. Greig, eds. The status of Australia's seabirds Proceedings of the National Seabird Workshop, Canberra, 1-2 November 1993. Page(s) 201-208. Canberra: Biodiversity Group, Environment Australia.

Reid, T.A., M.A. Hindell, D.W. Eades & M. Newman (2002). Seabird Atlas of South-east Australian Waters. Royal Australasian Ornithologists Union Monograph 4. Melbourne, Victoria: Birds Australia (R.A.O.U.).

Shaw, M. (1999). Mites and ticks from Wedge-tailed Shearwater (Puffinus pacificus) burrows on Masthead Island. Queensland Naturalist. 37:43-47.

Smithers, B.V., D.R. Peck, A.K. Krockenberger & B.C. Condon (2003). Elevated sea-surface temperature, reduced provisioning and reproductive failure of wedge-tailed shearwaters (Puffinus pacificus) in the southern Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Marine and Freshwater Research. 54(8):973-77.

Start, A.N. & K.D. Morris (1989). White-breasted form of the Wedge-tailed Shearwater, Puffinus pacificus, off the Pilbara coast. Western Australian Naturalist. 18:62--63.

Stokes, T., W. Sheils & K. Dunn (1984). Birds of the Cocos - Keeling Islands, Indian Ocean. Emu. 84:23-28.

Walker, T. (1994). Seabird distribution on the Great Barrier Reef. Workshop on Oiled Seabird Cleaning and Rehabilitation. Workshop Series No. 15. Townsville: Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority.

Warham, J. (1996). The Behaviour, Population Biology and Physiology of the Petrels. London: Academic Press.

WBM Oceanics & G. Claridge (1997). Guidelines for managing visitation to seabird breeding islands. [Online]. Townsville, Queensland: Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority. Available from: http://www.gbrmpa.gov.au/corp_site/info_services/publications/seabirds/index.html.

EPBC Act email updates can be received via the Communities for Communities newsletter and the EPBC Act newsletter.

This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Ardenna pacifica in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Wed, 3 Sep 2014 01:24:00 +1000.