Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Endangered as Accipiter hiogaster natalis
Listing and Conservation Advices Commonwealth Listing Advice for Loss of biodiversity and ecosystem integrity following invasion by the Yellow Crazy Ant (Anoplolepis gracilipes) on Christmas Island, Indian Ocean (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2005a) [Listing Advice].
 
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan required, this species had a recovery plan in force at the time the legislation provided for the Minister to decide whether or not to have a recovery plan (19/2/2007).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans National recovery plan for the Christmas Island Goshawk Accipiter fasciatus natalis (Hill, R., 2004a) [Recovery Plan] as Accipiter hiogaster natalis.
 
Other EPBC Act Plans Threat Abatement Plan for Reduction in Impacts of Tramp Ants on Biodiversity in Australia and its Territories (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006p) [Threat Abatement Plan].
 
Threat abatement plan to reduce the impacts of exotic rodents on biodiversity on Australian offshore islands of less than 100 000 hectares 2009 (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2009u) [Threat Abatement Plan].
 
Policy Statements and Guidelines Survey Guidelines for Australia's Threatened Birds. EPBC Act survey guidelines 6.2 (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2010l) [Admin Guideline].
 
Information Sheets Final Report of the Christmas Island Expert Working Group to the Minister for the Environment Protection, Heritage and the Arts (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2010a) [Information Sheet].
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument] as Accipiter fasciatus natalis.
 
Amendment to the list of threatened species under section 178 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (72) (15/12/2008) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2008k) [Legislative Instrument] as Accipiter hiogaster natalis.
 
Non-statutory Listing Status
NGO: Listed as Endangered (The Action Plan for Australian Birds 2010)
Scientific name Accipiter hiogaster natalis [82408]
Family Accipitridae:Falconiformes:Aves:Chordata:Animalia
Species author  
Infraspecies author (Lister,1889)
Reference  
Other names Accipiter fasciatus natalis [25974]
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images

Scientific name: Accipiter fasciatus natalis

Common name: Christmas Island Goshawk

The taxonomic status of the Christmas Island Goshawk is uncertain. This profile follows Christidis and Boles (2008) and treats the bird as a subspecies of the Varied Goshawk (Accipiter hiogaster) following the treatment by Ferguson-Lees and Christie (2001). Further study, including genetic analysis, may indicate the the Christmas Island Goshawk is a distinct species (Christidis & Boles 2008).

Many authorities treat the Christmas Island Goshawk as a subspecies of the Brown Goshawk (Accipter fasciatus) (Dickinson 2003; Inskipp et al. 1996; Marchant & Higgins 1993; Sibley & Monroe 1990). However, its call and appearance are similar to the Varied Goshawk (A. hiogaster), and possibly most closely related to one particular subspecies of the Varied Goshawk (A. h. griseogularis) on the Maluku (or Moluccas) Islands of Indonesia (Carter 1994; Debus 1994).

The taxonomy of the Christmas Island Goshawk and the Accipter novaehollandiae-hiogaster-griseogularis complex remains unresolved and is complicated by the convention to combine the Varied Goshawk and the Grey Goshawk (Accipiter novaehollandiae) as a single species (Dickinson 2003; Inskipp et al. 1996; Sibley & Monroe 1990). Other issues include the decision of Ferguson-Lees and Christie (2001) to:

  • recognise the Varied Goshawk and Grey Goshawk as distinct species
  • elevate the Maluku subspecies of the Varied Goshawk to full species status as the Grey-throated Goshawk (A. griseogularis)
  • treat the Christmas Island Goshawk as a subspecies of the Varied Goshawk while at the same time acknowledging the possibility that the Christmas Island Goshawk could alternately represent a form of the Grey-throated Goshawk or represent a distinct species.

The Christmas Island Goshawk is a large hawk with a dark grey head and upperparts, mostly rufous underparts with fine and sometimes almost imperceptible white barring, yellow irides, yellow eyelids, greenish-yellow cere (the area at the base of the bill), yellow legs and feet and black talons (Gibson-Hill 1947; Hurley 2005; Marchant & Higgins 1993). The sexes have similar plumages, although the throat of the male is white with grey spots whilst the throat of the female has a rufous-brown wash (Gibson-Hill 1947). The female (total length about 42 cm, weight 271–490 g) is noticeably larger than the male (total length about 36 cm, weight 200–260 g) (Gibson-Hill 1947; Hurley 2005). Immature and sub-adult goshawks can be readily distinguished from the adults by the predominantly brown upperparts and the thick brown and white barring on the underparts (Hurley 2005).

The Christmas Island Goshawk is usually seen singly outside the breeding season, and in pairs or family groups immediately post-breeding (Marchant & Higgins 1993).

The Christmas Island Goshawk is confined to the Australian territory of Christmas Island (Marchant & Higgins 1993; Peters 1931), where it is described as being widespread but uncommon (Hill 2004a). In recent years, the goshawk has been recorded across most of the island and in all major habitats on the island (Corbett et al. 2003; Hill 2004a; Hurley 2005; James & Retallick 2007).

The extent of occurrence of the Christmas Island Goshawk is estimated, with high reliability, to be 137 km² (Garnett & Crowley 2000). The extent of occurrence appears to have remained unchanged since the settlement of Christmas Island in 1888. Accordingly, the extent of occurrence is currently considered to be stable (Garnett & Crowley 2000).

The area of occupancy of the Christmas Island Goshawk is estimated, with low reliability, to be 100 km² (Garnett & Crowley 2000). The continued presence of the goshawk across most of the island, and in all major habitats (Corbett et al. 2003; Hill 2004a; Hurley 2005; James & Retallick 2007), suggests that the area of occupancy is probably similar today to what it was in the past. However, while the goshawk may be a generalist subspecies capable of foraging in most available habitats, it almost certainly nests only in suitable tall trees in native rainforest (Hill 2004a). Consequently, the removal of approximately 25% of the native rainforest on Christmas Island to establish human settlements, phosphate mining operations and associated infrastructure (Environment Australia 2002i; Stokes 1988), while perhaps having had little affect on the area of occupancy, has undoubtedly reduced the area of breeding habitat.

The critical habitat of the Christmas Island Goshawk, primary rainforest, has been fragmented by clearing, and is dissected by roads and 'grid lines' cleared for historic phosphate exploration (Hill 2004a). However, the Christmas Island Goshawk has been observed across most of the island, and in all major habitats on the island (Corbett et al. 2003; Hill 2004a; Hurley 2005; James & Retallick 2007). Consequently, the fragmentation of the habitat apparently has not constrained the movements of goshawk or caused the population to become splintered into isolated subpopulations.

Since the 1990s, the status of the Christmas Island Goshawk has been investigated during island-wide surveys of the Christmas Island avifauna (Hill 2004a; James & Retallick 2007), local fauna surveys at proposed phosphate mining sites and sites of comparison in Christmas Island National Park (Corbett et al. 2003), and a project to band the goshawk population to help determine its size (Hurley 2005).

The population size of the Christmas Island Goshawk is estimated at 100 breeding individuals (Hill 2004a). A total of 55 goshawks were captured and banded on Christmas Island in June–September in 2004 (Hurley 2005).

The Christmas Island Goshawk is considered to occur in a single, contiguous breeding population (Garnett & Crowley 2000).

The population size of the Christmas Island Goshawk is considered to have declined, perhaps to as little as 75% of its former size, since the settlement of Christmas Island in 1888 (Stokes 1988). The population size appears to have declined between 1938 and the early 1970s, but this trend was reversed and numbers had begun to recover by 1977 (Nelson 1977; Stokes 1988). In 2000, numbers were suspected to again be in decline, this time in response to the spread of the introduced Yellow Crazy Ant (Anoplolepis gracilipes) (Garnett & Crowley 2000). However, an island-wide aerial baiting campaign for the Yellow Crazy Ant in September 2002 greatly mitigated the threat posed by this species (Hill 2004a). No information on the trend in numbers of the Christmas Island Goshawk has been documented since the baiting campaign for the Yellow Crazy Ant was completed.

The generation length of the Christmas Island Goshawk is speculatively estimated at 10 years (Garnett & Crowley 2000).
The Christmas Island Goshawk is not known to cross-breed with any other species on Christmas Island.

Most records of the Christmas Island Goshawk are from within Christmas Island National Park, which covers approximately 63% of the total land area of Christmas Island (Hill 2004a; Hurley 2005; James & Retallick 2007).

The Christmas Island Goshawk occurs in all forest types on the island, but is commonly seen in secondary forest, settlements or rehabilitated habitat (Hill 1997a). It often occurs in sparser vegetation growth at edges or in clearings in the forest (Gibson-Hill 1947).

The Christmas Island Goshawk nests in tall trees in forest patches of more than 1.5 ha in area. Its nest sites are often near cleared land, possibly because these sites provide better visibility and access to food (Hill 1997a). The species of trees, the density and height of trees, and the amount of understorey vegetation are apparently not important in habitat choice (Marchant & Higgins 1993).

The life expectancy of the Christmas Island Goshawk has not been documented. No specific information is available on the age of sexual maturity, but it is possible that females could begin to breed at one year of age, as recorded for the nominate subspecies Accipiter fasciatus fasciatus on mainland Australia (Aumann 1988a).
The breeding season and behaviour of the Christmas Island Goshawk are probably similar to those of the mainland goshawk populations of northern Australia. These populations breed from early September to early December (Hollands 1991). They make a rough nest of sticks with leaves throughout, lined with green leaves (Cupper & Cupper 1981). Mainland Goshawks are considered to be monogamous, but there have been no long-term studies of marked birds (Marchant & Higgins 1993). Mainland goshawks apparently pair for at least one season, but replace their mate if lost (Aumann 1988a). Female goshawks may breed successfully in their first or second year, but males typically breed only in full adult plumage (Ashton 1987; Aumann 1988a; Hollands 1991).

The clutch size of Australian mainland goshawks is usually three, but is sometimes two or four (Baker-Gabb 1984b). Eggs are incubated and chicks brooded by both sexes, but mostly by the female. The incubation period is 30–33 days (Olsen et al. 1982), and the fledging period is 28–40 days, with males usually fledging before females (Hobbs 1971b; Hollands 1991).

The Christmas Island Goshawk feeds on large insects, such as grasshoppers, beetles and mantids, centipedes and small birds, mammals and reptiles (Gibson-Hill 1947; Hill 2004a; Hurley 2005).

The Christmas Island Goshawk searches for prey mainly from concealed perches within foliage, but also from low unconcealed perches or actively on the wing. It is not usually active on the ground, but may stalk and take prey there (Marchant & Higgins 1993).

The Christmas Island Goshawk is an endemic resident of Christmas Island, is territorial and does not migrate, unlike the closely-related subspecies on the Australian mainland, which is partially migratory (Marchant & Higgins 1993; Stokes 1988).

Distinctiveness
The Christmas Island Goshawk is likely to be distinctive as it is not similar to any other species on Christmas Island.

Detectability
The Christmas Island Goshawk is secretive and inconspicuous, but is also confinding and remarkably approachable, and may be attracted to walkers as they disturb prey (Carter 1994; Hill 1997a; Marchant & Higgins 1993).

Yellow Crazy Ant
The invasive Yellow Crazy Ant was introduced to Christmas Island in 1915–1934. At high densities, it is capable of having a devastating impact on the rainforest ecosystem of Christmas Island. Local populations of ground-dwelling animals, including the Red Crab (Geocarcoidea natalis), may be reduced or eliminated in heavily infested areas, and insect populations could also be affected. Such changes could have a direct effect on the Christmas Island Goshawk, which is wholly dependent on rainforest vertebrates and invertebrates for food (Threatened Species Scientific Committee 2005a).

The removal of the Red Crab, which is the dominant rainforest species on Christmas Island, could potentially alter the structure, composition and litter dynamics of the rainforest ecosystem. The ant also exhibits a mutually beneficial relationship with scale insects, and the combined foraging activity of these organisms can stress trees to the point of death and cause dieback of the rainforest canopy. Yellow Crazy Ants probably kill nestlings and any bird that goes to ground in a heavily infested area (Garnett & Crowley 2000; Hill 2004a; O'Dowd et al. 1999; Orchard et al. 2002).

In 2001, the Yellow Crazy Ant was widespread in the rainforest of Christmas Island, and present in very high densities at 22.7% of rainforest sites surveyed (Orchard et al. 2002). To address the threat posed by the ant, an island-wide aerial baiting campaign was undertaken in September 2002, during which all sites with very high densities of ants were treated with insecticide. The baiting campaign proved to be successful at controlling the spread of the ant, but did not eradicate it from the island entirely. In 2004, the Yellow Crazy Ant persisted on Christmas Island in low densities, but the absence of sustained monitoring and (where necessary) control the pest could rapidly attain high densities. Parks Australia North monitor ant densities on the island and plan to undertake hand baiting wherever high densities begin to develop (Hill 2004a).

Habitat loss
The clearance of native rainforest is considered a primary cause of the historical decline of the Christmas Island Goshawk (Stokes 1988). Approximately 25% or more of the native rainforest on Christmas Island has been cleared for human settlement, phosphate mining operations, Commonwealth buildings and other infrastructure (Environment Australia 2002i; Stokes 1988). Some areas that were cleared for historic mining operations or the construction of roads, today support secondary vegetation that is used by the Christmas Island Goshawk for foraging purposes (Environment Australia 2002i; Hill 2004a). It is unlikely that these same areas are used for breeding, but this situation may be partly rectified in the future by the Christmas Island Rainforest Rehabilitation Program, which aims to rehabilitate disused minefields (Hill 2004a). Future development may further reduce rainforest habitat (Hill 2004a).

Disease
The introduction of an avian disease to Christmas Island could potentially impact on the Christmas Island Goshawk. No specific disease has been identified and the potential for the Christmas Island Goshawk to be exposed to a new avian disease has been reduced by the introduction of a quarantine barrier in 1994 (Hill 2004a).

Small population size and restricted distribution
The Christmas Island Goshawk population is small and confined to a single small location. As such, it is conceivable that the entire population could be affected by a single catastrophic event such as a cyclone or severe storm. The small population size also renders the goshawk vulnerable to fluctuations in demographic parameters such as mortality and breeding success, and, in the event of a further permanent decline in numbers, to inbreeding depression, a condition in which breeding between closely related individuals can reduce the health and resilience of the resultant offspring (Hill 2004a).

Persecution
Killing by humans, and especially by owners of poultry, is considered to have been a primary cause of the historical decline of the Christmas Island Goshawk (Gibson-Hill 1947; Hill 2004a; Stokes 1988). The goshawk is now protected under the terms of the EPBC Act. Consequently, illegal killing is presumed to be a minor threat to the subspecies, although Stokes (1988) reported that birds are still occasionally observed with injuries attributable to slingshots.

Road deaths
There have been reports of goshawk deaths resulting from collisions with vehicles. A substantial increase in vehicular traffic is expected if the proposed construction of the immigration reception and processing centre and satellite launching facility is approved. This would likely increase the incidence of road deaths in areas with high levels of vehicular traffic (Hill 2004a).

Predation
Cats (Felis catus) are considered to be a potential threat to the Christmas Island Goshawk, especially around settled areas (Hill 2004a).

Invasive weeds
Weeds, and especially newly introduced invasive species, could reduce the number of suitable nest sites, for example, by forming vine towers over nesting trees (Hill 2004a).

The following recovery actions have been implemented to the benefit of the Christmas Island Goshawk:

  • A recovery plan has been published (Hill 2004a).
  • A project is underway to band most of the population (Hurley 2005).
  • A threat abatement plan has been published to reduce the impact of the Yellow Crazy Ant and other species of invasive exotic tramp ants on biodiversity in Australia and its territories (Commonwealth of Australia 2006).
  • A control program for the Yellow Crazy Ant was implemented successfully in September 2002, although the species remains present on the island in low densities (Hill 2004a).
  • Contingency plans have been developed to establish a captive population on mainland Australia in the event of a population crash (Garnett & Crowley 2000).

The following recovery actions are to be implemented during the life of the current recovery plan (Hill 2004a):

  • Investigate the taxonomic relationship of the Christmas Island Goshawk to the Brown Goshawk and Grey Goshawk by comparing sequences of mitochondrial DNA.
  • Conduct a detailed survey to determine population size, distribution, age structure, fledging success and survival rates.
  • Implement regular on-going monitoring of population size and breeding success.
  • Develop and implement a wildlife management plan for outside of Christmas Island National Park, and ensure the protection of critical habitat located outside of Christmas Island National Park.
  • Continue to implement the Christmas Island Rainforest Rehabilitation Program.
  • Implement the invasive ants on Christmas Island action plan.
  • Maintain and regularly review a quarantine barrier to minimise the potential for a new avian disease to be introduced to Christmas Island.
  • Implement a community education program to raise awareness and interest in the conservation of the Christmas Island Goshawk.
  • Establish a recovery team.
  • Conduct a major review of the recovery plan.

There has only been one major study on the Christmas Island Goshawk (Hurley 2005).

The key management document for the Christmas Island Goshawk is the current recovery plan (Hill 2004a).

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Agriculture and Aquaculture:Land clearing, habitat fragmentation and/or habitat degradation A review of the birds of Christmas Island, Indian Ocean (Stokes, T., 1988) [Journal].
Biological Resource Use:Hunting and Collecting Terrestrial Animals:illegal control National recovery plan for the Christmas Island Goshawk Accipiter fasciatus natalis (Hill, R., 2004a) [Recovery Plan].
Energy Production and Mining:Mining and Quarrying:Habitat destruction, disturbance and/or modification due to mining activities National recovery plan for the Christmas Island Goshawk Accipiter fasciatus natalis (Hill, R., 2004a) [Recovery Plan].
Energy Production and Mining:Mining and Quarrying:Habitat modification through open cut mining/quarrying activities The Action Plan for Australian Birds 2000 (Garnett, S.T. & G.M. Crowley, 2000) [Cwlth Action Plan].
A review of the birds of Christmas Island, Indian Ocean (Stokes, T., 1988) [Journal].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation by weeds National recovery plan for the Christmas Island Goshawk Accipiter fasciatus natalis (Hill, R., 2004a) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Felis catus (Cat, House Cat, Domestic Cat) National recovery plan for the Christmas Island Goshawk Accipiter fasciatus natalis (Hill, R., 2004a) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Anoplolepis gracilipes (Yellow Crazy Ant, Gramang Ant, Long-legged Ant, Maldive Ant) The Action Plan for Australian Birds 2000 (Garnett, S.T. & G.M. Crowley, 2000) [Cwlth Action Plan].
National recovery plan for the Christmas Island Goshawk Accipiter fasciatus natalis (Hill, R., 2004a) [Recovery Plan].
Status, impact and recommendations for research and management of exotic invasive ants in Christmas Island National Park (O'Dowd, D.J., P.T. Green, & P.S. Lake, 1999) [Report].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Introduction of pathogens and resultant disease National recovery plan for the Christmas Island Goshawk Accipiter fasciatus natalis (Hill, R., 2004a) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Presence of pathogens and resulting disease The Christmas Island Goshawk Accipiter fasciatus natalis Recovery Plan (Hill, F.A.R., 1997a) [Recovery Plan].
Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Low genetic diversity and genetic inbreeding National recovery plan for the Christmas Island Goshawk Accipiter fasciatus natalis (Hill, R., 2004a) [Recovery Plan].
Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Low numbers of individuals National recovery plan for the Christmas Island Goshawk Accipiter fasciatus natalis (Hill, R., 2004a) [Recovery Plan].

Ashton, C.B. (1987). The breeding of birds in the Aldinga Scrub Conservation Park, South Australia. Australian Bird Watcher. 12:73-82.

Aumann, T. (1988a). Breeding behaviour of the Brown Goshawk Accipiter fasciatus. Australian Bird Watcher. 12:258-267.

Baker-Gabb, D. (1984b). The feeding ecology and behaviour of seven species of raptor overwintering in coastal Victoria. Australian Wildlife Research. 11:517-532.

Carter, M. (1994). Birds of Australia's Christmas Island. Wingspan. 13:18-21.

Christidis, L. & W.E. Boles (2008). Systematics and Taxonomy of Australian Birds. Collingwood, Victoria: CSIRO Publishing.

Commonwealth of Australia (2006). Threat Abatement Plan to Reduce the Impacts of Tramp Ants on Biodiversity in Australia and its Territories. Canberra, ACT: Department of the Environment and Heritage.

Corbett, L., F. Crome & G. Richards (2003). Fauna survey of Mine Lease Applications and National Park reference areas, Christmas Island, August 2002. Appendix G. In: Phosphate Resources Limited. Christmas Island Phosphates Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Christmas Island Phosphate Mines (9 Sites) (EPBC 2001/487). Christmas Island: Phosphate Resources Limited.

Cupper, J. & L. Cupper (1981). Hawks in Focus: A study of Australia's Birds of Prey. Mildura, Victoria: Jaclin Enterprises.

Debus, S.J.S. (1994). What is the Christmas Island Goshawk?. Australian Bird Watcher. 15:377-379.

Dickinson, E.C., ed. (2003). The Howard and Moore Complete Checklist of the Birds of the World. Page(s) 1039. London: Christopher Helm.

Environment Australia (2002i). Christmas Island National Park Management Plan. Canberra, ACT: Environment Australia.

Ferguson-Lees, J. & D.A. Christie (2001). Raptors of the World. London: Christopher Helm.

Garnett, S.T. & G.M. Crowley (2000). The Action Plan for Australian Birds 2000. [Online]. Canberra, ACT: Environment Australia and Birds Australia. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/action/birds2000/index.html.

Gibson-Hill, C.A. (1947). Notes on the birds of Christmas Island. Bulletin of the Raffles Museum. 18:87-165.

Hill, F.A.R. (1997a). The Christmas Island Goshawk Accipiter fasciatus natalis Recovery Plan. Melbourne, Victoria: Birds Australia.

Hill, R. (2004a). National recovery plan for the Christmas Island Goshawk Accipiter fasciatus natalis. [Online]. Department of the Environment and Heritage. Canberra, ACT: Commonwealth of Australia. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/recovery/a-fasciatus-natalis/index.html.

Hobbs, J.N. (1971b). A plague of mice at Warren. Australian Bird Watcher. 4:43-46.

Hollands, D. (1991). Birds of the Night. Sydney, NSW: A.H. and A.W. Reed.

Hurley, V.G. (2005). Colour Banding Christmas Island Goshawks, Accipiter fasciatus natalis, a First Stage Report. Christmas Island, Indian Ocean: Parks Australia North. Canberra, ACT: Department of the Environment and Heritage.

Inskipp, T., N. Lindsay & W. Duckworth (1996). An Annotated Checklist of the Birds of the Oriental Region. Sandy, Bedfordshire: Oriental Bird Club.

James, D.J. & K. Retallick (2007). Forest Birds of Christmas Island: A Baseline Survey of Abundance. Parks Australia North Christmas Island Biodiversity Monitoring Programme. Canberra, ACT: Department of Finance and Administration and the Department of the Environment and Water Resources.

Magrath, M.J.L., M.A. Weston, P. Olsen & M. Antos (2004). Draft Survey Standards for Birds: Species Accounts. Melbourne, Victoria: Report for the Department of the Environment and Heritage by Birds Australia.

Marchant, S. & P.J. Higgins, eds. (1993). Handbook of Australian, New Zealand and Antarctic Birds. Volume 2 - Raptors to Lapwings. Melbourne, Victoria: Oxford University Press.

Nelson, J.B. (1977). Report and Recommendations on the Status and Prospects of Abbott's Booby in Relation to the British Phosphate Commissioner's Mining and Conservation Policy. Unpublished report, British Phosphate Commission.

O'Dowd, D.J., P.T. Green, & P.S. Lake (1999). Status, impact and recommendations for research and management of exotic invasive ants in Christmas Island National Park. Centre for Analysis and Management of Biological Invasions, Monash University.

Olsen, P.D., J. Olsen & N. Mooney (1982). Growth and development of nestling brown goshawks Accipiter fasciatus, with details of breeding biology. Emu. 82:189-194.

Orchard, M., S. Comport & P. Green (2002). Control of the Invasive Yellow Crazy Ant (Anoplolepis gracilipes) on Christmas Island, Indian Ocean; Progress, Problems and Future Scenarios. Unpublished discussion paper.

Peters, J.L. (1931). Check-list of Birds of the World. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Sibley & Monroe (1990). Distribution and taxonomy of birds of the world. New Haven, Connecticut.

Stokes, T. (1988). A review of the birds of Christmas Island, Indian Ocean. Australian National Parks and Wildlife Service Occasional Paper.

Threatened Species Scientific Committee (2005a). Commonwealth Listing Advice for Loss of biodiversity and ecosystem integrity following invasion by the Yellow Crazy Ant (Anoplolepis gracilipes) on Christmas Island, Indian Ocean. [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/ktp/christmas-island-crazy-ants.html.

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This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Accipiter hiogaster natalis in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Wed, 1 Oct 2014 14:26:15 +1000.