Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Endangered as Darwinia whicherensis
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan required, this species had a recovery plan in force at the time the legislation provided for the Minister to decide whether or not to have a recovery plan (19/2/2007).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans Abba Bell (Darwinia sp Williamson) Interim Recovery Plan 2003-2008 (Stack, G. & English, V., 2003c) [Recovery Plan] as Darwinia sp. Williamson (G.J.Keighery 12717).
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument] as Darwinia sp. Williamson (G.J.Keighery 12717).
 
Amendment to the list of threatened species under section 178 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (101) (12/04/2010) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2010j) [Legislative Instrument] as Darwinia whicherensis.
 
State Government
    Documents and Websites
WA:Declared Rare and Poorly Known Flora in the Central Forest Region. Part 2 (Williams, K., A. Horan, S. Wood & A. Webb, 2001) [State Species Management Plan].
State Listing Status
WA: Listed as Critically Endangered (Wildlife Conservation Act 1950 (Western Australia): September 2013 list) as Darwinia whicherensis
Scientific name Darwinia whicherensis [83193]
Family Myrtaceae:Myrtales:Magnoliopsida:Magnoliophyta:Plantae
Species author Keighery
Infraspecies author  
Reference Keighery, G.J. (2009) Six new and rare species of Darwinia (Myrtaceae) from Western Australia. Nuytsia 19: 45-47, Figs 5, 6A [tax. nov.]
Other names Darwinia sp. Williamson (G.J.Keighery 12717) [64507]
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images

The current conservation status of Abba Bell, Darwinia sp. Williamson (G.J. Keighery 12717), under Australian and State Government legislation, is as follows:

National: Listed as Endangered under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999.

Western Australia: Listed as Declared Rare Flora under the Wildlife Conservation Act 1950.

Scientific name: Darwinia sp. Williamson (G.J. Keighery 12717)

Common name: Abba Bell


Darwinia sp. Williamson (G.J. Keighery 12717) is a phrase name that has been accepted by the Western Australian Herbarium and the Western Australian Department of Environment and Conservation (DEC). It has been described in Brown and colleagues (1998) but not yet formally published.

Abba Bell is an erect or sometimes spreading shrub, up to 70 cm tall by 40 cm wide, and often uses other shrubs for support (Stack et al. 1999). The green linear leaves, 3–5 mm long, are triangular in cross-section, crowded at the end of branches, and bend backwards. This feature of the leaves distinguishes the species from the similar Darwinia oederoides. The flowers are nodding, or (in young plants) rarely erect. The flowers are enclosed by red and green bracts that are arranged in several rows. The ribbed floral tube is brown, 3 mm long, with small triangular calyx lobes. The petals are about 1 mm long and there is a red, curved style 10–16 mm long (Brown et al. 1998).

Abba Bell is known from three locations (one natural and two translocated) at the base of the Whicher Range (Stack et al. 1999), east of Busselton in the south-west of Western Australia. It is located in the South-west Natural Resource Management Region (DEC 2007a).

The extent of occurrence is calculated to be 5 km². The extent of occurrence was calculated by drawing a boundary around all the known subpopulations to create a polygon. The computer program ArcView GIS and a dataset taken from DEC's Threatened Flora Database (which contains a single GPS coordinate for each subpopulation) was used to determine the area of the polygon. There is no data to indicate a decline in extent of occurrence of this restricted species (DEC 2007a).

The area of occupancy for this species is approximately 0.015 km² (or approximately 1.5 hectares) according to on-ground area of occupancy estimates for subpopulation 1 (DEC 2007a).

There is no data to indicate a decline in area of occupancy of this very restricted species.

Abba Bell's distribution is considered to be fragmented as the known subpopulations are scattered with considerable distances between them (DEC 2007a).

Abba Bell was first collected by G.J. Keighery in 1990 during surveys in the Whicher Range. Although the community type within which this species occurs has been extensively surveyed over the last decade, it is possible that additional subpopulations of this or other ironstone species may be discovered. Future surveys will target remnant vegetation of this type on private lands as permission is obtained (Stack & English 2003c).

The following is a summary of the surveys undertaken to date; since the vegetation collapse in 2005–06, subpopulation 1 has been monitored on a 6-monthly basis.


Subpopulation Survey History Number of Plants Recorded Area
1
1990
27/10/1994
16/10/1995
12/12/1995

02/12/1997
15/05/1998
28/12/2000
04/01/2002
24/10/2002
27/11/2002
07/01/2003
01/11/2006
2007
27
30
5
5 (collection of cuttings and seed)
100 (collection)
Not recorded
100
100
80
80
100
60+
55 mature
Not recorded
100 m² (part survey)
~2 hectares
Not recorded

Not recorded
Not recorded
Not recorded
Not recorded
Not recorded
Not recorded
Not recorded
1 hectare
Not recorded
2t 01/06/2001 328 juvenile 49 mature 9 m²
3t 01/06/2001 68 juvenile 32 mature Not recorded

(DEC 2007a)

The total population size for this species is estimated to be approximately 136 mature plants. This is an estimated count from population monitoring (DEC 2007a). The species is known from three locations which are designated as subpopulations because of differences in land tenure and management, as well as location.

Subpopulation 1 has undergone declines in the past as a result of fire. It is currently stable; however, the survey from November 2006 notes that, while the majority of the plants appeared healthy despite the disturbance event in 2004–2005, there were no signs of recruitment (DEC 2007a).

There is no data to indicate past or future changes in population size. The total number of plants is extremely small and known only from a limited distribution (DEC 2007a).

Given that this species is listed as Endangered (EPBC Act), it is considered that all known habitat for the single known and translocated subpopulations are essential to its survival (Stack & English 2003c).

No cross breeding has been recorded for this species.

The wild subpopulation does not fall within the DEC conservation reserve system. However, the two translocated subpopulations are within Nature Reserves, one of which (subpopulation 2) is specifically managed for the translocation of ironstone species (DEC 2007a).

Abba Bell is known from three locations at the base of the Whicher Range, in a winter-wet area of shrubland over shallow red clay over ironstone (Stack et al. 1999; DEC 2007a).

Subpopulation 1 (the naturally occuring population) grows on the southern ironstone shrublands in a low heath of Golden Spray (Viminaria juncea), Swamp Honeypot (Dryandra nivea subsp. uliginosa), Small-flowered Kunzea (Kunzea micrantha) and Butterfly-leaved Brachysema (Gastrolobium papilio) (Brown et al. 1998; Gibson et al. 1994). Associated species are Hakea varia, Loxocarya magna and Royce's Waxflower (Chamelaucium sp. C Coast Plain (R.D.Royce 4872)) (Stack et al. 1999).

The southern ironstone shrublands community type in which this species occurs is found on small areas of ironstone with thin skeletal soil in the Busselton area. Much of this land unit has been cleared. These sites have an endemic flora which includes Laterite Petrophile (Petrophile sp. Whicher Range (G.J.Keighery 11790) WA Herbarium), Andersonia aff. latiflora, Dryandra sp. 30, Hakea aff. varia, Loxocarya magna and Lepyrodia aff. macra. These communities are very diverse with large numbers of annuals and geophytes (Gibson et al. 1994).
Abba Bell is located within the 'Busselton Ironstone Community' or 'Shrublands on southern Swan Coastal Plain Ironstones' Threatened Ecological Community (TEC) which is Endangered under the EPBC Act and was ranked as Critically Endangered in Western Australia in 1995 (Gibson et al. 1994). These ironstone soils are highly restricted in distribution.

Abba Bell is associated with six other EPBC Act listed threatened flora: Butterfly-leaved Gastrolobium (Gastrolobium papilio; Endangered), Western Prickly Honeysuckle (Lambertia echinata subsp. occidentalis; Endangered), Laterite Petrophile (Endangered), Dryandra nivea subsp. uliginosa (Endangered), Whicher Range Dryandra (Dryandra squarrosa subsp. argillacea; Vulnerable) and Royce's Waxflower (Vulnerable). These species all occur on the ironstone soils close to Abba Bell (DEC 2007a).

Details on the ages of sexual maturity, life expectancy and natural mortality of Abba Bell are unknown, and little is known about the biology and ecology. The species appears to be killed by fire, although one adult plant was recorded as surviving a fire in 1993. Darwinia species are generally considered to be fire-sensitive with post-fire regeneration occurring mainly from seed. Approximately 100 seedlings germinated after the 1993 fire and a few of these flowered in October 1995. The species is likely to be susceptible to dieback caused by the root-rot fungus Phytophthora cinnamomi as this is a characteristic of many Myrtaceous species.

Further investigation of germination techniques is necessary. The germination rate of this species has ranged from 60 to 86% initially and was 31% after one year in storage. Like most Darwinia species, Abba Bell propagates well from cuttings, with strike rates generally above 50% and often as much as 90% (Stack & English 2003c).

The flowering period for this species is October to November (Brown et al. 1998). The pollination mechanism has not been studied. However, its floral structure suggests that it employs an insect pollinating mechanism (DEC 2007a).

Abba Bell grows in dense vegetation, and it can be difficult to locate and discern individual plants (DEC 2007a).

Detectability of this species is optimum during its flowering season in October. Any additional surveys should be focused on the known subpopulations and remnant vegetation in similar soil and vegetation types (DEC 2007a).

The following table presents past, future and current threats that may adversely affect Abba Bell (Stack & English 2003).

Subpopulation Number Current Condition Past threats Present threats Potential future threats
1 Healthy/moderate Land-clearing, fire, mineral sand exploration and mining and associated rise in ground water levels Poor recruitment, Phytophthora, waterlogging and salinity as a result of mineral sand extraction, weeds Fire, Phytophthora dieback, other pathogenic disease, waterlogging and salinity as a result of mineral sand extraction, weeds
2t Poor   Poor recruitment, Phytophthora, waterlogging and salinity, weeds, rabbits, strong wind, drought, environmental stress Fire, mineral sand extraction, rabbits, weeds, environmental stress
3t Poor   Poor recruitment, Phytophthora, waterlogging and salinity, weeds, rabbits, strong wind, drought, kangaroo grazing, environmental stress Fire, mineral sand extraction, rabbits, weeds, environmental stress



Past threats

Land clearing
In the past, land clearing may have been a threat to this species throughout its range, although the current locations of Abba Bell are unaffected (Stack & English 2003).

Fire
A hot fire burnt through subpopulation 1 in 1993 and resulted in the death of almost all the mature individuals. Approximately 100 seedlings were subsequently located at the site of the original subpopulation during a survey in 1994 and some of these plants flowered in 1995 (Stack et al. 1999).

Current and future threats (from Satck & English 2003c)

Phytophthora dieback

Dieback disease caused by Phytophthora is causing continued decline in habitat quality at subpopulation 1. Abba Bell is suspected to be susceptible to this plant pathogen, which is known to occur immediately uphill of, adjacent to, and in the vicinity of the species at this site. As this is the only natural subpopulation, protecting the habitat from dieback is imperative.

There have also been deaths of the species Dryandra nivea subsp. uliginosa at the locality, and these are likely to have been caused by canker (probably Armillaria luteobubalina). This is still being investigated and the cause is still unknown, and the deaths may instead be due to drought or age. The susceptibility of Abba Bell to this second pathogen is unknown.

Fire

Too-frequent fire could affect the viability of subpopulation 1, as Abba Bell appears to be an obligate seeder that germinates following fire. If this is the case, the soil seed bank would rapidly deplete if fires recurred before regenerating or juvenile plants reached maturity and replenished the soil seed bank. However, it is likely that occasional fires are needed for reproduction of the species.

Modification to the hydrology

Hydrological changes as a result of mining have occurred within privately owned land adjacent to the area of State Forest which contains subpopulation 1. An artificial recharge system was installed, along with several piezometers for monitoring purposes. Mineral sand exploration leases also exist over the area of State Forest in which this species occurs.

Water-logging and salinity are becoming threats to the ironstone soils on which Abba Bell occurs (Tille & Lantzke 1990 as cited in Stack & English 2003c). Extensive clearing for agriculture in the area is likely to have increased surface runoff and groundwater recharge. Neither waterlogging nor salinity are immediate threats, but require monitoring. Hirschberg (1989, as cited in Stack & English 2003c) measured levels of salinity in the groundwater in the area and found the water near subpopulation 1 to be reasonably fresh. The ironstones of the area experience seasonal inundation and the possible extension of the inundation period is of concern.

Weeds

Weeds are a known threat at the translocation sites. These partially cleared areas were purchased by DEC in 1999 and are being rehabilitated. Weeds suppress early plant growth by competing for soil moisture, nutrients and light. They also exacerbate grazing pressure and increase the fire hazard due to the easy ignition of high fuel loads, which are produced annually by many grass weed species.

Grazing

Rabbits and kangaroos are a threat to the translocated subpopulations through selective grazing of seedlings and young growth.

Environmental stress

Environmental stress, including strong winds as a consequence of proximity to cleared land, is a threat at subpopulation 2t and 3t. Lack of native vegetation increases wind and heat exposure increasing susceptibility to desiccation and reducing plant vigour. The lack of suitable growing medium and competition from other species is also decreasing success (Stack et al. 1999).

The following information is taken from the Abba Bell (Darwinia sp. Williamson) Interim Recovery Plan 2003–2008 (Stack & English 2003c).

Existing recovery actions


Habitat protection

Approval to mine Location 4102, adjacent to the subpopulation 1, was granted in 2002. Liaison between the proponent, the Department of Minerals and Energy and relevant government bodies is ongoing. Potential impacts include major modification of the hydrology of the area, and the proponent has installed an artificial recharge system to maintain the water levels at the site, and several piezometers for monitoring purposes. Programmes have been initiated for monitoring vegetation health and some funds provided for general maintenance of the 'Shrublands on southern Swan Coastal Plain Ironstones' Threatened Ecological Community (TEC) and component threatened flora.

Two areas of of ironstone habitat on private property were purchased by the Department of Minerals and Energy in 1999 to be used for translocation of five critically endangered (in Western Australia) ironstone species, and are being rehabilitated with common local provenance species including Abba Bell. Subpopulation 2t is north of the wild subpopulation, and has been protected with rabbit-proof fencing. Subpopulation 3t is to the north-east of Subpopulation 1, and has been fenced to exclude kangaroos and rabbits. Both sites are now A Class Nature Reserves for the purpose of conservation of flora and fauna. The purchase of another area of private property adjoining one of the new Nature Reserves, for potential future translocations, is also in progress.

Ex situ populations and translocations

Seeds of Abba Bell are currently stored in the Department's Threatened Flora Seed Centre (TFSC). The initial germination rate of the seed ranged from 60–86%. After one year in storage the germination rate was 31% (unpublished data, A. Cochrane, cited in Stack &English 2003c).

There are eleven Abba Bell plants, sourced from three clones, at the Botanic Garden and Parks Authority (BGPA). Cuttings of this species do very well, with strike rates generally above 50% and often as much as 90% (A. Shade, pers. comm in Stack & English 2003c).

The BGPA propagated 422 plants from seed and cuttings, which were then translocated into the two Nature Reserve sites in July 2001. There were 354 plants planted in an area of ironstone north of the wild subpopulation (subpopulation 2t), and 68 in a second area north-east of the wild subpopulation (subpopulation 3t). Different treatments being trialled at these sites include ripping and mounding, mounding, watering and shading. Of these transolcations, only 14% were still alive six months after planting at subpopulation 2t, and 47% at Subpopulation 3t. Rabbits, weeds, strong winds and inundation, followed by a longer than average summer drought, all contributed to plant deaths. Watering systems have been set up at both sites, weed and rabbit control is continuing and windbreaks were planned for planting in 2002 in a bid to reduce the number of plant deaths.

In 2002, an additional six translocates were planted in subpopulation 2t. Windbreaks were planted using plants grown from local provenance material and further plantings of associated species were planned for 2003 and 2004.

Disease hygiene and research

Disease hygiene measures undertaken at the sites include limiting vehicle access to tracks, cleaning all tools (such as secateurs or spades) used on one plant before using on another, and installing bollards across the main access track into the wild subpopulation to prevent vehicle access.

Dieback disease (caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi) is evident at subpopulation 1, with deaths of susceptible species, including Lambertia echinata subsp. occidentalis. Phytophthora spp. were also implicated in the deaths of translocates at Subpopulation 2t. Research conducted between 1992 and 1997 indicates that phosphite application is a very effective tool in controlling the impact of dieback disease (Murray 1997, cited in Stack & English 2003c). Subpopulation 1 has been sprayed up to three times per year since 1996. A phosphite monitoring program was established in 1998 and is ongoing. The susceptibility of Abba Bell to the disease is currently being investigated.

Fire

A coordinated fire response plan for the species has been developed and incorporated into the Fire Control Working Plan. This includes strategies for fire control at each location of the species, including translocation sites. The information will also be communicated to other fire response organisations.

Habitat maintenance

Hand weeding around Abba Bell in subpopulations 2t and 3t was conducted in 2000, and herbicide was used at subpopulation 2t. Weed control is continuing, with the aim of smothering weed species with native vegetation.

In 2001, the fence surrounding subpopulation 2t was observed to have rusted in some sections. Rabbit activity was also observed. Repairs have been made to the fence and rabbit numbers are being controlled with 1080 poisoned oats, gassing and shooting. A rabbit and kangaroo-proof fence was erected at subpopulation 3t in 2002.

Implementation of the recovery actions outlined in the Interim Recovery Plan (IRP) for the community 'Shrublands on southern Swan Coastal Plain Ironstones' (English 1999) has commenced, and recovery actions that benefit this TEC will also benefit Abba Bell.

Public awareness

An information sheet has been produced, which includes a description of Abba Bell, its habitat, threats, recovery actions and photos. This will be distributed to community members through local libraries, wildflower shows and other events, and is available for download on the internet.

Staff from the Department's Blackwood District have developed a map delineating the areas not available for commercial wildflower picking to help ensure that pickers do not enter the area in which Abba Bell occurs. Staff also regularly monitor the populations.

Future recovery actions

Where populations occur on lands other than those managed by the Department, permission has been or will be sought from appropriate land managers prior to recovery actions being undertaken.

Maintain disease hygiene and Phytophthora control

The ironstone habitat in which Abba Bell occurs is inundated over the winter months, and this favours the establishment and spread of Phytophthora species. Dieback hygiene will be adhered to for activities such as installation and maintenance of firebreaks and walking into the population in wet soil conditions. Purpose built signs advising of the dieback risk and high conservation values of this site will be installed. Aerial spraying of phosphite will continue as needed.

Implement fire management strategy

It is known that fire kills most adult plants of the species and regeneration is largely from seed. As frequent fire may prevent the accumulation of sufficient soil-stored seed for recruitment, fire should be excluded from the subpopulations. A fire response plan has been developed for both the wild and translocated subpopulations and incorporated into the Blackwood District's Fire Control Working Plan.

Continue the translocation process

Translocation is essential for the conservation of this species, as the single small wild subpopulation is not secure from threats including disease, inappropriate fire regimes, mineral exploration or extraction, waterlogging and salinity. This recovery action will continue to be coordinated by the SWRTFRT.

Liaise with land managers and monitor subpopulations

Staff from the Department's Blackwood District will continue to liaise with the mining tenement holder and adjacent land managers to ensure that subpopulations are not accidentally damaged or destroyed. In particular, the results of monitoring of the impacts of the mine that will occur immediately adjacent to the species are to be promptly communicated to the Department and appropriate responses made.

Factors such as habitat degradation (including weed invasion, salinity and plant diseases such as Phytophthora cinnamomi), groundwater quality and levels, subpopulation stability (expansion or decline), pollination activity, seed production, recruitment, longevity and predation will be monitored annually for both wild and translocated subpopulations.

Continue weed control

Weed levels at the wild subpopulation are low, but levels at the translocated sites are high and ongoing control by hand weeding or herbicide is necessary. Trials will be undertaken to compare the effects of smothering weeds by mulch, jute matting and no treatment.

Control grazing

The current level of threat from rabbits is moderate at the translocated subpopulations. Subpopulations 2t and 3t have been fenced with rabbit-proof fencing to protect the translocates from grazing. However, rabbits continue to impact on subpopulations through grazing and digging, and they will continue to be controlled using a variety of methods as appropriate, in consultation with relevant landholders.

Collect seed and cutting material

Preservation of germplasm is essential to guard against extinction if wild subpopulations are lost and to propagate plants for translocations. A small quantity of seed and cuttings has been collected from subpopulation 1 but further collections are required. In addition, collections from the translocated subpopulations will be made when possible.

Obtain biological and ecological information

Increased knowledge of the biology and ecology of Abba Bell will provide a better scientific basis for its management in the wild. An understanding of the following is particularly necessary for effective management:

  • Soil seed bank dynamics and the role of various disturbances (including fire), competition, rainfall and grazing in germination and recruitment
  • The pollination biology of the species
  • The requirements of pollinators
  • The reproductive strategies, phenology and seasonal growth of the species
  • The population genetic structure, levels of genetic diversity and minimum viable population size
  • The impact of dieback disease and control techniques on Abba Bell and its habitat
  • The impact of changes in hydrology on Abba Bell and its habitat.

Stimulate the germination of soil-stored seed

Burning, smokewater and soil disturbance are likely to be effective in stimulating the germination of soil-stored seed. These trials will be conducted as appropriate at the base of dead mature plants.

The Abba Bell (Darwinia sp. Williamson) Interim Recovery Plan 2003–2008 (Stack & English 2003c) provides a thorough description of habitat, biology, threats and recovery actions for this species.

Recovery actions are also described in the Declared rare and poorly known flora in the Central Forest Region Wildlife Management Program No. 33 (Williams et al. 2001).

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Agriculture and Aquaculture:Land clearing, habitat fragmentation and/or habitat degradation Abba Bell (Darwinia sp Williamson) Interim Recovery Plan 2003-2008 (Stack, G. & English, V., 2003c) [Recovery Plan].
Abba Bell (Darwinia sp. Williamson) Interim Recovery Plan 1999-2002. Interim Recovery Plan No. 34 (Stack, G., Evans R. & English, V., 1999) [State Recovery Plan].
Energy Production and Mining:Mining and Quarrying:Habitat destruction, disturbance and/or modification due to mining activities Abba Bell (Darwinia sp Williamson) Interim Recovery Plan 2003-2008 (Stack, G. & English, V., 2003c) [Recovery Plan].
Energy Production and Mining:Mining and Quarrying:Habitat modification through open cut mining/quarrying activities Abba Bell (Darwinia sp. Williamson) Interim Recovery Plan 1999-2002. Interim Recovery Plan No. 34 (Stack, G., Evans R. & English, V., 1999) [State Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Recreational Activities:Disturbance, especially from human recreational activities and development Declared Rare and Poorly Known Flora in the Central Forest Region. Part 2 (Williams, K., A. Horan, S. Wood & A. Webb, 2001) [State Species Management Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Oryctolagus cuniculus (Rabbit, European Rabbit) Abba Bell (Darwinia sp Williamson) Interim Recovery Plan 2003-2008 (Stack, G. & English, V., 2003c) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation by weeds Abba Bell (Darwinia sp Williamson) Interim Recovery Plan 2003-2008 (Stack, G. & English, V., 2003c) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Vegetation and habitat loss caused by dieback Phytophthora cinnamomi Threat abatement plan for disease in natural ecosystems caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2009w) [Threat Abatement Plan].
Abba Bell (Darwinia sp Williamson) Interim Recovery Plan 2003-2008 (Stack, G. & English, V., 2003c) [Recovery Plan].
Abba Bell (Darwinia sp. Williamson) Interim Recovery Plan 1999-2002. Interim Recovery Plan No. 34 (Stack, G., Evans R. & English, V., 1999) [State Recovery Plan].
Declared Rare and Poorly Known Flora in the Central Forest Region. Part 2 (Williams, K., A. Horan, S. Wood & A. Webb, 2001) [State Species Management Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Presence of pathogens and resulting disease Abba Bell (Darwinia sp Williamson) Interim Recovery Plan 2003-2008 (Stack, G. & English, V., 2003c) [Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Salinity Abba Bell (Darwinia sp. Williamson) Interim Recovery Plan 1999-2002. Interim Recovery Plan No. 34 (Stack, G., Evans R. & English, V., 1999) [State Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity) Abba Bell (Darwinia sp Williamson) Interim Recovery Plan 2003-2008 (Stack, G. & English, V., 2003c) [Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate prescribed regimes and/or vegetation management to control fire regimes Abba Bell (Darwinia sp. Williamson) Interim Recovery Plan 1999-2002. Interim Recovery Plan No. 34 (Stack, G., Evans R. & English, V., 1999) [State Recovery Plan].
Declared Rare and Poorly Known Flora in the Central Forest Region. Part 2 (Williams, K., A. Horan, S. Wood & A. Webb, 2001) [State Species Management Plan].
Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Low numbers of individuals Declared Rare and Poorly Known Flora in the Central Forest Region. Part 2 (Williams, K., A. Horan, S. Wood & A. Webb, 2001) [State Species Management Plan].

Brown, A., C. Thomson-Dans & N. Marchant, eds. (1998). Western Australia's Threatened Flora. Como, Western Australia: Department of Conservation and Land Management.

Department of Environment and Conservation (WA) (DEC) (2007a). Records held in the DEC's Declared Flora Database and rare flora files. Western Australia, Department of Environment and Conservation.

Gibson, N., B.J. Keighery, G.J. Keighery, A.H. Burbidge & M.N. Lyons (1994). A floristic survey of the Southern Swan Coastal Plain. Unpublished report for the Australian Heritage Commission. Prepared by the Department of Conservation and Land Management and the Conservation Council of Western Australia (Inc.).

Stack, G. & English, V. (2003c). Abba Bell (Darwinia sp Williamson) Interim Recovery Plan 2003-2008. [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/recovery/d-williamson/index.html.

Stack, G., Evans R. & English, V. (1999). Abba Bell (Darwinia sp. Williamson) Interim Recovery Plan 1999-2002. Interim Recovery Plan No. 34. Department of Conservation and Land Management. Wanneroo, WA.

Williams, K., A. Horan, S. Wood & A. Webb (2001). Declared Rare and Poorly Known Flora in the Central Forest Region. Part 2. [Online]. Western Australian Wildlife Management Program No. 33. Department of Conservation and Land Management. Available from: http://www.dpaw.wa.gov.au/plants-and-animals/threatened-species-and-communities/threatened-plants.

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This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Darwinia whicherensis in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Wed, 17 Sep 2014 19:34:49 +1000.