Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Vulnerable as Thalassarche melanophris impavida
Listed marine as Thalassarche impavida
Listed migratory - Bonn as Thalassarche impavida
This taxon may be listed under the EPBC Act at the species level, see Thalassarche melanophris [66472].
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan required, this species had a recovery plan in force at the time the legislation provided for the Minister to decide whether or not to have a recovery plan (19/2/2007).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan] as Thalassarche melanophris impavida.
 
Other EPBC Act Plans Threat Abatement Plan 2006 - Bycatch of Seabirds for the Incidental Catch (or By-catch) of Seabirds During Oceanic Longline Fishing Operations (Australian Government Department of the Environment and Heritage (AGDEH), 2006q) [Threat Abatement Plan].
 
Policy Statements and Guidelines Marine bioregional plan for the Temperate East Marine Region (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2012aa) [Admin Guideline].
 
Survey Guidelines for Australia's Threatened Birds. EPBC Act survey guidelines 6.2 (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2010l) [Admin Guideline].
 
Information Sheets Background Paper, Population Status and Threats to Albatrosses and Giant Petrels Listed as Threatened under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011k) [Information Sheet].
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument] as Thalassarche impavida.
 
List of Migratory Species (13/07/2000) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000b) [Legislative Instrument] as Diomedea melanophris impavida.
 
Declaration under section 248 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of Marine Species (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000c) [Legislative Instrument] as Thalassarche impavida.
 
Amendment to the list of threatened species under section 178 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (72) (15/12/2008) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2008k) [Legislative Instrument] as Thalassarche melanophris impavida.
 
Amendment to the list of threatened species under section 178 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (87) (23/09/2009) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2009i) [Legislative Instrument] as Thalassarche melanophris impavida.
 
State Listing Status
SA: Listed as Vulnerable (National Parks and Wildlife Act 1972 (South Australia): June 2011 list) as Diomedea melanophris impavida
WA: Listed as Vulnerable (Wildlife Conservation Act 1950 (Western Australia): September 2013 list) as Thalassarche impavida
Scientific name Thalassarche melanophris impavida [82449]
Family Diomedeidae:Procellariiformes:Aves:Chordata:Animalia
Species author  
Infraspecies author Mathews, 1912
Reference  
Other names Thalassarche impavida [64459]
Diomedea melanophris impavida [85037]
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images

Scientific Name: Thalassarche melanophris impavida

Common Name: Campbell Albatross

Significant taxonomic confusion exists within the albatross group. This profile follows the taxonomy applied by Dickinson (2003), the Australian Fauna Directory (AFD 2010) and Christidis and Boles (2008), where Campbell's Albatross is treated as a subspecies of Thalassarche melanophris. Some authorities, including the Agreement on the Conservation of Albatrosses and Petrels, treat Campbell's Albatross as a full species, Thalassarche impavida (Robertson & Nunn 1997).

The Campbell Albatross is a medium sized albatross, with a wingspan of 210–250 cm. Like the Black-browed Albatross (Thalassarche melanophris), adult Campbell Albatross have a white head with a distinctive black brow, bright yellow-orange bill and broad black leading edge on the underwing. The Campbell Albatross differs from the Black-browed Albatross in having a heavier black brow (more extensive in front of the eye); a honey coloured (not dark-brown) iris; slightly broader black leading edge on underwing; and a series of bold streaks running from the elbow and extending inwards to the base of the wing, creating an isolated white patch in the centre of the wing-pit (Marchant & Higgins 1990).

The Campbell Albatross is a non-breeding visitor to Australian waters. Non-breeding birds are most commonly seen foraging over the oceanic continental slopes off Tasmania, Victoria and New South Wales (EA 2001f). After breeding, birds move north and may enter Australia's temperate shelf waters (Marchant & Higgins 1990).

Campbell Albatrosses occur in Antarctic and sub-Antarctic waters, and in the subtropical South Pacific Ocean. They breed only on sub-Antarctic Campbell Island (New Zealand), south of New Zealand. Throughout the breeding season, breeding adults are generally found over the shelf waters surrounding New Zealand, whereas non-breeding birds often forage over the continental slopes around Australia. Following the breeding season, individuals may move north to the temperate shelf waters of New Zealand, Australia, and the central and western Pacific Islands (EA 2001f; Marchant & Higgins 1990).

The most recent estimate of the global population of Campbell Albatrosses was made in 1987/88, when it was estimated that 19 000 - 26 000 pairs bred on Campbell Island. This estimate signalled an overall decline of between 38-57% since 1942, with some colonies falling by as much as 88% (EA 1999). A population estimate by Robertson (1980, in EA 1999) of 74 825 pairs in 1976 is thought to be an over-estimate (EA 1999).

The population of Campbell Albatross in the 1960s appears to have been over 30 000 pairs (Croxall & Gales 1998). Counts from 1966-1984 suggested a rapid decline, but this appears declines have slowed since 1984 (Waugh et al. 1999b). Although the species is still numerous, its decreasing population size and association with fishing boats are cause for concern (Waugh et al. 1999b).

Photographic surveys suggest there has been further declines in population numbers in recent decades (EA 1999). Garnet & Crowley (2000) estimate that the global population of Campbell Albatross is likely to decrease by at least 20% over the next 3 generations (45 years) as a result of fishing by-catch.

The Campbell Albatross is a marine sea bird inhabiting sub-Antarctic and subtropical waters from pelagic to shelf-break water habitats (Marchant & Higgins 1990). In the Antarctic, it occurs through the belt of icebergs to the edge of the consolidated pack-ice (Falla 1937; Hicks 1973). The Campbell Albatross does not penetrate the ice-packs, perhaps because ice inhibits soaring by dampening sea swells (Ainley et al. 1984). They tolerate sea surface-temperatures from 0–24 °C (Bierman & Voous 1950; Grindley 1981; Jehl 1973), but are mainly found in the sub-Antarctic (Jehl 1973; Johnstone & Kerry 1976). In December, the subspecies southern limit in the Ross Sea is at the 1.0 °C isotherm and in January at the 0.0 °C isotherm (Ainley et al. 1984).

In breeding and non-breeding seasons, the Campbell Albatross are specialised shelf feeders, concentrating around breeding islands or over adjacent submarine banks (Weimerskirch et al. 1986, 1988). In winter, they are commonly found in the coastal waters of continents, over up-wellings or boundaries of currents (Brown 1975; Cooke & Mills 1972; Weimerskirch et al. 1985).

The Campbell Albatross breed on Campbell Island (Marchant & Higgins 1990). They make their nests on tussock-covered ledges and terraces of cliffs, slopes and hills, overlooking the sea or valleys, and on the summits of rocky islets (Bailey & Sorenson 1962; Downes et al. 1959; Weimerskirch et al. 1986).

The Campbell Albatross breeds annually in colonies, sometimes in association with the Grey-headed Albatross (Thalassarche chysostoma), the Rockhopper Penguin (Eudyptes chrysocome) or the Magellanic Penguin (Spheniscus magellanicus). Pairs of Campbell Albatross are monogamous, but no information is available on the length of the pair bond. Adults arrive at the breeding colonies in late August to early September, with both sexes arriving around the same time. Nests consist of a column of packed soil, grass and roots, with parallel sides and a depression on top. Occasionally pedestals of tussock grass are converted into nests. On Heard Island, eggs are laid late September to early October. The incubation period is uncertain, but is likely to be about 68 days. The single egg is incubated by both sexes, and the chick is fed by both parents until fledging. Departure of successful breeders and fledglings occurs mid-April (Bailey & Sorensen 1962; Robertson 1980).

The age at first breeding is thought to be 7-8 years in Campbell Albatross. The generation length of the Campbell Albatross is approximately 15 years (Garnett & Crowley 2000).

Breeding success is thought to be moderate. In 1988, 50 eggs were monitored, 26 of which (52%) successfully fledged (EA 2001f).

The Campbell Albatross feeds on krill and fish, with some cephalopods, salps and jellyfish. They are enthusiastic scavengers, and often follow fishing boats (Marchant & Higgins 1990). They take food from the sea surface or just below, occasionally plunging from heights of up to 9 m (Harper 1987; Prince 1980; Voisin 1982). They have been recorded to reach depths of 2–4 m when taking offal (Nicholls 1979; Oatley 1979).

The Campbell Albatross often feeds with other albatrosses and petrels (family Diomedeidae). They are aggressive feeders and dominate all other species, except for the great albatrosses (Diomedea spp.) (Weimerskirch et al. 1986).

The Campbell Albatross is migratory, moving from the breeding colonies to the continental shelf waters off Australia and New Zealand. Adults and fledglings leave the breeding grounds on the Campbell Islands mid-April, with breeding birds returning between late August and early September. Non-breeding immatures and adults disperse through the south Pacific and across southern Australian waters (Marchant & Higgins 1990). Most birds probably return to their natal breeding island once they reach breeding age (Marchant & Higgins 1990).

Drowning in longline fishing gear is the primary threat to the Campbell Albatross in Australian waters, with sub-adults being over-represented in the bycatch (Waugh et al. 1999b). Foraging birds may also suffer from collision with cables and warps used on fishing trawlers (EA 2001f; Gales 1998).

The incidental catch of seabirds during oceanic longline fishing operations is listed as a key threatening process under the EPBC Act. The Commonwealth's Threat Abatement Plan 2006 for the Incidental Catch (or bycatch) of Seabirds During Oceanic Longline Fishing Operations (AGDEH 2006q) long-term aim is to achieve zero bycatch of seabirds in longline fisheries, especially of threatened albatross and petrel species to bycatch to below 0.05 seabirds per thousand hooks (a reduction of up to 90% of seabird bycatch within the AFZ) within five years by:

  • Mitigation - Effective measures will be put in place, both through legislative frameworks and fishing practices, to ensure the rate of seabird bycatch is continually reduced.
  • Education - Results from data analysis will be communicated throughout the community, stakeholder groups and international forums, and programs will be established that provide information and education to longline operators.
  • International Initiatives - Global adoption of seabird bycatch mitigation targets and methods will be pursued through international conservation and fisheries management fora.
  • Research and Development - Research into new mitigation measures and their development, trialling and assessment will be supported through the granting of individual permits and the potential certification of new measures to apply throughout a fishery.
  • Innovation - Potential individual accreditation of longline operators who are able to demonstrate `bird-friendly' fishing practices will be supported.

The overall objective of the National Recovery Plan for Threatened Albatrosses and Giant Petrels 2011-2016 (DSEWPaC 2011l) is to ensure the long term survival and recovery of albatross and giant petrel populations breeding and foraging in Australian jurisdiction by reducing or eliminating human related threats at sea and on land. This will be achieved through the following specific objectives:

  • Research and monitor the biology, ecology and population dynamics of Albatrosses and Giant Petrels breeding within Australian jurisdiction to understand conservation status and to implement effective and efficient conservation measures.
  • Quantify and reduce land-based threats to the survival and breeding success of Albatrosses and Giant Petrels breeding within areas under Australian jurisdiction.
  • Quantify and reduce marine-based threats to the survival and breeding success of Albatrosses and Giant Petrels foraging in waters under Australian jurisdiction.
  • Educate fishers and raise public awareness on the threats to Albatrosses and Giant Petrels.
  • Promote and develop favourable conservation status of Albatrosses and Giant Petrels globally in international conservation and fishing fora.

Marine bioregional plans have been developed for four of Australia's marine regions - South-west, North-west, North and Temperate East. Marine Bioregional Plans will help improve the way decisions are made under the EPBC Act, particularly in relation to the protection of marine biodiversity and the sustainable use of our oceans and their resources by our marine-based industries. Marine Bioregional Plans improve our understanding of Australia's oceans by presenting a consolidated picture of the biophysical characteristics and diversity of marine life. They describe the marine environment and conservation values of each marine region, set out broad biodiversity objectives, identify regional priorities and outline strategies and actions to address these priorities. Click here for more information about marine bioregional plans.

The Campbell Albatross has been identified as a conservation value in the Temperate East (DSEWPaC 2012aa) Marine Region. See Schedule 2 of the Temperate East Marine Bioregional Plan (DSEWPaC 2012aa) for regional advice. Maps of Biologically Important Areas have been developed for Campbell Albatross in the Temperate East (DSEWPaC 2012aa) Marine Region and may provide additional relevant information. Go to the conservation values atlas to view the locations of these Biologically Important Areas. The "species group report card - seabirds" for the Temperate East (DSEWPaC 2012aa) Marine Region provides additional information.

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Biological Resource Use:Fishing and Harvesting Aquatic Resources:Commercial harvest National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Fishing and Harvesting Aquatic Resources:Illegal fishing practices and entanglement in set nets National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Fishing and Harvesting Aquatic Resources:Incidental capture and death due to trawling fishing activities National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Fishing and Harvesting Aquatic Resources:Incidental capture and death due to trolling fishing activities National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Fishing and Harvesting Aquatic Resources:Incidental capture and drowning by longline fishing National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Threat Abatement Plan for the incidental catch (or by-catch) of seabirds during oceanic longline fishing operations (Environment Australia, 1998) [Threat Abatement Plan].
National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Fishing and Harvesting Aquatic Resources:Mortality due to capture, entanglement/drowning in nets and fishing lines National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Fishing and Harvesting Aquatic Resources:Overfishing, competition with fishing operations and overfishing of prey fishing National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Gathering Terrestrial Plants:Commercial harvest National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Climate Change and Severe Weather:Climate change altering atmosphere/hydrosphere temperatures, rainfall patterns and/or frequency of severe weather events National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Climate Change and Severe Weather:Habitat changes caused by climate change National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Habitat Shifting and Alteration:Habitat modification, destruction and alteration due to changes in land use patterns National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human disturbance as the result of ecotourism National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human induced disturbance due to unspecified activities National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Mechanical disturbance during construction, maintanance or recreational activities National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:inappropriate conservation measures National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Recreational Activities:shooting National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Oryctolagus cuniculus (Rabbit, European Rabbit) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Felis catus (Cat, House Cat, Domestic Cat) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Rattus norvegicus (Brown Rat, Norway Rat) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Rattus rattus (Black Rat, Ship Rat) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Nasua narica (Common Coati, Coatimundi) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Mustela erminea ferghanae (Ermin, Stoat) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Canis lupus familiaris (Domestic Dog) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation by rats National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, competition and/or habitat degradation Mus musculus (House Mouse) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, tramping, competition and/or habitat degradation Capra hircus (Goat) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, tramping, competition and/or habitat degradation Ovis aries (Sheep) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, tramping, competition and/or habitat degradation Sus scrofa (Pig) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, tramping, competition and/or habitat degradation Bos taurus (Domestic Cattle) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Predation, competition, habitat degradation and/or spread of pathogens by introduced species National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Presence of pathogens and resulting disease National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:unspecified National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Problematic Native Species:Competition and/or predation by birds National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Pollution:Garbage and Solid Waste:Dumping of household and industrial waste National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Pollution:Garbage and Solid Waste:Ingestion and entanglement with marine debris National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Pollution:Pollution:Deterioration of water and soil quality (contamination and pollution) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Pollution:Pollution:Pollution due to oil spills and other chemical pollutants National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Pollution:Pollution:heavy metals National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Pollution:Pollution:spillage National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Low numbers of individuals National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].

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Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Thalassarche melanophris impavida in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Fri, 1 Aug 2014 23:24:50 +1000.