In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.
|EPBC Act Listing Status||Listed as Endangered as Banksia mimica|
|Listing and Conservation Advices||
Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Dryandra mimica (Summer Honeypot) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008l) [Conservation Advice].
|Recovery Plan Decision||
Recovery Plan not required, included on the Not Commenced List (1/11/2009).
|Adopted/Made Recovery Plans|
|Other EPBC Act Plans||
Threat abatement plan for disease in natural ecosystems caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi (Department of the Environment, 2014a) [Threat Abatement Plan].
Federal Register of
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument] as Dryandra mimica.
Amendment to the list of threatened species under section 178 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (72) (15/12/2008) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2008k) [Legislative Instrument] as Banksia mimica.
Documents and Websites
|State Listing Status||
|Scientific name||Banksia mimica |
|Species author||(A.S.George) A.R.Mast & K.R.Thiele|
|Reference||Mast, A.R. & Thiele, K. (2007) The transfer of Dryandra R.Br. to Banksia L.f. (Proteaceae). Australian Systematic Botany 20(1): 68 [comb. nov.]|
|Other names||Dryandra mimica |
This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.
Scientific name: Dryandra mimica
Common name: Summer Honeypot
This species was previously known as Dryandra mimica, but is conventionally accepted as Banksia mimica (Mast & Thiele 2007).
The Summer Honeypot is a prostrate, rhizomatous shrub with underground stems and leaves up to 41 cm long (George 1984a, 1999a). The leaves are densely hairy beneath and have a prominent mid-rib. The juvenile leaves are hairy above, but lose the upper hairs as they mature.
The fruits are up to 2 cm long and 1 cm wide. The yellow flowers have a tuft of long, white hairs at the apex and are grouped into erect heads borne at ground level. There are few fruits, which are densely hairy (Brown et al. 1998).
The Summer Honeypot occurs in three disjunct populations over a 300 km range in south-west Western Australia. The populations occur at Mogumber in the north, the Darling Range east of Perth and the Whicher Range, south-east of Busselton (Brown et al. 1998; Patrick & Brown 2001). So far, the species has not been located anywhere in between these locations (Brown et al. 1998). The species distribution is severely fragmented; Kelly and colleagues (1999) postulate that it is naturally disjunct, however, extensive recent land clearing has also probably caused fragmentation.
The extent of occurrence of the species is estimated to be 5355 km² and the area of occupancy is estimated to be 64 hectares or 0.64 km2 (WA DEC 2007). The species occurs at three disjunct locations, 300 km apart, with extensively cleared areas of land in between (WA DEC 2007).
The species is in cultivation in private gardens in Perth, where flowering cultivated individuals were observed for the first time in December 1991. The species is not difficult to grow (Pieroni 1992; Sainsbury 1985).
The total population size for the Summer Honeypot is estimated to be over 7300 mature plants and although some sub-populations have not been recently surveyed and some large clumps may be vegetative clones (WA DEC 2007).
The three extant populations are split into subpopulations, based upon differences in land tenure and management, as well as location. The overall population trend appears to be stable. While the total number of known plants has increased in recent years, this is more likely to be a result of increased survey effort than an actual increase in population size (WA DEC 2007).
The following table shows a summary for the known subpopulations, including land tenure and threats data (WA DEC 2007):
|Sub population||Survey Years||Number of Plants Recorded||Land Tenure||Current Condition||Past Threats||Current Threats||Potential Future Threats|
|1||1976||NA||National park||Healthy||NA||NA||Firebreak maintenance|
|3a||1990||20||Private property||Moderate||Weeds; rubbish dumping||NA||NA|
|3b||1990||4||Private property||Moderate||Weeds; rubbish dumping||NA||NA|
|4a||1995||>60||Private property||Moderate||Clearing; grazing; weeds||NA||NA|
|4b||1995||>150||Private property||Moderate||Grazing; weeds||NA||NA|
|5a||1994||100||Shire road reserve||Healthy-moderate||Roadworks; easements maintenance||Easement maintenance||Easement maintenance|
|5b||1994||10||Shire road reserve||Healthy-moderate||Roadworks; easements maintenance||Easement maintenance||Easement maintenance|
|5c||2001||34||Nature reserve||Healthy-moderate||Roadworks; easements maintenance||NA||Easement maintenance|
|5d||2001||3||Private property||Healthy||Roadworks; easements maintenance||Roadworks; easement maintenance||Roadworks; easement maintenance|
|6a||2001||9||Shire road reserve||Healthy||Roadworks; easements maintenance||Roadworks; easement maintenance||Easement maintenance|
|6b||2001||55||Nature reserve||Healthy||Roadworks; easements maintenance||NA||Easement maintenance|
|6c||2001||20||Shire road reserve||Healthy||NA||Roadworks||Roadworks|
|7||2001||>16||Nature reserve||Moderate||NA||Track and firebreak maintenance||Track and firebreak maintenance|
|8||2001||1772||Nature reserve||Moderate||NA||Track and firebreak maintenance; inappropriate fire regime||Track and firebreak maintenance; inappropriate fire regime; Phytophthora|
|9||2001||24||Nature reserve||Moderate||NA||Inappropriate fire regime||Inappropriate fire regime; Phytophthora|
|10a||2001||146||Nature reserve||Moderate||NA||Track and firebreak maintenance; inappropriate fire regime||Track and firebreak maintenance; inappropriate fire regime; Phytophthora|
|10b||2001||1075||Nature reserve||Moderate||NA||Inappropriate fire regime||Inappropriate fire regime; Phytophthora|
|11||2001||9||Nature reserve||Moderate||NA||Inappropriate fire regime||Inappropriate fire regime; Phytophthora|
|12||2001||334||Shire road reserve||Moderate||NA||Roadworks||Roadworks; easement maintenance|
|14a||2006||5||Shire reserve||Healthy||NA||Rabbit grazing||NA|
|14b||2006||3||Other shire reserve||Healthy||NA||Rabbit grazing||NA|
Subpopulations 5c, 6b and 7 are located in a nature reserve that was bought in 2003 for the explicit purpose of protecting the Summer Honeypot. Subpopulations 1, 8, 9, 10a, 10b, 11 and 13a occur in national parks or nature reserves which are managed for conservation of flora and fauna generally. The remaining subpopulations occur on shire road reserves or private property (WA DEC 2007).
The Summer Honeypot grows on flat to gentle slopes, on grey and white sand in open woodlands (Kelly et al. 1999; Williams et al. 2001).
Subpopulations 8, 9, 10a, 10b and 11 occur on white-grey sands in low heath and Banksia spp. woodlands. Associated species include Banksia attenuata, Eucalyptus todtiana, Adenanthos cygnorum, Calothamnus sanguineous, Stirlingia latifolia and Hibbertia hypericoides.
In the Whicher Range the species grows in Banksia attenuata woodland over closed shrubland. Associated vegetation includes Andersonia sp. Stirlingia latifolia, Xanthorrhoea preisii, Leucopogon sp., Melaleuca thymoides and Petrophile sp.
At Mogumber and Wattle Grove the species occurs in mixed low heath with a Banksia attenuata/B. menziesii open-low woodland overstorey. It is associated with species such as Adenanthos cygnorum, Eucalyptus todtiana, Nuytsia floribunda, Jacksonia floribunda, Xanthorrhoea preisii, Banksia chamaephyton, Hakea conchifolia and Stirlingia latifolia (Kelly et al. 1999).
The Summer Honeypot produces yellow flowers between December to January (George 1984a, 1999a). Little is known about the pollination of the species, but it is noted that the species produces extremely small amounts of seed, including the production of 'barren cones'. Kelly and colleagues (1999) noted that the seed of different plants had differing viability and that little was known about the factors affecting seed dormancy and germination.
Many plants occur as clumps that are vegetative clones (Kelly et al. 1999).
Like other members of the Proteacea, the species is thought to be responsive to fire. An experimental burn conducted by Monks (2000) on two subpopulations at Mogumber and subsequently confirmed that the Summer Honeypot resprouts from its lignotuber, with a lack of post-fire seedling establishment (Kelly et al. 1999).
The Summer Honeypot has been successfully propagated by the Botanic Gardens and Western Australia Parks Authority (Williams et al. 2001).
The Summer Honeypot has leaves with rounded gaps (receptacles) between the lobes and yellow flowers that are evenly spaced from the central cavity. It superficially resembles Couch Honeypot (Banksia nivea), however the leaves of Banksia mimica have rounded sinuses which gives them a 'scalloped' appearance while B. nivea has leaves with V-shaped gaps (Pieroni 1992; Brown et al. 1998). Furthermore, B. nivea has pale brown flowers which arise around the broad margin of the receptacle leaving a cavity after flowering, while B. mimica has yellow flowers which arise evenly spaced from the receptacle, leaving a broad central cavity (Brown et al. 1998; Williams 2001).
Surveys are best undertaken from December to January when the plants are in flower; however, flowers are not essential to identify this species.
Land clearing is a significant historic threat to the Summer Honeypot (Kelly et al. 1999). Present and future threats include clearing, grazing, inappropriate fire regimes and dieback caused by Phytophthora infection (Leigh & Briggs 1992).
Seeds and seedlings are susceptible to many threats. Grazing and trampling by stock limits the Summer Honeypot's recruitment potential. Seedlings have been observed with open follicles and inside the crown of parent plants on several occasions, which limits seedling survival (Kelly et al. 1999). However, Monks (2000) suggests that predation may not be having a significant effect on the population dynamics of this species despite almost two thirds of the fertile cones in the study population suffering attack by insect granivores.
Laboratory trials with the Summer Honeypot have recorded 75% death of seedlings exposed to Phytophthora cinnamomi in the soil. This indicates a degree of susceptibility within the species, although some tolerance is present (Kelly et al. 1999).
Kelly and colleagues (1999) note that the Summer Honeypot is fire tolerant, but should have an inter-fire period of ten years. Too frequent fire encourages weed invasion and degradation of habitat. Too frequent fire may also affect the abundance of associated plant species, reducing the availability of pollinators.
Kelly and colleagues (1999) recommend the following priority actions:
- Specific management for fire. An inter-fire period of at least ten years was recommended;
- Despite the low risk of dieback infection in this sandy habitat of this species, strict dieback hygiene practices should be observed;
- Seed collection and storage has proved difficult, and only limited collections are held in long-term storage at the Threatened Flora Seed Centre. The seed collection programs should be maintained; however alternative methods of ex-situ conservation may need to be considered; and
- Further research on factors that limit seed set, time from seedling establishment to reproductive maturity, pollination biology and on the level of genetic differentiation between the three disjunct subpopulations.
Documents relevant to the management of the Summer Honeypot, Banksia mimica, can be found at the start of the profile.
The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.
|Threat Class||Threatening Species||References|
|Agriculture and Aquaculture:Agriculture and Aquaculture:Land clearing, habitat fragmentation and/or habitat degradation||Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Dryandra mimica (Summer Honeypot) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008l) [Conservation Advice].|
|Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Habitat loss and modification due to clearance of native vegetation and pasture improvements||The Implications of Climate Change for Land-based Nature Conservation Strategies (Pouliquen-Young, O. & P. Newman, 1999) [Report].|
|Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Recreational Activities:Disturbance, especially from human recreational activities and development||Declared Rare and Poorly Known Flora in the Central Forest Region. Part 2 (Williams, K., A. Horan, S. Wood & A. Webb, 2001) [State Species Management Plan].|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation by weeds||Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Dryandra mimica (Summer Honeypot) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008l) [Conservation Advice].|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Vegetation and habitat loss caused by dieback||Phytophthora cinnamomi||
Banksia mimica in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006cx) [Internet].
Declared Rare and Poorly Known Flora in the Central Forest Region. Part 2 (Williams, K., A. Horan, S. Wood & A. Webb, 2001) [State Species Management Plan].
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Predation, competition, habitat degradation and/or spread of pathogens by introduced species||Conservation Statements for threatened flora within the regional forest agreement region for Western Australia Page(s) 1-95. (Atkins, K.J., 1998) [Report].|
|Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Habitat degradation caused by firebreak construction and/or maintenance||Conservation Statements for threatened flora within the regional forest agreement region for Western Australia Page(s) 1-95. (Atkins, K.J., 1998) [Report].|
|Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity)||Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Dryandra mimica (Summer Honeypot) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008l) [Conservation Advice].|
|Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate prescribed regimes and/or vegetation management to control fire regimes||Declared Rare and Poorly Known Flora in the Central Forest Region. Part 2 (Williams, K., A. Horan, S. Wood & A. Webb, 2001) [State Species Management Plan].|
|Residential and Commercial Development:Housing and Urban Areas:Habitat loss, modification and fragmentation due to urban development||
Conservation Statements for threatened flora within the regional forest agreement region for Western Australia Page(s) 1-95. (Atkins, K.J., 1998) [Report].
Banksia mimica in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006cx) [Internet].
|Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Low numbers of individuals|
Brown, A., C. Thomson-Dans & N. Marchant, eds. (1998). Western Australia's Threatened Flora. Como, Western Australia: Department of Conservation and Land Management.
Department of the Environment (2014a). Threat abatement plan for disease in natural ecosystems caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi. [Online]. Canberra; ACT: Department of the Environment. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/resource/threat-abatement-plan-disease-natural-ecosystems-caused-phytophthora-cinnamomi.
George, A.S. (1984a). Dryandra mimica, a new species of Proteaceae from south-west Western Australia. Nuytsia. 5(1):49-51. CALM, Perth.
George, A.S. (1999a). Dryandra. In: Orchard, A.E., H.S.Thompson & P.M. McCarthy, eds. Flora of Australia. 17B:251-363. Canberra, ACT and Melbourne, Victoria: ABRS and CSIRO.
Kelly, A., L. Monks, E. Hickman & D. Coates (1999). Conservation biology and management of three endangered Dryandra species: Dryandra ionthocarpa, D. mimica and D. montana. Department of Conservation and Management, Western Australia.
Leigh, J.H. & J.D. Briggs (Eds) (1992). Threatened Australian Plants. Overview and Case Studies. New South Wales National Parks and Wildlife Service.
Mast, A.R. & K. Thiele (2007). The transfer of Dryandra R.Br. to Banksia L.f. (Proteaceae). Australian Systematic Botany. 20:63-71.
Monks, L. (2000). Conservation biology of the rare and threatened Dryandra ionthocarpa, D. mimica and D. serra. M.Sc. Thesis. serra Masters Thesis, School of Environmental Biology, Curtin University of Technology, Perth, Western Australia.
Patrick, S.J. & A.P. Brown (2001). Western Australian Wildlife Management Program No. 28. Declared Rare and Poorly Known Flora in the Moora District. [Online]. Perth, Western Australia: Department of Conservation and Land Management. Available from: http://www.dpaw.wa.gov.au/plants-and-animals/threatened-species-and-communities/threatened-plants.
Pieroni, M (1992). Rare and endangered Dryandras. Dryandra Study Group Newsletter. 22:2-7. Society for Growing Australian Plants.
Sainsbury, R.M. (1985). A Field Guide to Dryandra. Page(s) 119 pp. University of WA Press, Nedlands.
Western Australia Department of Environment and Conservation (WA DEC) (2007). Records held in DEC's Declared Flora Database and rare flora files. Perth, Western Australia: Department of Environment and Conservation.
Williams, K., A. Horan, S. Wood & A. Webb (2001). Declared Rare and Poorly Known Flora in the Central Forest Region. Part 2. [Online]. Western Australian Wildlife Management Program No. 33. Department of Conservation and Land Management. Available from: http://www.dpaw.wa.gov.au/plants-and-animals/threatened-species-and-communities/threatened-plants.
Wrigley, J.W. & M. Fagg (1989). Banksias, Waratahs and Grevilleas and all other plants in the Australian Proteaceae family. Sydney, NSW: William Collins Publishers.
This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.
Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Banksia mimica in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Wed, 30 Jul 2014 10:39:02 +1000.