In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.
|EPBC Act Listing Status||Listed as Endangered as Ricinocarpos brevis|
|Listing and Conservation Advices||
Commonwealth Listing Advice on Ricinocarpos brevis (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2010ab) [Listing Advice].
Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Ricinocarpos brevis (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2010an) [Conservation Advice].
|Recovery Plan Decision||
Recovery Plan not required, the approved conservation advice for the species provides sufficient direction to implement priority actions and mitigate against key threats (13/07/2010).
|Adopted/Made Recovery Plans|
Federal Register of
Amendment to the list of threatened species under section 178 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (98) (13/07/2010) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2010h) [Legislative Instrument] as Ricinocarpos brevis.
|State Listing Status||
|Scientific name||Ricinocarpos brevis |
|Species author||R.J.F.Henderson & Mollemans|
|Reference||Halford, D.A. & Henderson, R.J.F. (2007) A taxonomic revision of Ricinocarpos Desf. (Euphorbiaceae: Ricinocarpeae, Ricinocarpinae). Austrobaileya 7(3): 399-401, Fig. 1, Map 3 [tax. nov.]|
Ricinocarpos sp. Diemals (F.H. & M.P.Mollemans 3096) 
Ricinocarpos brevis ms 
This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.
Scientific name: Ricinocarpos brevis
Conventionally accepted as Ricinocarpos brevis (CHAH 2010).
Ricinocarpos brevis is a dense and intricately twiggy shrub that can grow to 1.8 m high (Halford & Henderson 2007). The leaves are spirally alternate or occasionally sub-opposite, with blades 730 mm long and 1.42 mm across. Inflorescences (flowerheads) contain 13 flowers. The flowers are white, conspicuous, on a stalk with dense hairs that are mainly white. Fruit are ellipsoidal to egg-shaped, and 89 mm long and 67 mm across (Halford & Henderson 2007; Western Australian Herbarium 2006).
Ricinocarpos brevis is endemic to Western Australia and it is known from five populations (WA DEC 2009a). Three populations occur at Windarling Range, the fourth population occurs 30 km north of Windarling Range and the fifth population is located 100 km north-east of Windarling Range (WA DEC 2009a).
The extent of occurrence of the species is approximately 1700 km2 (WA DEC 2009a).
The three populations that occur at Windarling Range have a combined area of occupancy of 1 km2; however the area of occupancy has not been recorded for populations four and five (WA DEC 2009a).
The population size of Ricinocarpos brevis is estimated at approximately 8200 mature plants (WA DEC 2009a).
Ricinocarpos brevis is confined to shallow sandy soils on rocky banded ironstone outcrops (Halford & Henderson 2007). The species occurs in mixed shrublands with Acacia spp., Grevillea spp. and/or Eremophila spp. (WA DEC 2009a).
Flowering has been observed in June, July and November, and fruiting in October and November (Halford & Henderson 2007; Western Australian Herbarium 2006).
Ricinocarpos brevis is similar to R. crispatus from south-western Queensland, but differs in its generally more intricately branched habit and its larger fruits (8–9 mm long and 6–7 mm across compared with 4–5 mm long and 5–6 mm across) (Halford & Henderson 2007).
Flowers are white and have been observed in June, July and November, and fruiting in October and November (Halford & Henderson 2007; WA DEC 2009a).
Mining and mineral exploration are key threats to Ricinocarpos brevis with mining activities causing a reduction in the total number of plants by 38% between 2003 and 2006 (WA DEC 2009a). Numbers are likely to continue to decline in the future due to mine expansion and secondary impacts of mining (such as increased risk of weed invasion and airborne dust) (WA DEC 2009a). Subject to development approval, a further 20% of the speces' population could be impacted by future mine development (WA DEC 2009a).
Other identified threats to Ricinocarpos brevis are weed invasion, inappropriate fire regimes and grazing by a native moth (Microlepidoptera sp.) which was found predating fruits and seed (WA DEC 2009a). Commercial flora collecting activities may inadvertently damage plants and is considered a potential threat to the species (WA DEC 2009a).
Minister's reasons for recovery plan decision
There should not be a recovery plan for Ricinocarpos brevis as the approved conservation advice for the species provides sufficient direction to implement priority actions and mitigate against key threats.
Recovery actions identified in the Commonwealth conservation advice
The Commonwealth conservation advice on Ricinocarpos brevis (TSSC 2010an) identifies the following recovery actions:
- Design and implement a monitoring program or, if appropriate, support and enhance existing programs.
- More precisely assess population size, geographic distribution, ecological requirements, and the relevant impacts of threatening processes, including:
- factors that influence the level of flowering, pollination, seed production and fruit development for the species, including grazing by Microlepidoptera sp.
- longevity of plants and time taken to reach maturity
- the reproductive strategies, phenology and seasonal growth of the species
- the species' response to disturbance (e.g. fire and slashing)
- other relevant mortality and morphological data for the species.
- Undertake survey work in suitable habitat and potential habitat during the June to July flowering period to locate any additional populations/occurrences/remnants.
- Undertake seed germination trials to determine the requirements for successful establishment.
- Undertake genetic analyses to assess current gene flow (using markers and analyses capable of distinguishing population divergence, on an evolutionary timescale, from that which might be due to more recent impacts).
Habitat loss, disturbance and modification
- Monitor known populations to identify additional key threats.
- Minimise adverse impacts from land use at known sites.
- Ensure there is no inappropriate disturbance, in areas where Ricinocarpos brevis occurs, that excludes necessary actions to manage the conservation of the species.
- Investigate formal conservation arrangements, management agreements and covenants on private land, and for crown and private land investigate inclusion in reserve tenure if possible.
- Monitor the progress of recovery, including the effectiveness of management actions and the need to adapt them if necessary.
- Develop and implement a management plan for the control of pastoral weed species in the area.
- Ensure chemicals or other mechanisms used to eradicate weeds do not have a significant adverse impact on Ricinocarpos brevis.
- Manage sites to prevent introduction of invasive weeds, which could become a threat to Ricinocarpos brevis, using appropriate methods.
- Develop and implement appropriate management actions to minimise the adverse impacts of grazing by the native moth Microlepidoptera sp. at sites where the species is known to occur.
- Develop and implement a suitable fire management strategy for the habitat of Ricinocarpos brevis.
- Identify appropriate intensity and interval of fire to promote seed germination and vegetation regeneration.
- Where appropriate, provide maps of known occurrences to local and state Rural Fire Services and seek inclusion of mitigative measures in bush fire risk management plans, risk register and/or operation maps.
- Raise awareness of Ricinocarpos brevis within the local community through site visits, signage (e.g. roadside markers), and posters/information brochures to be distributed to local naturalist groups, relevant authorities and volunteer organisations.
- Frequently engage with private landholders and land managers responsible for the land on which populations occur, and encourage these key stakeholders to contribute to the implementation of conservation management actions.
Enable recovery of additional sites and/or populations
- Undertake appropriate seed collection and storage.
- Investigate options for linking, enhancing or establishing additional populations.
- Implement national translocation protocols (Vallee et al. 2004), if establishing additional populations is considered necessary and feasible.
Management documents of Ricinocarpos brevis include:
- Commonwealth conservation advice on Ricinocarpos brevis (TSSC 2010an).
The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.
|Threat Class||Threatening Species||References|
|Biological Resource Use:Gathering Terrestrial Plants:Illegal collection||Commonwealth Listing Advice on Ricinocarpos brevis (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2010ab) [Listing Advice].|
|Energy Production and Mining:Mining and Quarrying:Habitat damage caused by exploration drilling||Commonwealth Listing Advice on Ricinocarpos brevis (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2010ab) [Listing Advice].|
|Energy Production and Mining:Mining and Quarrying:Habitat destruction, disturbance and/or modification due to mining activities||Commonwealth Listing Advice on Ricinocarpos brevis (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2010ab) [Listing Advice].|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation by weeds|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Problematic Native Species:Competition, predation and/or habitat degradation by insects|
|Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate prescribed regimes and/or vegetation management to control fire regimes|
Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria (CHAH) (2010). Australian Plant Census. [Online]. Australian National Herbarium, Australian National Botanic Gardens and Australian Biological Resources Study . Available from: http://www.anbg.gov.au/chah/apc/.
Halford, D.A. & R.J.F. Henderson (2007). A taxonomic revision of Ricinocarpos Desf. (Euphoriaceae: Ricinocarpeae, Ricinocarpinae). Austrobaileya. 7(3):399-401.
Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC) (2010an). Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Ricinocarpos brevis. [Online]. Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Canberra, ACT: Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/species/pubs/82879-conservation-advice.pdf.
Vallee, L., T. Hogbin, L. Monks, B. Makinson, M. Matthes & M. Rossetto (2004). Guidelines for the translocation of threatened plants in Australia - Second Edition. Canberra, ACT: Australian Network for Plant Conservation.
Western Australian Department of Environment and Conservation (WA DEC) (2009a). Records held in DEC's Declared Flora Database and rare flora files. Perth, Western Australia: DEC.
Western Australian Herbarium (2006). Florabase - The Western Australian Flora. [Online]. Perth, Western Australia: Department of Conservation and Land Management. Available from: http://florabase.calm.wa.gov.au/.
This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.
Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Ricinocarpos brevis in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Wed, 1 Oct 2014 08:01:45 +1000.