Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Critically Endangered as Glyphis glyphis
Listing and Conservation Advices Commonwealth Listing Advice on Glyphis sp. A (Speartooth Shark) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2001bu) [Listing Advice].
 
Approved Conservation Advice for Glyphis glyphis (speartooth shark) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2014bj) [Conservation Advice].
 
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan required, included on the Commenced List (1/11/2009).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans
Policy Statements and Guidelines Survey guidelines for Australia's threatened fish. EPBC Act survey guidelines 6.4 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011i) [Admin Guideline].
 
Marine bioregional plan for the North Marine Region (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2012x) [Admin Guideline].
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument] as Glyphis sp. A.
 
Inclusion of species in the list of threatened species under section 178 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (24/09/2001) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2001d) [Legislative Instrument] as Glyphis sp. A.
 
Amendment to the list of threatened species under section 178 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (72) (15/12/2008) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2008k) [Legislative Instrument] as Glyphis glyphis.
 
State Government
    Documents and Websites
NT:Threatened Species Information Sheet: Glyphis glyphis (Speartooth Shark, Bizant Shark) (Ward, S. & H. Larson, 2012a) [Information Sheet].
Non-statutory Listing Status
IUCN: Listed as Endangered (Global Status: IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: 2013.1 list)
NT: Listed as Vulnerable (Indicative Conservation Status of Fish in the Northern Territory)
Scientific name Glyphis glyphis [82453]
Family Carcharhinidae:Carcharhiniformes:Chondrichthyes:Chordata:Animalia
Species author (Muller & Henle, 1839)
Infraspecies author  
Reference Compagno, L.J.V., White, W.T. & Last, P.R. (2008) Glyphis garricki sp. nov., a new species of river shark from northern Australia and Papua New Guinea, with a redescription of Glyphis glyphis, pp 203-225.
Other names Glyphis sp. A [66181]
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images

Scientific name: Glyphis glyphis

Common name: Speartooth Shark

Other names: Bizant River Shark, Queensland River Shark

Compagno and colleagues (2008) have recently redescribed Glyphis sp. A as Glyphis glyphis.

The Speartooth Shark is a medium sized whaler shark with a uniformly slate-gray dorsal surface and a white ventral surface. In small individuals the difference between the dorsal and ventral surfaces are clearly noticeable. In larger individuals the colour definition is less marked (Compagno et al. 2008; Stevens et al. 2005).

The Speartooth Shark is characterised by a short and broadly rounded snout. This species has erect, broadly triangular, serrated upper teeth and slender, unserrated lower teeth (Last & Stevens 1994). The Speartooth Shark has comparatively few teeth in comparison to other carcharhinids, with a total of 54 rows in both jaws (Compagno et al. 2008). The teeth are very different in the lower and upper jaws. The upper teeth are characterised by tall, broad, flat, triangular, blade-like, and erect to semi-slanted cusps (ridges on tooth) (Compagno et al. 2008). The lower teeth have narrow, tall, erect and slightly hooked to straight cusps. The first few teeth in the bottom row of large specimens are spear-shaped with serrated cutting edges confined to the tip (Compagno et al. 2008).

The mouth of the Speartooth Shark is white. The eye has a black pupil and there is generally a thin, light ring around the eyes (Compagno et al. 2008).

Pectoral fins of the Speartooth Shark are large, weakly falcate (curved) and originate between gill slits two and four (Compagno et al. 2008). The pectoral fins are triangular and not falcate. The first dorsal fin is slightly curved, broadly triangular and narrow towards the tip. The second dorsal fin has a narrow apex and is not quite triangular (Compagno et al. 2008). The second dorsal fin is between one half and three fifths the height of the first dorsal fin, with an origin slightly anterior to the anal fin (Last & Stevens 1994). The anal fin is semi-curved and narrows towards the tip (Compagno et al. 2008). The caudal (tail) fin is asymmetrical with a short terminal lobe and a long, prominent, narrowly expanded ventral lobe (Compagno et al. 2008).

The Speartooth Shark has a total of 217 vertebrae and 93 precaudal vertebrae whereas the Northern River Shark (Glyphis garricki) has a total 148 vertebrae and 83 precaudal vertebrae. The Speartooth Shark (Glyphis glyphis) also has black or dusky tips on the ventral surface of the pectoral fins which are lacking in Glyphis garricki (Stevens et al. 2005).

The denticles (tooth-shaped scale) on the lateral trunk (side) of an adolescent male are small, imbricate (overlapping), transversely oval, with three (sometimes five) short, stout cusps (ridges on denticles) (Compagno et al. 2008).

Peverell and colleagues (2006) found that the number of sensory ampullae (pores) was markedly increased in the Speartooth Shark in comparison to the River or Bull Shark (Carcharhinus leucas); approximately 624 and 287 ampullae respectively. It was also noted that the Speartooth Shark had relatively small eyes in comparison to the Northern River Shark (as Glyphis garricki) (Peverell et al. 2006).

The maximum recorded size of a whole specimen of the Speartooth Shark is 175 cm total length (TL) for females and 157 cm TL for males (Stevens et al. 2005). The maximum size of this species at maturity is unknown, but it is estimated that it may grow to a length of 2 to 3 m (Last & Stevens 1994).

The Speartooth Shark has so far only been recorded in tidal rivers and estuaries within the Northern Territory and Queensland. Within the Northern Territory the Speartooth Shark has been recorded in the Adelaide River, South, East and West Alligator Rivers, Murganella Creek and Marrakai Creek. In Queensland the Speartooth Shark has been found in the Wenlock and Ducie Rivers, Port Musgrave (the mouth of these two rivers) and the Bizant River (Stevens et al. 2005).

The Speartooth Shark population is estimated to occur over a total area of 502 km². This value was calculated by adding together the area (km²) of each river system/estuary in which the Speartooth Shark has been recorded (Stevens et al. 2005).

Based on current data there are three distinct geographical locations where the Speartooth Shark is known to occur (Stevens et al. 2005). These are:

• the Van Diemen Gulf drainage in the Northern Territory including the Adelaide River, South, East and West Alligator Rivers and Murganella Creek;

• Port Musgrave in Queensland, including the Wenlock and Ducie Rivers; and

• the Bizant River in Queensland.

The Speartooth Shark has been recorded close to Port Romilly and the Fly River in New Guinea (Compagno et al. 2008). Prior to the redescription of the Speartooth Shark as Glyphis glyphis, the Speartooth Shark was thought to be endemic to northern Australia (Compagno et al. 2008; Stevens et al. 2005).

The population size of the Speartooth Shark remains unknown, but is thought to be small based on current knowledge and the apparent rarity of the species (Pogonoski & Pollard 2003; Stevens et al. 2005). The Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC) (2001bu) estimates that there are significantly less than 250 mature individuals in the Bizant River (Queensland) and Alligator River (Northern Territory).

Although there is no documentary evidence of a decline in population size, this species does appear to be naturally rare and has largely eluded the efforts of collectors in the past (Pogonoski et al. 2002).

The Speartooth Shark may occur in different subpopulations but there is no estimate of their size (Stevens et al 2005).

There is insufficient data regarding the Speartooth Shark to suggest a decline in population size. A decline in the number of specimens caught in the Bizant River in Queensland may indicate a reduction in population size, but additional data is required to confirm this (Stevens et al. 2005).

To date, the Speartooth Shark has only been captured in tidal rivers and estuaries indicating that large tropical river systems appear to be the primary habitat for this shark (Stevens et al. 2005). It is inferred that this species may be largely restricted to low salinity environments such as freshwater and brackish areas of rivers (Pillans et al. 2005; Pogonoski & Pollard 2003). The majority of the specimens of Speartooth Shark recorded have been new recruits and juveniles although a small number of sub-adults have also been captured. Most of these specimens were found in fresh water and estuarine environments (Pillans et al. 2005; Stevens et al. 2005).

No sexually mature adult specimens have been captured in these environments, suggesting that they occupy a separate habitat to new recruits and juveniles (Stevens et al. 2005).

Speartooth Sharks have been caught in varying levels of salinity from very low salinity (0.8 parts per thousand, ppt) to salinity levels nearing seawater (28 ppt) (Stevens et al. 2005). Given the range of salinity in which the Speartooth Shark has been recorded, Stevens and colleagues (2005) have classified it as a euryhaline elasmobranch, capable of living in and moving between freshwater and marine environments. Based on data obtained from other euryhaline elasmobranches (e.g. River or Bull Shark - Carcharhinus leucas), it is predicted that adult Speartooth Sharks would live in inshore marine coastal areas, although so far none have been caught in a marine environment despite intensive inshore and offshore sampling (Stevens et al. 2005). One Speartooth Shark, possibly an adult based on weight recorded, was caught at sea in a study of the Northern Territory Offshore Net and Line Fishery (NTONL) (Field et al. 2008).

Specimens have been collected in varying temperatures ranging from 27 to 32ºC (Stevens et al. 2005).

Virtually nothing is known about the biology of this species due to the lack of specimens in research collections (Fowler 1997). It is inferred that the Speartooth Shark bears live young which are approximately 59 cm long at birth (Compagno et al. 2008). As of yet, there is no data on the age, size at maturity or maximum size of the Speartooth Shark (Stevens et al. 2005). However the Speartooth Shark is known to have feeding and ontogenetic (life cycle) migrations offshore, and to migrate inshore to breed, although data to support this is limited (Stevens et al. 2005).

The small eyes and slender teeth of the Speartooth Shark suggest that they are primarily fish-eaters, adapted to life in turbid river waters (Fowler 1997). Peverell and colleagues (2006) analysed the stomach contents of specimens from the Wenlock River in Queensland. The stomach contents included long-armed prawns (Macrobrachium), burrowing gobies (Taenoides or Trypauchen), gudgeons (Prionobutis microps), benthic-feeding jewfish (Nibea squamosa) and bony bream (Nematalosa erebi) indicating that Speartooth Sharks hunt close to and among the soft substrate. The large number of sensory ampullae and the small eye of the Speartooth Shark indicate that it may have adapted to feeding on benthic and demersal species in turbid waters, mainly relying on electromagnetic receptors (Peverell et al. 2006).

Pillans and colleagues (2005) executed a study of the Speartooth Shark, monitoring rates of movement, movement patterns and habitat utilisation within the Adelaide River, Northern Territory. During the study three Speartooth sharks were tagged and monitored. The study found that all three sharks exhibited a cyclic downstream and upstream movement correlating with ebb and flood tides. There was no evidence of a diurnal change in the rate of movement of the tagged sharks. It was suggested that this lack of change in diurnal movement may be due to the average swimming depth of the sharks. One of the sharks in the study swam at a depth of 7.7 m which is most likely to be constantly dark (Pillans et al. 2005).

The majority of recorded specimens of Speartooth Shark have been caught in gill nets set in rivers or estuaries (Pillans et al. 2005; Stevens et al. 2005). The preferred method to set the gill nets is parallel to the river bank, however this is only possible for short periods of time on either side of high and low tides due to strong currents (Stevens et al. 2005).

Specimens in the Australian fish collections were collected using gill nets in shallow depths (less than 6 m) (Australian Fish Collection Records undated).

Stevens and colleagues (2005) recommend that a 30 to 60 m long net is used to capture specimens as longer nets become difficult to manage in stronger currents. Net drop is determined by the depth of water, in general a drop of 2 to 4 m is recommended for water depths of 1 to 6 m. If working in a deep channel using nets with a longer drop is suggested (Stevens et al. 2005). It is important to consider the mesh size of the net as this will determine the size of animals captured. The majority of neonate specimens (50 to 80 cm TL) have been caught using a net with a 10.16 cm mesh. Larger specimens have been captured using a net with a 15.24 to 17.78 cm mesh. Generally the larger the mesh size, the larger the sharks will be that are caught (Stevens et al. 2005). Stevens and colleagues (2005) suggest that the lack of large mature sharks caught may be caused by the animals being too large to be captured in gill nets with a mesh size of 17.78 cm or less. Studies of Glyphis garricki (as Glyphis sp. C) have showed that larger animals (144 to 252 cm TL) were caught using commercial longline fishing whereas the largest recorded animal caught using a gill net was only 141 cm TL (Thorburn & Morgan 2004 as cited in Stevens et al. 2005). This result indicates that a larger mesh size (20.32 cm or greater) and/or longlines should be used to complete a more thorough sample of Speartooth Shark populations. It is recommended that large tuna circle hooks and heavy wire (>150 kg breaking strain) attached to a mainline of at least 500 kg breaking strain, with heavy duty shark clips, should be used if sampling with longlines (Stevens et al. 2005).

Pillans and colleagues (2005) used either a 30 m gillnet with a 2 m drop, or 60 m gillnet with a 4 m drop to capture specimens. The nets were set during the day and checked at regular intervals or when fish were seen to hit the net. The nets were generally set across a river except when tidal flow was too great during which time the nets were set parallel to the river bank, or alternatively fishing was conducted with a rod and line (Pillans et al. 2005).

Peverell and colleagues (2006) surveyed the distribution, abundance and ecology of the Speartooth Shark in the Weipa region of Cape York Peninsula in northern Australia. They used both commercial net fishing and research techniques as a sampling strategy for the Speartooth Shark. They used commercial monofilament gillnets with a mesh size of 16.25 cm with a 3 m drop and which were 3 m long. The nets were set at both low and high tides and were checked in accordance with attendance rules regulating the Gulf of Carpenteria inshore commercial set net fishery (Peverell et al. 2006). During each sampling session water quality was measured and net location recorded. During the survey time the following water quality parameters were measured: pH, salinity (ppt), temperature (ºC), turbidity and conductivity. Habitat parameters were also measured including tidal movement, substrate and riparian vegetation (Peverell et al. 2006).

In the Northern Territory, the Speartooth Shark has been caught in February, March, May, June, September, October, November and December. The best months to sample for specimens appear to be November and December (Stevens et al. 2005). In Queensland, specimens have been caught in March and May, but little sampling has been conducted outside these months (Stevens et al. 2005).

The main threats to the Speartooth Shark are recreational linefishing, gillnetting (e.g for Barramundi Lates calcarifer), and habitat degradation (Pogonoski et. al. 2002; Pogonoski & Pollard 2003; Stevens et al. 2005).

In the Northern Territory the Speartooth Shark is threatened by Barramundi gillnetting and recreational fishing as well as the capture of juveniles for crab-pot bait (Ward & Larson 2006). Over a 10 day period, Stevens and colleagues (2005) observed eight Speartooth Sharks of 50 to 70 cm total length being captured by recreational fishers in the same location on the Adelaide River. All were killed and either eaten or left on the bank (DEWHA 2008; Stevens et al. 2005).

The Speartooth Shark may also be at risk from habitat modification, such as the potential development of Port Musgrave by mining companies, with proposed dredging activities in the Ducie and Wenlock River systems and Port Musgrave. This development could potentially affect the populations of Speartooth Shark in this area (DEWHA 2008).

The Shark Advisory Group (SAG) (2001) found that sharks that occur in freshwater are at a greater risk of fishing pressure as they are generally more accessible to human exploitation and habitat degradation and inhabit a less stable and proportionally smaller habitat than salt water species (Compagno 2000; Walker 1998). In Australia there are four species that appear to occur solely in freshwater, Glyphis glyphis and Glyphis garricki (as Glyphis sp. A and C), Pristis microdon, Freshwater Sawfish and Himantura chaophraya, Freshwater Whipray. The Speartooth Shark and the Freshwater Sawfish are protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999.

Environmental degradation may also impact on sharks. Nursery areas for some shark species occur in shallow inshore areas which are vulnerable to habitat modification associated with industrial, domestic and agricultural development. These areas may need monitoring and protection from degradation (Walker 1998; Walker 2000 as cited in SAG 2001). In addition, aquaculture, ecotourism, spread of exotic organisms and pollution in the marine environment can also impact adversely on aquatic habitats and shark nursery areas and may also warrant monitoring and management to ensure shark populations are protected (SAG 2001).

The quantities and identities of many types of shark captured while fishing for other target species remain unrecorded and some of these species may be at risk of depletion without this threat being recognised (Walker 1998).

Pogonoski and colleagues (2002) identified the Speartooth Shark as critically endangered and have recommended that surveys of northern Australian freshwater catchments are required to determine this species population status and accurately determine its range. Further to this, it is suggested that a National Recovery Team should be formed to coordinate research into the distribution, ecology and biology of the Speartooth Shark (Pogonoski et al. 2002).

The Speartooth Shark may be offered some protection from commercial fishing and habitat modification if it occurs within the Kakadu National Park (Northern Territory) (Pogonoski et al. 2002; Pogonoski & Pollard 2003; Stevens et al. 2005). The effect of uranium mining on the Speartooth Shark, which occurs in Kakadu National Park, is unknown (Stevens et al. 2005). The Bizant and Normandy Rivers in Queensland are found within Lakefield National Park; Speartooth Sharks that are found within these rivers may be offered some protection from habitat modification but not from commercial fishing (Stevens et al. 2005).

Salini (2007) found that by-catch of the Speartooth Shark is not sustainable in any fisheries within its habitat (e.g. Northern Territory Barramundi Fishery and the Queensland Gulf of Carpentaria Inshore Finfish Fishery). Salini (2007) suggests that a management option needs to be considered for species that are classified as a high risk by-catch species such as the Speartooth Shark.

In the Northern Territory, legislation (February 2005) has been established to ensure that commercial Barramundi fisheries are excluded from all rivers in which the Speartooth Shark has been recorded. These rivers are: Adelaide River, South, East and West Alligator Rivers and Murganella Creek, where fishing is only allowed seaward of an imaginary line drawn across the mouth of the river (Northern Territory of Australia Barramundi Fishery Management Plan, February 2005 as cited in Stevens et al. 2005).

Marine bioregional plans have been developed for four of Australia's marine regions - South-west, North-west, North and Temperate East. Marine Bioregional Plans will help improve the way decisions are made under the EPBC Act, particularly in relation to the protection of marine biodiversity and the sustainable use of our oceans and their resources by our marine-based industries. Marine Bioregional Plans improve our understanding of Australia's oceans by presenting a consolidated picture of the biophysical characteristics and diversity of marine life. They describe the marine environment and conservation values of each marine region, set out broad biodiversity objectives, identify regional priorities and outline strategies and actions to address these priorities. Click here for more information about marine bioregional plans.

The Speartooth Shark has been identified as a conservation value in the North (DSEWPaC 2012x) Marine Region. The "species group report card - sawfishes and river sharks" for the North (DSEWPaC 2012x) Marine Region provides additional information.

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Biological Resource Use:Fishing and Harvesting Aquatic Resources:Habitat modification and negative impacts on species numbers due to recreational fishing Commonwealth Listing Advice on Glyphis sp. A (Speartooth Shark) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2001bu) [Listing Advice].
Biological Resource Use:Fishing and Harvesting Aquatic Resources:Harvest by gill netting Conservation Overview and Action Plan for Australian Threatened and Potentially Threatened Marine and Estuarine Fishes (Pogonoski, J.J., D.A. Pollard & J.R. Paxton, 2002) [Cwlth Action Plan].
Commonwealth Listing Advice on Glyphis sp. A (Speartooth Shark) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2001bu) [Listing Advice].
Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Ecosystem Degradation:Decline in habitat quality Commonwealth Listing Advice on Glyphis sp. A (Speartooth Shark) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2001bu) [Listing Advice].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Recreational Activities:Disturbance, especially from human recreational activities and development Conservation Overview and Action Plan for Australian Threatened and Potentially Threatened Marine and Estuarine Fishes (Pogonoski, J.J., D.A. Pollard & J.R. Paxton, 2002) [Cwlth Action Plan].
Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Low numbers of individuals Conservation Overview and Action Plan for Australian Threatened and Potentially Threatened Marine and Estuarine Fishes (Pogonoski, J.J., D.A. Pollard & J.R. Paxton, 2002) [Cwlth Action Plan].
Commonwealth Listing Advice on Glyphis sp. A (Speartooth Shark) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2001bu) [Listing Advice].

Australian Fish Collection Records (undated). Collation of records from Australian Fish Collections.

Compagno, L.J.V. (2000). Sharks, fisheries and biodiversity. Shark Conference 2000 Online Documents. Hawaii. [Online]. Available from: http://www.pacfish.org/sharkcon/documents/compagno.html.

Compagno, L.J.V., W.T. White & P.R. Last (2008). Glyphis garricki sp. nov., a new species of river shark (Characharhiniformes: Carcharhinidae) from Northern Australia and Papua New Guinea, with a rediscription of Glyphis glyphis (Müller & Henle, 1839). Last P.R., W.T. White & J.J. Pogonoski, eds. Descriptions of New Australian Chondrichthyans. CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research Paper 022.

Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC) (2011i). Survey guidelines for Australia's threatened fish. EPBC Act survey guidelines 6.4 . [Online]. EPBC Act policy statement. Canberra, ACT: DSEWPAC. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/epbc/publications/threatened-fish.html.

Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA) (2008). The North Marine Bioregional Plan: Bioregional Profile: A Description of the Ecosystems, Conservation Values and Uses of the North Marine Region. [Online]. Canberra: DEWHA. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/resource/north-marine-bioregional-plan-bioregional-profile-description-ecosystems-conservation.

Field, I.C., R. Charters, R.C. Buckworth, M.G. Meekan & C.J.A. Bradshaw (2008). Distribution and abundance of Glyphis and sawfishes in northen Australia and their potential interactions with commercial fisheries : final report May 2008. [Online]. Canberra, ACT: Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/coasts/publications/glyphis-sawfish-distribution.html.

Fowler, S. (1997). River shark discovered in Sabah. Shark News, Newsletter of the IUCN Shark Specialist Group. 9:11.

Last, P.R. & J.D. Stevens (1994). Sharks and Rays of Australia. Melbourne, Victoria: CSIRO.

Peverell, S. C., McPherson, G. R., Garrett, R. N., & Gribble, N. A. (2006). New records of the River Shark Glyphis (Carcharhinidae) reported from Cape York Peninsula, northern Australia. Zootaxa. 1233:53-68.

Pillans, R.D., J.D. Stevens, P.M. Kyne & J. Salini (2005). Acoustic tracking of Glyphis sp. A in the Adelaide River, Northern Territory, Australia. [Online]. Canberra, Department of the Environment and Heritage. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/coasts/publications/pubs/glyphis-nt.pdf.

Pogonoski, J.J. & D.A. Pollard (2003). Bizant River Shark: Glyphis sp. A. In: Cavanagh, R.D., P.M. Kyne, S.L. Fowler, J.A.Musick & M.B. Bennett, eds. The Conservation Status of Australasian Chondrichthyans - Report of the IUCN Shark Specialist Group Australia and Oceania Regional Red List Workshop, Queensland, Australia, 7-9 March 2003. Page(s) 119-120. [Online]. University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia. Available from: http://www.flmnh.ufl.edu/fish/Organizations/SSG/regions/region8/Ausfinal.pdf.

Pogonoski, J.J., D.A. Pollard & J.R. Paxton (2002). Conservation Overview and Action Plan for Australian Threatened and Potentially Threatened Marine and Estuarine Fishes. [Online]. Canberra, ACT: Environment Australia. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/coasts/publications/marine-fish-action/pubs/marine-fish.pdf.

Salini, J.P. (2007). Northern Australian sharks and rays: the sustainability of target and bycatch species, phase 2. FRDC Report 2002/064. Page(s) 176. Canberra: Fisheries Research and Development Corporation.

Shark Advisory Group (SAG) (2001). Australian Shark Assessment Report for the Australian National Plan of Action for the Conservation and Management of Sharks. [Online]. Shark Advisory Group. Australia, Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry. Available from: http://www.daff.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0018/17721/shark_assess_report.pdf.

Stevens, J.D., R.D. Pillans & J. Salini (2005). Conservation Assessment of Glyphis sp. A (Speartooth Shark), Glyphis sp. C (Northern River Shark), Pristis microdon (Freshwater Sawfish) and Pristis zijsron (Green Sawfish). [Online]. Hobart, Tasmania: CSIRO Marine Research. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/coasts/publications/pubs/assessment-glyphis.pdf.

Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC) (2001bu). Commonwealth Listing Advice on Glyphis sp. A (Speartooth Shark). [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/species/speartooth-shark.html.

Walker, T.I. (1998). Can shark resources be harvested sustainably? A question revisited with a review of shark fisheries. Marine and Freshwater Research. 49:553-572.

Ward, S. & H. Larson (2006). Threatened Species Information Sheet: Glyphis sp. A (Speartooth Shark, Bizant Shark). [Online]. Northern Territory, Department of Natural Resources, Environment and the Arts (DNREA). Available from: http://www.nt.gov.au/nreta/wildlife/animals/threatened/pdf/fish/Speartooth_Shark_VU.pdf.

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This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Glyphis glyphis in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Thu, 21 Aug 2014 16:28:14 +1000.