Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Critically Endangered as Veronica derwentiana subsp. homalodonta
Listing and Conservation Advices Commonwealth Listing Advice on Veronica derwentiana subsp. homalodonta (Mount Lofty Speedwell) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009cq) [Listing Advice].
 
Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Veronica derwentiana subsp. homalodonta (Mount Lofty Speedwell) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009cr) [Listing Advice].
 
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan not required, the Threatened Species Scientific Committee recommended that there should not be a recovery plan for this species as the conservation advice provides sufficient direction to implement priority actions and mitigate against key threats (07/12/2009).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Inclusion of species in the list of threatened species under section 178 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (85) (07/12/2009) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2009d) [Legislative Instrument] as Veronica derwentiana subsp. homalodonta.
 
State Government
    Documents and Websites
SA:Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges South Australia, Threatened Species Profile: Veronica derwentiana subsp.homalodonta (South Australia Department for Environment and Heritage (SA DEH), 2008a) [Information Sheet].
State Listing Status
SA: Listed as Endangered (National Parks and Wildlife Act 1972 (South Australia): June 2011) as Derwentia derwentiana subsp. homalodonta
Scientific name Veronica derwentiana subsp. homalodonta [82836]
Family Scrophulariaceae:Scrophulariales:Magnoliopsida:Magnoliophyta:Plantae
Species author  
Infraspecies author (B.G.Briggs & Ehrend.) B.G.Briggs
Reference Garnock-Jones, P.J., Albach, D. & Briggs, B.G. (2007) Botanical names in Southern Hemisphere Veronica (Plantaginaceae): sect. Detzneria, sect. Hebe, and sect. Labiatoides. Taxon 56(2): 580 [comb. nov.]
Other names Derwentia derwentiana subsp. homalodonta [55902]
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images

Scientific name: Veronica derwentiana subsp. homalodonta

Common name: Mount Lofty Speedwell


The subspecies was described as Derwentia derwentiana subsp. homalodonta and is now recognised by the Australian systematics community as Veronica derwentiana subsp. homalodonta (CHAH 2008).

The Mount Lofty Speedwell is a large herbaceous plant that grows to 1.5 m in height and 2 m across. The stems of the subspecies emerge annually from a long-lived rootstock, forming a large clump. The subspecies has large toothed leaves and tubular white, or pale lilac to pale blue, flowers that occur in large stalked clusters at the ends of the branches (Briggs & Ehrendorfer 1992; SA DEH 2008a).

The Mount Lofty Speedwell is endemic to South Australia where it occurs in the southern Mount Lofty Ranges to the east and south of Adelaide, and on Kangaroo Island. The subspecies occurs in the higher, wetter regions of the Mount Lofty Ranges, from Forest Range in the central ranges to Deep Creek, near Cape Jervis. The east-west extent of the subspecies is quite restricted, reaching its widest extent in the southern Fleurieu Peninsula between Myponga and Hindmarsh Valley. There are two records of the subspecies on Kangaroo Island; at the western end of the island in Flinders Chase National Park; and in the upper catchment of the Cygnet River in the central part of Kangaroo Island (TSSC 2009cq).

The extent of occurrence of the Mount Lofty Speedwell is approximately 610 km². However, the area of occupancy is estimated to be less than 0.001 km², as most known populations are comprised of very few plants (TSSC 2009cr).

The Mount Lofty Speedwell occurs in areas of high moisture with excellent drainage and also requires a high level of light (K. Brewer 2005, pers. comm. cited in TSSC 2009cq). The subspecies is commonly found in moist gullies and near creeklines, where it typically occurs in the gap between the waterline and the tree canopy, or where rocky outcrops create a high level of light (K. Brewer 2005, pers. comm., cited in TSSC 2009cq). Therefore, the subspecies' distribution is very restricted and also severely fragmented, as many populations are separated by areas of unsuitable habitat (TSSC 2009cq).

The subspecies occurs within the Kanmantoo Bioregion and the Mount Lofty Ranges and Greater Adelaide Natural Resource Management Region, and the Kangaroo Island Natural Resource Management Region (TSSC 2009cr).

Although the Mount Lofty Speedwell is very distinctive, and has been reasonably well collected, no surveys specifically targeting this subspecies have been conducted in areas with suitable habitat (K. Brewer 2005, pers. comm. cited in TSSC 2009cq).

Based on available data, the estimated total number of mature individuals of the Mount Lofty Speedwell is between 100–200 plants, with the subspecies occurring in very small numbers at each known locality; no populations of the Mount Lofty Speedwell contain more than 50 plants (TSSC 2009cq).

The Mount Lofty Speedwell appears to be in decline as it has become extinct at 5 locations in the past 30–80 years (TSSC 2009cr). The subspecies is now predominantly confined to areas of remnant vegetation, and may have once occupied a greater area prior to extensive vegetation clearance in the Mount Lofty Ranges. There are several historical herbarium records of the subspecies, dating from between 1895 and 1969, from both the Mount Lofty Ranges and Kangaroo Island from areas where the subspecies is no longer recorded. This may be due to the imprecise location information associated with these records, or may represent a true decline in the subspecies' population numbers, however there is insufficient information available to quantify any historical decline (TSSC 2009cq).

A large increase from 4 to 50 plants was recorded for a population on Kangaroo Island, which may have been related to recruitment after fire (SA DEH 2005a), but these large fluctuations have not been reported for other populations that have been burnt (K. Brewer 2005, pers. comm. cited in TSSC 2009cq). Populations that have been monitored over the past 20 years have not shown any extreme fluctuations in population size (K. Brewer 2005, pers. comm. cited in TSSC 2009cq; SA DEH 2005a).

Individual Mount Lofty Speedwell plants may be long-lived. One large plant at Cherryville has remained unchanged in size for more than 25 years. Very few seedlings occur naturally and the population comprises mostly large, mature plants (K. Brewer 2005, pers. comm. cited in TSSC 2009cq).

The Mount Lofty Speedwell is known from Flinders Chase National Park, Spring Mount Conservation Park, Kyeema Conservation Park, Scott Creek Conservation Park, Warren Conservation Park, Deep Creek Conservation Park, Bell's Gully Kuitpo Forest (State Forest) and Mount Bold Reservoir (South Australian Water Reserve) (K. Brewer 2005, pers. comm.; SA DEH 2005a; State Herbarium of South Australia 2005a).

The Mount Lofty Speedwell is found in moist sites and gullies, and near creeks, in high rainfall areas (Briggs & Ehrendorfer 1992). Soil types are acidic siliceous sands to coarse-grained quartz rich sands (Northcote 1976). On creeksides, the plant has been collected from deep sandy soils and loams with cobbles (SA DEH 2005a). On Kangaroo Island, the species occurs in regions with acid duplex soils and duplex soils containing ironside gravels (Northcote 2002), although the subspecies is confined to areas of higher fertility associated with alluvial deposition in gullies or creeksides (Ball 2002).

The subspecies has restricted habitat requirements for high moisture, with excellent drainage and a high light requirement. On creeklines, the subspecies typically occurs above the waterline where there is a gap in the tree canopy or where rocky outcrops create high light conditions with good drainage (K. Brewer 2005, pers. comm. cited in TSSC 2009cq).

The Mount Lofty Speedwell has been recorded from Woolly Tea Tree (Leptospermum lanigerum) closed shrubland and rocky gully banks at Kyeema Conservation Park. It has also been recorded adjacent to Wooly Tea Tree in a creek soak at Spring Mount Conservation Park. The majority of records for the species are from Stringybark (Eucalyptus obliqua) forests with or without additional overstorey species such as Pink Gum (E. fasciculosa), Rough Barked Manna Gum (E. viminalis ssp. cygnetensis) and Yellow Gum (E. leucoxylon). Associated species include Blackthorn (Bursaria spinosa), Golden Wattle (Acacia pycnantha), Myrtle Wattle (A. myrtifolia), and Native Cherry (Exocarpos cupressiformis) (State Herbarium of South Australia 2005a).

The biology of the Mount Lofty Speedwell is not well known. The subspecies flowers from October to January (Jessop & Toelken 1986) and individual plants may be long-lived. Plants can be propagated from seed or from vegetative cuttings which suggests that seed viability is not a problem but that there are specific requirements for seed germination (K. Brewer 2005, pers. comm. cited in TSSC 2009cq).

There are five currently recognised subspecies of Veronica derwentiana that all appear morphologically similar but differ in their geographical range, with three subspecies occurring in South Australia (Briggs & Ehrendorfer 1992). The subspecies V. d.subsp. homalodonta is endemic to South Australia and is confined to the eastern side of the Murray River valley and Kangaroo Island (TSSC 2009cq).

The main identified threat to the Mount Lofty Speedwell is from invasion by weeds such as Blackberry (Rubus fruticosus aggregate), Montpellier Broom (Genista monspessulana), Sweet Briar (Rosa rubiginosa), Hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna) and Vetch (Vicia spp.) (TSSC 2009cr).

The main potential threats to the subspecies include weed control practices, such as the use of pesticides or the mechanical removal of weeds. Altered hydrological regimes caused by agricultural practices, such as damming of creeks, and grazing by livestock as well as stormwater pollution from urban development may also pose threats to the subspecies (TSSC 2009cr). The Mount Lofty Speedwell may be susceptible to Phytophthora root rot, as the subspecies is shallow-rooted and occurs in moist locations (SA DEH 2008a).

Minister's reasons for recovery plan decision
The Minister recommended that there should not be a recovery plan for this species as the conservation advice provides sufficient direction to implement priority actions and mitigate against key threats.

Other recovery actions
The Commonwealth Conservation Advice for Veronica derwentiana subsp. homalodonta, (Mount Lofty Speedwell), (TSSC 2009cr) suggests the following research priorities that would inform future regional and local priority actions:

  • Assess the ecological requirements of the subspecies in relation to recruitment requirements as the subspecies has few or no juveniles.
  • Design and implement a monitoring program or, if appropriate, support and enhance existing programs.
  • Undertake survey work in suitable habitat and potential habitat to locate any additional populations.
  • Undertake seed germination and/or vegetative propagation trials to determine the requirements for successful establishment.
  • Undertake genetic analyses to:
    • assess current gene flow (using markers and analyses capable of distinguishing population divergence on an evolutionary timescale, from that which might be due to more recent impacts)
    • identify populations with low genetic diversity that might benefit from artificial introduction of genetic material from other populations from which they have relatively recently diverged.

In addition, the Commonwealth Conservation Advice for Veronica derwentiana subsp. homalodonta, (Mount Lofty Speedwell), (TSSC 2009cr) provides the following regional and local priority recovery and threat abatement actions which can be done to support the recovery of the subspecies:

  • Monitor the progress of recovery, including the effectiveness of management actions and the need to adapt them if necessary.
  • Identify populations of high conservation priority.
  • Ensure there is no disturbance in areas where the Mount Lofty Speedwell occurs, excluding necessary actions to manage the conservation of the species.
  • Minimise adverse impacts from land use at known sites.
  • Manage any disruptions to water flows or changes to hydrology that may result in changes to the water table, cause increased run-off or pollution.
  • Investigate formal conservation arrangements, management agreements and covenants on private land, and for crown and private land investigate inclusion in reserve tenure if possible.
  • Develop and implement a management plan for the control of Blackberry, Montpellier Broom, Sweet Briar, Hawthorn and Vetch in the region.
  • Ensure chemicals or other mechanisms used to eradicate weeds do not have a significant adverse impact on the Mount Lofty Speedwell.
  • Identify and remove weeds in the local area, which could become a threat to the Mount Lofty Speedwell, using appropriate methods.
  • Manage sites to prevent introduction of invasive weeds, which could become a threat to the Mount Lofty Speedwell, using appropriate methods.
  • If livestock grazing occurs in the area, ensure land managers use an appropriate management regime and density that does not detrimentally affect this subspecies.
  • Where appropriate, manage total grazing pressure at significant sites through exclusion fencing or other barriers.
  • Develop and implement suitable hygiene protocols to protect known sites from outbreaks of dieback caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi.
  • Raise awareness of the Mount Lofty Speedwell within the local community.
  • Frequently engage with private landholders and land managers responsible for the land on which populations occur and encourage these key stakeholders to contribute to the implementation of conservation management actions.
  • Undertake appropriate seed collection and storage.
  • Investigate options for linking or enhancing current populations.

The Commonwealth Conservation Advice for Veronica derwentiana subsp. homalodonta, Mount Lofty Speedwell, (TSSC 2009cr) provides a brief biological overview and management recommendations.

In addition, the following documents may inform on protection and management of the Mount Lofty Speedwell:

  • Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Wilson & Bignall 2009)
  • Threat abatement plan for disease in natural ecosystems caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi (DEWHA 2009w)
  • Scott Creek Conservation Park Management Plan (SA DEHAA 2000)
  • Weeds of National Significance Blackberry (Rubus fruticosus L. agg.) Strategic Plan (ARMCANZ & ANZECCFM 2001g)
  • Australian Weeds Strategy - A national strategy for weed management in Australia. Natural Resource Management Ministerial Council (DEWR 2006)

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Droughts:Drought Commonwealth Listing Advice on Veronica derwentiana subsp. homalodonta (Mount Lofty Speedwell) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009cq) [Listing Advice].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Mechanical disturbance during construction, maintanance or recreational activities Commonwealth Listing Advice on Veronica derwentiana subsp. homalodonta (Mount Lofty Speedwell) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009cq) [Listing Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Crataegus monogyna (Hawthorn, May, Azzarola, Singleseed Hawthorn, English Hawthorn, Red Hawthorn, White Hawthorn, Whitethorn) Commonwealth Listing Advice on Veronica derwentiana subsp. homalodonta (Mount Lofty Speedwell) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009cq) [Listing Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Rosa rubiginosa (Sweet Briar, Briar Rose, Sweet Briar Rose, Eglantine) Commonwealth Listing Advice on Veronica derwentiana subsp. homalodonta (Mount Lofty Speedwell) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009cq) [Listing Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Genista monspessulana (Montpellier Broom, Cape Broom, Canary Broom, Common Broom, French Broom, Soft Broom) Commonwealth Listing Advice on Veronica derwentiana subsp. homalodonta (Mount Lofty Speedwell) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009cq) [Listing Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Rubus fruticosus aggregate (Blackberry, European Blackberry) Commonwealth Listing Advice on Veronica derwentiana subsp. homalodonta (Mount Lofty Speedwell) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009cq) [Listing Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation by weeds Commonwealth Listing Advice on Veronica derwentiana subsp. homalodonta (Mount Lofty Speedwell) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009cq) [Listing Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition, predation and/or habitat degradation caused by Vicia spp. Commonwealth Listing Advice on Veronica derwentiana subsp. homalodonta (Mount Lofty Speedwell) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009cq) [Listing Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Presence of pathogens and resulting disease Commonwealth Listing Advice on Veronica derwentiana subsp. homalodonta (Mount Lofty Speedwell) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009cq) [Listing Advice].
Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Alteration of hydrological regimes including flooding Commonwealth Listing Advice on Veronica derwentiana subsp. homalodonta (Mount Lofty Speedwell) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009cq) [Listing Advice].
Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Changes to hydrology including construction of dams/barriers Commonwealth Listing Advice on Veronica derwentiana subsp. homalodonta (Mount Lofty Speedwell) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009cq) [Listing Advice].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity) Commonwealth Listing Advice on Veronica derwentiana subsp. homalodonta (Mount Lofty Speedwell) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009cq) [Listing Advice].
Pollution:Airborne Agricultural pollutants:Pesticide drift Commonwealth Listing Advice on Veronica derwentiana subsp. homalodonta (Mount Lofty Speedwell) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009cq) [Listing Advice].
Residential and Commercial Development:Housing and Urban Areas:Habitat loss, modification and fragmentation due to urban development Commonwealth Listing Advice on Veronica derwentiana subsp. homalodonta (Mount Lofty Speedwell) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009cq) [Listing Advice].
Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Poor recruitment (regeneration) and declining population numbers Commonwealth Listing Advice on Veronica derwentiana subsp. homalodonta (Mount Lofty Speedwell) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009cq) [Listing Advice].

Agriculture & Resources Management Council of Australia & New Zealand, Australian & New Zealand Environment & Conservation Council and Forestry Ministers (ARMCANZ & ANZECCFM) (2001g). Weeds of National Significance Blackberry (Rubus fruticosus L. agg.) Strategic Plan. Launceston, Tasmania: National Weeds Strategy Executive Committee.

Ball, D. (2002). Vegetation. In: Davies, M., C.R. Twidale & M.J. Tyler, eds. Natural History of King Island. 2nd ed:p. 47-53. Adelaide, South Australia: Royal Society of South Australia.

Briggs, B.G. & F. Ehrendorfer (1992). A revision of the Australian species of Pareheve and Derwentia. Telopea. 5:241-287.

Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria (CHAH) (2008). Australian Plant Census. [Online]. Australian National Herbarium, Australian National Botanic Gardens and Australian Biological Resources Study . Available from: http://www.anbg.gov.au/chah/apc/.

Department of the Environment and Water Resources (DEWR) (2006). Australian Weeds Strategy - A national strategy for weed management in Australia. Natural Resource Management Ministerial Council. [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/invasive/weeds/publications/strategies/pubs/weed-strategy.pdf.

Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA) (2009w). Threat abatement plan for disease in natural ecosystems caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi. [Online]. Canberra; ACT: Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/tap/phytophthora.html.

Jessop, J.P. & H.R. Toelken, eds. (1986). Flora of South Australia. Adelaide, South Australia: SA Government Printing Division.

Northcote, K.H. (1976). Soils. In: Twidale. C.R., M.J. Tyler & B.P. Webb, eds. Natural History of Adelaide Region. 2nd ed. Adelaide, South Australia: Royal Society of South Australia.

Northcote, K.H. (2002). Soils. In: Davies, M., Twidale, C.R., & M.J. Tyler, eds. Natural History of King Island. 2nd ed:p. 47-53. Adelaide, South Australia: Royal Society of South Australia.

South Australia Department for Environment and Heritage (SA DEH) (2005a). SA DEH databases comprising of the Opportune Database, Plant Population Database, Reserves Database, Roadside Vegetation Database and Survey Database. Adelaide, South Australia: Department of Environment and Heritage.

South Australia Department for Environment and Heritage (SA DEH) (2008a). Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges South Australia, Threatened Species Profile: Veronica derwentiana subsp.homalodonta. [Online]. Biodiversity Conservation Unit, South Australia Department for Environment and Heritage. Available from: http://www.environment.sa.gov.au/biodiversity/pdfs/regional_recovery/flora/veronica-derwentiana-ssp-homalodonta.pdf.

South Australia Department for Environment, Heritage and Aboriginal Affairs (SA DEHAA) (2000). Scott Creek Conservation Park Management Plan. Mount Lofty Ranges. [Online]. Adelaide: South Australia Department for Environment, Heritage and Aboriginal Affairs. Available from: http://www.deh.sa.gov.au/parks/pdfs/PARKS_PDFS_SCOTT_CREEK_CP_MP.PDF.

State Herbarium of South Australia (2005a). Adelaide Herbarium (ADHERB) database. Extracted 31 May 2005.

Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC) (2009cq). Commonwealth Listing Advice on Veronica derwentiana subsp. homalodonta (Mount Lofty Speedwell). [Online]. Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Canberra, ACT: Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/species/pubs/82836-listing-advice.pdf.

Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC) (2009cr). Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Veronica derwentiana subsp. homalodonta (Mount Lofty Speedwell). [Online]. Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Canberra, ACT: Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/species/pubs/82836-conservation-advice.pdf.

Willson, A. & J. Bignall (2009a). Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014. [Online]. Adelaide: South Australia Department for Environment and Heritage. Available from: http://www.environment.sa.gov.au/biodiversity/pdfs/amlrrp-plan.pdf.

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This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Veronica derwentiana subsp. homalodonta in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Mon, 21 Apr 2014 10:42:12 +1000.