Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Endangered as Liopholis guthega
Listing and Conservation Advices Commonwealth Listing Advice on Liopholis guthega (Guthega Skink) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2011n) [Listing Advice].
 
Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Liopholis guthega (Guthega Skink) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2011o) [Conservation Advice].
 
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan required, a recovery plan for the Guthega Skink is considered necessary as the species occurs in disjunct populations across two states and will require a high level of support by key stakeholders and coordination between different land managers and across jurisdictional boundaries (04/02/2011).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans
Other EPBC Act Plans Threat Abatement Plan for predation by feral cats (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2008zzp) [Threat Abatement Plan].
 
Threat Abatement Plan for Predation by the European Red Fox (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2008zzq) [Threat Abatement Plan].
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Inclusion of species in the list of threatened species under section 178 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (104) (04/02/2011) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2011i) [Legislative Instrument] as Liopholis guthega.
 
State Listing Status
VIC: Listed as Threatened (Flora and Fauna Guarantee Act 1988 (Victoria): February 2014 list) as Egernia guthega
Scientific name Liopholis guthega [83079]
Family Scincidae:Squamata:Reptilia:Chordata:Animalia
Species author (Donnellan, Hutchinson, Dempsey & Osborne, 2002)
Infraspecies author  
Reference Gardner, M.G., Hugall, A.F., Donnellan, S.C., Hutchinson, M.N. & Foster, R. 2008. Molecular systematics of social skinks: phylogeny and taxonomy of the Egernia group (Reptilia: Scincidae). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society of London 154: 781794
Other names Egernia guthega [82951]
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images

The current conservation status of the Guthega Skink, Liopholis guthega, under Australian legislation and State Government legislation, is as follows:

National: Listed as Endangered under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999.

Victoria: Listed as Vulnerable under the Flora and Fauna Guarantee Act 1988. The species is also listed as Critically Endangered under the Victorian Department of Sustainability and Environment advisory list of threatened fauna (TSSC 2011n).

Scientific name: Liopholis Guthega

Common name: Guthega Skink

Other names: Snowy Mountains Rock Skink

The species is conventionally accepted as Liopholis guthega (AFD 2010g). Previously the species was known as Egernia guthega or included with Egernia whitii.

The Guthega Skink is a diurnal medium-sized member of the Egernia whitii species group of skinks. The mean snout-vent length (SVL) of Guthega Skink is 9.75–11.10 cm (Donnellan et al. 2002). It is blackish brown in colour on the dorsum and upper flanks, with greyish brown vertebral (down the back) and dorsolateral (back and side) stripes and numerous longitudinal rows of sharp, pale spots. Juveniles are darker in colour than adults, with more prominent spots but less pronounced stripes. Guthega Skinks are known to be colonial, living in extensive warren systems (Green & Osborne 1994; Michael & Lindenmeyer 2010; Wilson & Swan 2003).

The Guthega Skink is known from the Snowy Mountains in the vicinity of Mt Kosciuszko, New South Wales (NSW), and from the Bogong High Plains in Victoria. The Guthega Skink has not been recorded below 1600 m above sea level (asl), and has been observed as high as 1940 m asl. It occurs in the coldest and one of the wettest regions on mainland Australia (Chapple et al. 2008; Donnellan et al. 2002), and is one of Australia's highest living lizard species (Michael & Lindenmeyer 2010).

The species is located within the North East Victoria and Southern Rivers New South Wales Natural Resource Management Regions, and in the Australian Alps Interim Biogeographic Regionalisation of Australia (IBRA) Bioregion (TSSC 2001n, 2011o).

Herpetofaunal surveys have been conducted across much of the Victorian Alps that have assisted in identifying new locality data for the Guthega Skink, mainly small range extensions on the Bogong High Plains (Chapple et al. 2009a). Within NSW, surveys have only identified the species in the Kosciusko National Park (Donnellan et al. 2002).

The Guthega Skink is found in areas of the Alpine National Park (Victoria) and Kosciuszko National Park (NSW) (TSSC 2011n, 2011o).

The preferred habitats for the Guthega Skink are usually rocky or have sub-surface boulders hidden beneath soil or thick vegetation. The species utilizes burrows often opening from under boulders or shrubs. The skink is also known to use fallen timber and surface rocks for shelter. Basking is carried out on rocks (Michael & Lindenmeyer 2010; Vic DSE n.d.). Sites are generally covered with snow from approximately June to October and have mild temperatures in summer. During the colder periods, the species is insulated by living in soil burrows combined with deep snow cover (Green & Osborne 1994).

Individuals have been recorded in a range of vegetation types, including open Snow Gum (Eucalyptus pauciflora) woodland with grassy or shrubby understoreys, dry tussock grassland, and tall and short heath (Donnellan et al. 2002). The Guthega Skink usually occurs in areas where the topography ranges from flat plains to rolling alpine hills. The geology in known areas of occurrence is often granitic (Green & Osborne 1994).

Sympatric (occurring in the same habitat/geological area) fauna species include the Tussock Skink (Pseudemoia pagenstecheri), White-lipped Snake (Drysdalia coronoides), Highland Copperhead Snake (Austrelaps ramsayi), the Mountain Pygmy Possum (Burramy parvus), and Antechinus and Rattus species. Several other reptiles from the genera Pseudemoia, Eulamprus and Egernia also occur in sympatry with the Guthega Skink.

Whilst specific species studies have not been conducted for the Guthega Skink, other Liopholis and Egernia species take 3–4 years to reach sexual maturity and have a lifespan of at least 8–10 years (Chapple 2003).

The Guthega Skink mates in late spring or early summer. Viviparous (bearing live young), two litters of up to three young are born in February–March (Donnellan et al. 2002; Green & Osborne 1994; The Reptile Database n.d).

The Guthega Skink feeds on small invertebrates, and may also include some plant material in its diet (Vic DSE n.d.). Within the Ergenia species group, larger members are known to be predominantly herbivorous, whereas juveniles and smaller members tend to favour insects as the basis of their diet (Chapple 2003).

The movement and dispersal patterns of this species are not known. Based on studies of other members of this genus, adults are likely to display considerable site fidelity, frequenting a familiar burrow network and basking and foraging areas (Chapple 2003; Wilson & Swan 2003).

The Guthega Skink may be distinguished from the morphologically and geographically similar species of White's Skink (Egernia whitii) and Mountain Egernia (E. montana) by the low numbers of its subdigital lamellae (scales beneath digits); the Guthega Skink has an average of less than 20, whereas other Egernia species have more than 20. The species also averages a shorter tail, of approximately less than 140% of the SVL, whereas other species average more than 140% (Donnellan et al. 2002). The Guthega Skink also has a blackish upper, side stripe overlaid with grey to cream dots that is not present on either White's Skink or the Mountain Egernia (Donnellan et al. 2002).

Occupied sites will vary in their ease of successful survey. This is particularly the case for densely vegetated sites, where the species may be easily overlooked. As a heliothermic (relying on basking and direct sunlight to achieve active body temperatures) and ectothermic animal occurring in cold areas, the Guthega Skink has a restricted active season. Surveys should be conducted between mid to late spring, through summer until around April (Donnellan et al. 2002; Vic DSE n.d.). Cool but sunny days can be ideal for observing basking individuals. Lizards typically bask close to the ground on grass tussocks, bare ground or mats of vegetation close to their burrow entrances during the morning when air and substrate temperatures are low. Later in the day they may bask on granite boulders, if these rocks occur within their home range. During particularly warm weather, Guthega Skinks are likely to seek shade or shelter (Donnellan et al. 2002; Vic DSE n.d.).

Loss and degradation of habitat

Historically, large tracts of suitable habitat for the species have been lost as dams and alpine resort villages have been constructed and expanded. Infrastructure for resorts such as roads, tracks and ski runs have also destroyed, fragmented or modified habitat (Vic DSE n.d). Degradation of the species' habitat has also resulted from grazing and trampling by cattle (Bos sp.), the Feral Horse (Equus caballus), deer (Cervidae sp.) and the Pig (Sus scrofa), and the grooming of ski runs. Domestic cattle have been removed from alpine park areas; however feral cattle still remain (Vic DSE n.d.).

Predation

Predation by the Fox (Vulpes vulpes) and the Cat (Felis catus) is a serious current threat that has been on the rise and requires quantification. The impact of predation is via the direct loss of individuals and detrimental alterations in lizard behaviour. Furthermore, continued development in the area increases predator access to the species (due to increased exposure of habitat, including hiding areas) and decreases areas of predator free habitat (TSSC 2011n, 2011o).

Altered fire regimes

The most likely catastrophic threat to the Guthega Skink is wildfire. Large fires in the Australian Alps are not considered common, but two such fires have occurred in the past seven years (2003 and 2007), affecting much of the species' range in Victoria. Wildfires kill individuals, expose them to greater predation and alter floristics of habitat making it less suitable for the species (Clenmann 2009; Vic DSE n.d.). Predicted climate change is likely to increase fire frequency and severity in this region (TSSC 2011n, 2011o).

Climate change

With limited and specific habitat characteristics pertaining to alpine conditions, the impact of climate change on the Guthega skink may be particularly pronounced. As the species is currently living in some of the highest areas within Australia, movement into cooler, upward land is most likely unfeasible (NSW DECCW 2008; Vic DSE n.d.; Vic Gov 2010). Warmer temperatures may also see an increase in predator species that may impact on the Guthega Skink, as predators are able to encroach on previously predator free areas. For example, kookaburras (known skink predators) have become regular subalpine residents in the past decade (Green & Pickering 2002). Any impacts of climate change on the Guthega Skink will affect the species across its geographic distribution (TSSC 2011n, 2011o).

The Department of Sustainabilty, Environment, Water, Populations and Communities (DSEWPaC) outline the following actions for protection of the species in the Approved Conservation Advice for Liopholis guthega (Guthega Skink) (TSSC 2011o):

Habitat Loss, Disturbance and Modification

  • Monitor known populations to identify impacts of key threats.
  • Monitor the progress of recovery, including the effectiveness of management actions and the need to adapt them if necessary.
  • Ensure there is no disturbance in areas where the Guthega Skink occurs, excluding necessary actions to manage the conservation of the species.
  • Investigate formal conservation arrangements, management agreements and covenants on private land, and for Crown and private land investigate inclusion in reserve tenure if possible.

Trampling, Browsing or Grazing

  • Develop and implement management plans for the control and eradication of the Feral Horse, Sambar Deer (Cervus unicolor) and Pigs in the region. Implement the Kosciuszko National Park Final Horse Management Plan (DECC 2008 cited in TSSC 2011o).

Animal Predation

  • Develop and implement a management plan for the control and eradication of the Fox and Cat in the regions where Guthega Skink occurs. Implement the New South Wales Threat Abatement Plan – Predation by the Red Fox (NSW NPWS 2001 cited in TSSC 2011o), the Commonwealth Threat Abatement Plan – Predation by European Red Fox (DEWHA 2008zzq), the Commonwealth Threat Abatement Plan – Predation by Feral Cats (DEWHA 2008zzp), the Commonwealth Threat abatement plan for predation, habitat degradation, competition and disease transmission by feral pigs (DEH 2005w) and the New South Wales Wild Dog Policy (NSW DEC 2005d).

Fire

  • Develop and implement a suitable fire management strategy for the habitat of the Guthega Skink.
  • Where appropriate provide maps of known occurrences to local and state Rural Fire Services and seek inclusion of mitigative measures in bush fire risk management plan(s), risk register and/or operation maps.

Conservation Information

  • Raise awareness of the Guthega Skink within the local community.
  • Engage with private landholders and land managers responsible for the land on which Guthega Skink populations occur, particularly alpine resorts, and encourage these stakeholders to contribute to the implementation of conservation management actions.

Reintroduction

  • Investigate reintroduction of the species at the Smiggin Holes site.

 

The Victorian Department of Sustainability and Environment (Vic DSE) outlines the following actions for protection of the species in the Draft Flora and Fauna Guarantee Action Statement:

  • Commence, maintain or intensify (as appropriate) feral predator control in localities where the species occurs.
  • Avoid track works, ski run development, construction activities and any other forms of ground layer disturbance around known Guthega Skink habitat. In particular, slashing of native vegetation for ski trails should cease in the vicinity of areas known to contain the species.
  • Where the impact of trampling by Cattle and/or Feral Horses is found to be affecting populations of Guthega Skink, implement actions to mitigate this impact.
  • Identify Guthega Skink habitat management areas within the Alpine National Park Management Plan.
  • Where possible control fire around the areas within which the species has been recorded. No fuel reduction or habitat management burns should occur until the effects of these activities on the Guthega Skink are known.
  • Assess the impact on the species of predation by exotic predators such as cats and foxes. This may be achieved through the analysis of predator scats and stomach contents.
  • Conduct surveys to accurately determine the species' distribution and habitat requirements within the Alpine National Park and adjacent Falls Creek Alpine Resort. These surveys should extend beyond the known limits of the distribution of the species.
  • Develop best-practice survey and monitoring techniques for the Guthega Skink.
  • Develop and implement a program to monitor population fluctuations. After the distribution and abundance of the species has been determined, monitoring should be conducted each year.
  • Investigate the ecological relationships between the Guthega Skink, its dietary items and fire, preferably in conjunction with a broader investigation of fire ecology, and the species' response to habitat succession following fire.

Minister's Reasons for Recovery Plan decision:

A recovery plan for the Guthega Skink is considered necessary as the species occurs in disjunct populations across two states and will require a high level of support by key stakeholders and coordination between different land managers and across jurisdictional boundaries.

Management documents for the Guthega Skink can be found at the start of the profile. Other documents relevant to the species include:

  • Kosciuszko National Park Final Horse Management Plan (NSW DECC 2008g).
  • Wild Dog Policy (NSW DEC 2005d).
  • Threat abatement plan for predation, habitat degradation, competition and disease transmission by feral pigs (DEH 2005w).

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Grazing pressures and associated habitat changes Commonwealth Listing Advice on Liopholis guthega (Guthega Skink) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2011n) [Listing Advice].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Climate Change and Severe Weather:Climate change altering atmosphere/hydrosphere temperatures, rainfall patterns and/or frequency of severe weather events Commonwealth Listing Advice on Liopholis guthega (Guthega Skink) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2011n) [Listing Advice].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Habitat Shifting and Alteration:Habitat loss, modification and/or degradation Commonwealth Listing Advice on Liopholis guthega (Guthega Skink) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2011n) [Listing Advice].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Habitat Shifting and Alteration:Habitat modification, destruction and alteration due to changes in land use patterns Commonwealth Listing Advice on Liopholis guthega (Guthega Skink) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2011n) [Listing Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation by weeds Commonwealth Listing Advice on Liopholis guthega (Guthega Skink) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2011n) [Listing Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Vulpes vulpes (Red Fox, Fox) Commonwealth Listing Advice on Liopholis guthega (Guthega Skink) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2011n) [Listing Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Felis catus (Cat, House Cat, Domestic Cat) Commonwealth Listing Advice on Liopholis guthega (Guthega Skink) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2011n) [Listing Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, tramping, competition and/or habitat degradation Equus caballus (Horse) Commonwealth Listing Advice on Liopholis guthega (Guthega Skink) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2011n) [Listing Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, tramping, competition and/or habitat degradation Sus scrofa (Pig) Commonwealth Listing Advice on Liopholis guthega (Guthega Skink) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2011n) [Listing Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, tramping, competition and/or habitat degradation by deer Commonwealth Listing Advice on Liopholis guthega (Guthega Skink) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2011n) [Listing Advice].
Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Changes to hydrology including construction of dams/barriers Commonwealth Listing Advice on Liopholis guthega (Guthega Skink) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2011n) [Listing Advice].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity) Commonwealth Listing Advice on Liopholis guthega (Guthega Skink) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2011n) [Listing Advice].
Residential and Commercial Development:Commercial and Industrial Areas:Recreational, commercial and industrial development Commonwealth Listing Advice on Liopholis guthega (Guthega Skink) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2011n) [Listing Advice].
Transportation and Service Corridors:Roads and Railroads:Development of roads and railroads Commonwealth Listing Advice on Liopholis guthega (Guthega Skink) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2011n) [Listing Advice].

Australian Faunal Directory (AFD) (2010g). Species Liopholis guthega (Donnellan, Hutchinson, Dempsey & Osborne, 2002). [Online]. Australian Biological Resources Study, Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population & Communities. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/abrs/online-resources/fauna/afd/taxa/Liopholis_guthega.

Chapple, D., M.N. Hutchinson, B. Maryan, M. Plivelich, J.A. Moore & J.S. Keogh (2008). Evolution and maintenance of colour pattern polymorphism Liopholis (Squamata : Scincidae). Australian Journal of Zoology. 56:103-115.

Chapple, D.G. (2003). Ecology, Life-History, and Behavior in the Australian Scincid Genus Egernia, with Comments on the Evolution of Complex Sociality in Lizards. Herptological Monographs. 17:145-180.

Clemann, N. (2009). The impact on threatened Victorian alpine herpetofauna of recent wildfires. Second report. A report to the Statewide Services Division, Department of Sustainability and Environment. [Online]. Heidelberg, Victoria: Arthur Rylah Institute for Environmental Research, Department of Sustainability and Environment. Available from: http://www.natureweb.org.au/images/7/7e/Clemann_alpine_herps_fire_report_2009.pdf.

Clemann, N. (2009a). Survey and monitoring of threatened Victorian alpine herpetofauna: annual report for the 2008-2009 season. [Online]. Heidelberg, Victoria: Arthur Rylah Institute for Environmental Research, Department of Sustainability and Environment. . Available from: http://www.natureweb.org.au/images/6/6c/NECMA_annual_report_for_2008-9_Clemann_alp_herps.pdf.

Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH) (2005w). Threat abatement plan for predation, habitat degradation, competition and disease transmission by feral pigs. [Online]. Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/tap/pubs/feral-pig-tap.pdf.

Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA) (2008zzp). Threat Abatement Plan for predation by feral cats. [Online]. Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/tap/cats08.html.

Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA) (2008zzq). Threat Abatement Plan for Predation by the European Red Fox. [Online]. Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/tap/foxes08.html.

Donnellan, S.C., M.N. Hutchinson, P. Dempsey & W.S. Osborne (2002). Systematics of the Egernia whitii species group (Lacertilia: Scincidae) in south-eastern Australia. Australian Journal of Zoology. 50:439-459.

Green, K. & C.M. Pickering (2002). A scenario for mammal and bird diversity in the Australian Snowy Mountains in relation to climate change. In Koerner C. and E.M. Spehn, eds. Mountain Biodiversity: a Global Assessment. Page(s) 241-249. London: Parthenon Publishing.

Green, K. & W. Osborne (1994). Wildlife of the Australian Snow Country. NSW: Reed Books.

Michael, D. & D. Lindenmeyer (2010). Reptiles of the NSW Murray Catchment. A guide to their identification, ecology & conservation. Collingwood, Victoria: CSIRO Publishing.

NSW Department of Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW) (2008). Case study no. 9: Climate Change in Kosciusko National Park. [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/sop04/sop04cs9.htm. [Accessed: 29-Nov-2010].

NSW Department of Environment and Climate Change (NSW DECC) (2008g). Kosciuszko National Park Final Horse Management Plan. [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/resources/nature/KNPHorseManagementPlanFinal08.pdf. [Accessed: 08-Oct-2009].

NSW Department of Environment and Conservation (NSW DEC) (2005d). Wild Dog Policy. [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/resources/pestsweeds/WildDogPolicy.pdf. [Accessed: 08-Oct-2009].

The Reptile Database (n.d.). Liopholis guthega Donnellan, Hutchinson, Dempsey & Osborne, 2002. [Online]. Available from: http://reptile-database.reptarium.cz/species.php?genus=Liopholis&species=guthega. [Accessed: 15-Nov-2010].

Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC) (2011n). Commonwealth Listing Advice on Liopholis guthega (Guthega Skink). [Online]. Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities. Canberra, ACT: Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/species/pubs/83079-listing-advice.pdf.

Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC) (2011o). Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Liopholis guthega (Guthega Skink). [Online]. Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities. Canberra, ACT: Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/species/pubs/83079-conservation-advice.pdf.

Victorian Department of Sustainability & Environment (Vic DSE) (n.d.). Draft Action Statement for the Guthega Skink Egernia Guthega. [Online]. Available from: http://www.dse.vic.gov.au/CA256F310024B628/0/F6E7D98C60FA3503CA257489000BD423/$File/Guthega+skink+%5. [Accessed: 18-Nov-2010].

Victorian Government (Vic Gov) (2010). Understanding Climate Change- Impacts of Climate Change. [Online]. Available from: http://www.climatechange.vic.gov.au/what-is-climate-change/impacts-of-climate-change#header_wrapper. [Accessed: 29-Nov-2010].

Wilson, S. & G. Swan (2003). A Complete Guide to Reptiles of Australia. Page(s) 480. Sydney: Reed New Holland.

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This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Liopholis guthega in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Thu, 10 Jul 2014 15:47:07 +1000.