Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed marine as Puffinus carneipes
Listed migratory - JAMBA as Puffinus carneipes, ROKAMBA as Puffinus carneipes
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans
Other EPBC Act Plans Lord Howe Island Biodiversity Management Plan (NSW Department of Environment and Climate Change (NSW DECC), 2007b) [Recovery Plan] as Ardenna carneipes.
 
Threat Abatement Plan for the Incidental Catch (or Bycatch) of Seabirds During Oceanic Longline Fishing Operations (Australian Antarctic Division (AAD), 2006) [Threat Abatement Plan].
 
Policy Statements and Guidelines Marine bioregional plan for the Temperate East Marine Region (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2012aa) [Admin Guideline].
 
Marine bioregional plan for the South-west Marine Region (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2012z) [Admin Guideline].
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
List of Migratory Species (13/07/2000) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000b) [Legislative Instrument] as Puffinus carneipes.
 
Declaration under section 248 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of Marine Species (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000c) [Legislative Instrument] as Puffinus carneipes.
 
Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - Listed Migratory Species - Approval of an International Agreement (Commonwealth of Australia, 2007h) [Legislative Instrument] as Puffinus carneipes.
 
State Listing Status
NSW: Listed as Vulnerable (Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995 (New South Wales): December 2013 list) as Ardenna carneipes
SA: Listed as Rare (National Parks and Wildlife Act 1972 (South Australia): Rare species: June 2011 list) as Puffinus carneipes
Scientific name Ardenna carneipes [82404]
Family Procellariidae:Procellariiformes:Aves:Chordata:Animalia
Species author (Gould, 1844)
Infraspecies author  
Reference  
Other names Puffinus carneipes [1043]
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images

Scientific name: Ardenna carneipes.

Common Names: Flesh-footed Shearwater.

Synonyms: Fleshy-footed Shearwater or Petrel; Pale-footed Shearwater; Lord Howe Island Muttonbird; Big Muttonbird.

The taxonomy of the Flesh-footed Shearwater is controversial. The species was traditionally placed by most authors within the genus Puffinus (Christidis & Boles 1994; Mayr & Cottrell 1979; Sibley & Monroe 1990). However, genetic studies by Austin (1996), Heidrich and colleagues (1998) and Nunn and Stanley (1998) identified two distinct lineages within Puffinus. Penhallurick and Wink (2004) proposed that the two lineages be recognised as separate genera: Ardenna, containing six species including the Flesh-footed Shearwater, and Puffinus, containing 14 species. This treatment was accepted by Christidis and Boles (2008) but rejected by Remsen and colleagues (2008) pending further investigation. The species is retained in the genus Puffinus by Remsen and colleagues (2008), BirdLife International (2007l) and Onley and Scofield (2007).

Controversy also exists over the relationship between the Flesh-footed Shearwater and the Pink-footed Shearwater (Ardenna creatopus). The Flesh-footed Shearwater and Pink-footed Shearwater have generally been recognised as separate species (Christidis & Boles 1994; Mayr & Cottrell 1979; Sibley & Monroe 1990). However, Bourne (1962), Wolters (1982) and Penhallurick and Wink (2004) considered the Flesh-footed Shearwater and Pink-footed Shearwater to be conspecific, the former because of anatomical similarities and overlaps in measurements and the latter because of a low level of genetic divergence between the two taxa. The Flesh-footed Shearwater and Pink-footed Shearwater were retained as separate species by Brooke (2004), Remsen and colleagues (2008) and Christidis and Boles (2008), although the latter accepted this arrangement tentatively and acknowledged that 'there is a strong possibility that this will need to be altered subsequently'.

The Flesh-footed Shearwater is a large (length 40–47 cm; wingspan 99–107 cm; weight 510–750 g), broad-winged, blackish-brown shearwater with dark brown irides, a pale-horn bill (tipped black) and flesh-pink legs and feet (Enticott & Tipling 1997; Johnstone & Storr 1998; Marchant & Higgins 1990). Individuals are typically solitary at sea, although flocks of hundreds of birds can form around sources of food, and at dusk when individuals raft together offshore from their breeding islands (Bartle 1974; Johnstone & Storr 1998; Marchant & Higgins 1990; Warham 1958). Pairs nest in colonies (Marchant & Higgins 1990; Powell et al. 2007).

The Flesh-footed Shearwater is a locally common visitor to waters of the continental shelf and continental slope off southern Australia (south-western Western Australia to south-eastern Queensland) and around Lord Howe Island (Barrett et al. 2003; Johnstone & Storr 1998; Hutton 1991; Marchant & Higgins 1990; Reid et al. 2002; Wood 1990). Pairs breed on 41 islands off the coast of south-western Western Australia (Burbidge & Fuller 1996), on Smith Island off the south-eastern coast of Eyre Peninsula in South Australia (Robinson et al. 1986) and on Lord Howe Island (Priddel et al. 2006). Flesh-footed Shearwaters have been recorded as vagrants at Norfolk Island and are possibly regular visitors to Norfolk from breeding colonies on Lord Howe Island and around New Zealand (McKean et al. 1976; Moore 1985; Schodde et al. 1983).

There are no published estimates of the extent of occurrence of the Flesh-footed Shearwater within Australian jurisdiction.

There are no published estimates of the area of occupancy of the Flesh-footed Shearwater within Australian jurisdiction. However, there is evidence of decline.

The breeding grounds of the species on Lord Howe Island have contracted markedly since the island was settled by Europeans in 1834. A survey of the island in 1978 identified at least 5 ha of cleared land that formerly supported dense colonies of shearwaters (Fullagar & Disney 1981). The breeding grounds have continued to contract in recent decades from 37.8 ha in 1978 to 24.3 ha in 2002 (Priddel et al. 2006).

At least three populations have been lost from south-western Western Australia. Pairs formerly bred in the Torbay region on mainland Western Australia where nesting was last recorded in 1937 ( Campbell 1900; Warham 1958), on Mistake Island (population became extinct between 1906 and 1921) and on Green Island (Johnstone & Storr 1998).

The Flesh-footed Albatross breeds on 43 islands within Australian jurisdiction (Burbidge & Fuller 1996; Priddel et al. 2006).

There are no captive populations of the Flesh-footed Shearwater (International Species Information System 2008).

The breeding distribution of the Flesh-footed Shearwater is naturally fragmented with colonies situated on islands scattered across the south-east Indian and south-west Pacific Oceans (Burbidge & Fuller 1996; Robinson et al. 1986; Priddel et al. 2006; Taylor 2000b).

The Flesh-footed Shearwater is a trans-equatorial migrant. The species is widely distributed across the southern Indian and south-western Pacific Oceans during the breeding season with colonies located on Saint Paul Island (France) in the southern Indian Ocean (Jouventin 1994; Roux 1985), on 41 islands off the coast of south-western Western Australia (Burbidge & Fuller 1996), on Smith Island off the coast of Eyre Peninsula in South Australia (Robinson et al. 1986), on Lord Howe Island (Priddel et al. 2006) and on approximately 20 islands around the eastern and western coasts of the North Island of New Zealand to Cook Strait (Brooke 2004; Marchant & Higgins 1990; Taylor 2000). The birds depart their colonies at the completion of the breeding season. The available data suggest that individuals from western colonies migrate west to South Africa, north to the Arabian Sea, Maldives and Sri Lanka, and north-west to the Pacific Ocean (the latter based on observations of birds flying south through Indonesia at the end of the non-breeding season); and that individuals from eastern colonies migrate north to the northern Pacific Ocean (mainly to waters off Korea, Japan and Russia, but also in smaller numbers to waters west of North America, and with one recent sighting west of Mexico) (Brooke 2004; Carboneras 1992a; Heather & Robertson 1997; Marchant & Higgins 1990; Radamaker & McCaskie 2006; Warham 1996).

The global population size of the Flesh-footed Shearwater is estimated at approximately 150 000 to 380 000 pairs (Burbidge et al. 1996; Copley 1996; Jouventin 1994; Priddel et al. 2006; Taylor 2000b). The trend in global population size has not been quantified (BirdLife International 2007l) but information is available for some breeding locations. The breeding population on Lord Howe Island declined by approximately 19% from 1978 to 2003 (Priddel et al. 2006). In New Zealand, the species is presently increasing in number on some offshore islands (for example, Kauwahaia Island and Motumahanga Island) but no longer breeds on the Alderman Islands and has not been sighted in recent years at Hen Island (a confirmed breeding location) or Red Mercury Island (a possible breeding location) (Taylor 2000b).

The species is listed as Least Concern at the global level (BirdLife International 2007l).

The Flesh-footed Shearwater has been well surveyed at Lord Howe Island, but not at other breeding locations within Australian jurisdiction. The breeding population on Lord Howe Island has been surveyed on three occasions, consisting of a preliminary population survey in 1971 (Recher & Clark 1974a) and comprehensive population surveys in 1978 (Fullagar & Disney 1981) and 2002–2003 (Priddel et al. 2006). Population estimates are available for at least 13 of the 41 breeding islands off the coast of south-western Western Australia (Burbidge & Fuller 1996). There has only been a single documented survey of the breeding colony on Smith Island (Robinson et al. 1986).

The Flesh-footed Shearwater is a locally common visitor to waters of the continental shelf and continental slope off southern Australia (south-western Western Australia to south-eastern Queensland) and around Lord Howe Island (Barrett et al. 2003; Johnstone & Storr 1998; Hutton 1991; Marchant & Higgins 1990; Reid et al. 2002; Wood 1990). Pairs breed on 41 islands off the coast of south-western Western Australia (Burbidge & Fuller 1996), on Smith Island off the south-eastern coast of Eyre Peninsula in South Australia (Robinson et al. 1986) and on Lord Howe Island (Priddel et al. 2006). Flesh-footed Shearwaters have been recorded as vagrants at Norfolk Island and are possibly regular visitors to Norfolk from breeding colonies on Lord Howe Island and around New Zealand (McKean et al. 1976; Moore 1985; Schodde et al. 1983).

The Flesh-footed Shearwater breeds at three geographically-distinct locations within Australian jurisdiction:

(1) on 41 islands off the coast of south-western Western Australia,
(2) on Smith Island off the coast of Eyre Peninsula in South Australia (Robinson et al. 1986) and
(3) on Lord Howe Island (Priddel et al. 2006).

The breeding population in south-western Western Australia was estimated at a minimum 104 540–310 580 pairs in 1996 (Burbidge et al. 1996). Colonies are located on Boxer, Breaksea, Cape Hamelin (islet), Charley, Chatham, Cliff, Coffin, Corbett, Daw, Doubtful, Douglas, Eclipse, Figure of Eight, Forrest, Frederick, George, Gulch, Gunton, Long (Recherche Archipelago), MacKenzie, Michaelmas, Mondrain, North Twin Peaks, Owen, Quagering (= Flat), Rabbit, Ram, Remark, Round (Recherche Archipelago), Saddle, Sandy (Windy Harbour), Sandy Hook, Seal (Cape Leeuwin), Seal (King George Sound), Shelter (= Mutton Bird), South Twin Peaks, Saint Alouarn, Station, Thomas, Wickham (= Stanley) and Woody Islands (Burbidge & Fuller 1996).

Population estimates are available for Breaksea Island, 1000–5000 pairs (Abbott 1978a); Charley Island,500–1000 pairs (Lane & Daw 1985); Coffin Island, less than 100 pairs (Smith & Kolichis 1980); Eclipse Island, 6000–8000 pairs (Fullagar 1978); Forrest Island, 100 burrows (Smith & Johnstone 1988b); Frederick Island, 500–1000 pairs (Lane 1982b); Michaelmas Island, 100–1000 pairs (Abbott 1978b); Quagering Island, 1000–1500 pairs (Lane 1985b); Ram Island, 300–500 pairs (Lane 1982a); Remark Island, less than 200 pairs (Lane 1982c); Sandy Island, 300 000 pairs (Abbott 1981b); Saint Alouarn Island, 100 pairs (Lane 1978); and Wickham Island, 1000–1500 pairs (Lane 1985a).

The breeding population on Smith Island was estimated at 150 breeding pairs in 1996 (Copley 1996).

The breeding population on Lord Howe Island consisted of an estimated 20 000–40 000 pairs in 1978 (Fullagar & Disney 1981) and an estimated 17 462 pairs in 2002–2003. Estimates of the total number of nesting burrows present on the island at these times suggest that the breeding population declined by around 19% from 1978 to 2002–2003 (Priddel et al. 2006).

The current overall trend in the Australian population of the Flesh-footed Shearwater is unknown. The only Australian subpopulation for which trends have been determined (Lord Howe Island) has declined in recent decades.

The Flesh-footed Shearwater does not undergo extreme natural fluctuations in population size, extent of occurrence or area of occupancy.

The generation length of the Flesh-footed Shearwater is unknown, but it is probably similar to that of another member of the family Procellariidae, the Little Tern (Puffinus assimilis), which has an estimated generation length of ten years (Garnett & Crowley 2000).

Most breeding populations of the Flesh-footed Shearwater within Australian jurisdiction are poorly known. This lack of information makes it difficult to assess which breeding populations are most important for the persistence of the species within Australian jurisdiction. Of the breeding populations whose numbers have been estimated, the most important, based purely on size, are those on Sandy Island, 300 000 pairs (Abbott 1981b), Lord Howe Island, 17 462 pairs (Priddel et la. 2006); Eclipse Island, 6000–8000 pairs (Fullagar 1978); Breaksea Island, 1000–5000 pairs ( Abbott 1978a); Flat Island; 1000–1500 pairs (Lane 1985b); and Wickham Island, 1000–1500 pairs (Lane 1985a).

There are no documented accounts of cross-breeding between the Flesh-footed Shearwater and any other species.

In Australia, the Flesh-footed Shearwater breeds almost entirely within conservation reserves.

Thirty-nine of the 41 islands on which the species breeds off the coast of south-western Western Australia are designated as or located within the following conservation reserves: Breaksea Island Nature Reserve, Chatham Island Nature Reserve, Two Peoples Bay Nature Reserve, Doubtful Islands Nature Reserve, Eclipse Island Nature Reserve, Michaelmas Island Nature Reserve, Quagering Nature Reserve, Recherche Archipelage Nature Reserve, Seal Island Nature Reserve, Seal Island Nature Reserve, Shelter Island Nature Reserve, Saint Alouarn Nature Reserve, Walpole-Nornalup National Park and Woody Island Nature Reserve. The current tenures of the two remaining islands (Cape Hamelin [islet] and Flat Island) are unknown, although Flat Island was managed as a Class A reserve by the Western Australian government in 1980s (Lane 1985b).

Smith Island is designated as part of Lincoln National Park.

Lord Howe Island is listed as a World Heritage property. None of the Flesh-footed Shearwater breeding colonies that remain on the island are located within the Lord Howe Island Permanent Park Preserve, but two colonies are situated within an area proposed for addition to the Permanent Park Reserve.

The Flesh-footed Shearwater mainly occurs in the subtropics over continental shelves and slopes and occasionally inshore waters. Individuals also pass through the tropics and over deeper waters when on migration (Brooke 2004; Marchant & Higgins 1990; Reid et al. 2002). Individuals have been recorded over waters of 12.9–22.9 ºC in the south-western Pacific Ocean (Reid et al. 2002) and over waters of 11–16 ºC in the northern Pacific Ocean (Ainley 1976; Kuroda 1955). Pairs breed on islands in burrows on sloping ground in coastal forest, scrubland, shrubland or grassland (Dyer 2002; Marchant & Higgins 1990; Powell et al. 2007; Warham 1958). These same burrows are also used for roosting during the breeding season (Marchant & Higgins 1990). Burrows are excavated in substrates that are friable and sufficiently deep to accommodate burrows. Areas where excavation will be impeded by rock, deep ground litter or dense vegetation are avoided (Dyer 2002; D. Hobcroft 2002, pers. comm.; Lane 1982b; 1982c; Tingay & Tingay 1982; Warham 1958). Burrows are situated in areas that provide a clear flight-path for birds to enter and exit their colonies (Hindwood 1940; D. Hobcroft 2002, pers. comm.). Diurnal loafing and probably some nocturnal roosting occur at sea (Marchant & Higgins 1990).
The Flesh-footed Shearwater does not occur in any of the threatened ecological communities listed under the EPBC Act. The Flesh-footed Shearwater and Great-winged Petrel, the latter listed as Marine under the EPBC Act, breed at different times of the year but tend to occupy the same nesting sites and often the same burrows on islands where both species occur off the coast of south-western Western Australia (Marchant & Higgins 1990; Warham 1958).

The Flesh-footed Shearwater is capable of surviving to more than 30 years of age (Murray 1994). No information is available on the age of first breeding, but it is likely to be similar to that of the Short-tailed Shearwater (Brooke 2004), individuals of which commence breeding at four to ten, but mostly five to eight, years of age (Bradley et al. 1989).


In Australia, the Flesh-footed Shearwater breeds from late September to early May off south-western Western Australia (Powell et al. 2007; Warham 1958) and from late August or early September to mid May on Lord Howe Island (Hutton 1991). Females lay a single white egg on dry plant material in an enlarged chamber at the end of a nesting burrow. Burrows range from 0.2 to more than 3 m in length (Dyer 2002; Johnstone & Storr 1998; Powell et al. 2007; Priddel et al. 2006; Serventy et al. 1971; Warham 1958). Pairs probably return to the same burrow year after year (Marchant & Higgins 1990).

The single egg is incubated by both sexes for a period of around 54–60 days (Heather & Robertson 1997; Hutton 1991; Serventy et al. 1971). For example, the mean duration of incubation on Woody Island, Western Australia, in 2002–2003 was 54±7 (standard error) days (Powell et al. 2007). The chick is brooded by both parents for less than one day to six days and is fed by both parents thoughout throughout the fledging period of 89–109 days (Powell et al. 2007; Warham 1958).

Data on rates of breeding success are available for Woody Island and Lord Howe Island. On Woody Island, 40% of eggs laid in 2001–2002 produced fledglings and 53% of eggs laid in 2002–2003 produced fledglings (Powell et al. 2007). On Lord Howe Island, 50% of eggs laid in 2002–2003 produced fledglings, although this figure is probably an overestimate as breeding success was calculated before fledglings made their final departure from the island (Priddel et al. 2006).

The habit of nesting and roosting in burrows on the ground exposes the Flesh-footed Shearwater to contact with terrestrial predators. For example, predation by European Red Foxes (Vulpes vulpes) was thought to be responsible for the disappearance of a breeding population on mainland Western Australia in the late 1930s (Warham 1958), and King's Skinks (Egernia kingii) consume eggs and small chicks on offshore islands of Western Australia (Johnstone & Storr 1998; Serventy et al. 1971; Warham 1958).

The Flesh-footed Shearwater feeds on small fish, cephalopod molluscs (squid, cuttlefish, nautilus and argonauts), crustaceans (barnacles and shrimp), other soft-bodied invertebrates (such as Velella) and offal (Gould et al. 1997; Johnstone & Storr 1998; Marchant & Higgins 1990; Serventy et al. 1971).

The Flesh-footed Shearwater forages almost entirely at sea and very rarely on land. It obtains most of its food by plunging into the water from in flight and partially submerging to take prey (termed 'surface plunging') or pursuing prey beneath the surface by swimming (termed 'pursuit plunging'). It also regularly forages by settling on the surface of the ocean and snatching prey from the surface (termed 'surface seizing'), momentarily submerging onto prey beneath the surface (termed 'surface diving') or diving and pursuing prey beneath the surface by swimming (termed 'pursuit diving'). Birds have also been observed flying low over the ocean and pattering the water with their feet while picking food items from the surface (termed 'pattering'). One individual was seen running among gulls and taking offal from a beach in Western Australia (Brown et al. 1978; Falla 1934; Harper et al. 1985; Harrison 1970; Johnstone & Storr 1998; Oka 1994a).

The Flesh-footed Shearwater routinely attends fishing vessels to feed on baited hooks, discarded scraps and prey attracted to the surface by such vessels (Bartle 1974; Falla 1934; Serventy et al. 1971). This behaviour exposes individuals to incidental mortality through interactions with fishing vessels (Australian Antarctic Division 2005a; Baker & Wise 2005; Gales et al. 1998).

The Flesh-footed Shearwater is a trans-equatorial migrant. The species breeds from late August to mid May on approximately 60 islands across the southern Indian and south-western Pacific Oceans. The movements of Australian birds during the breeding season are moderately well known. Birds from colonies off south-western Western Australia range north to Bunbury and east to South Australia (Serventy & Whittell 1976) and probably more widely over the southern Indian Ocean including waters off south-western Victoria and western Tasmania (Marchant & Higgins 1990). At least some birds from colonies on Lord Howe Island range west across the Tasman Sea to waters extending at least from south-eastern Queensland (McKean & Hindwood 1965) to south-eastern Tasmania (Marchant & Higgins 1990).

The species migrates northward at the completion of the breeding season. Birds depart from colonies off south-western Western Australia by early May and move north across the southern Indian Ocean to the Arabian Sea and Gulf of Oman (Bourne & Radford 1961; Johnstone & Storr 1998; Marchant & Higgins 1990) and possibly across Indonesia to the northern Pacific Ocean (Marchant & Higgins 1990). Birds arrive at the Arabian Sea from mid April (Bailey 1966; Bourne & Radford 1961) and are common off the south-eastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula from late June to mid August (Bailey 1966). The frequency of sightings declines in September as birds begin to return to their southern breeding grounds (Bailey 1966; Brooke 2004), although stragglers have been sighted in the Arabian Sea in October (Bailey 1966).

Birds depart from colonies on Lord Howe Island by mid May and move north across the Pacific Ocean. Birds arrive at the Korean Strait in late March and early April and then continue northward, reaching the northern Sea of Japan and southern Sea of Okhotsk in June (Marchant & Higgins 1990; Shuntov 1972). Adults depart these locations in early September but immatures appear to remain until October (Shuntov 1972). Smaller numbers of birds move north-east during the non-breeding period to waters west of British Columbia (Canada), Oregon, California (United States) and Mexico (Ainley 1976; Guzman & Myres 1983; Radamaker & McCaskie 2006; Rogers 1988; Warham 1996), suggesting that a second, separate migration path may exist across the Pacific Ocean. It is possible that most birds that travel to the north-eastern Pacific Ocean originate from breeding colonies in New Zealand (Warham 1996).

Birds return to breeding colonies off south-western Western Australia in late September (Powell et al. 2007; Serventy & Whittell 1976) and to breeding colonies on Lord Howe Island in late August or early September (Hindwood 1940; Hutton 1991).

Pairs of the Flesh-footed Shearwater defend the area surrounding their nesting burrows (Marchant & Higgins 1990). The size of these territories has not been documented, but they are evidently quite small, given that the species nests colonially and that burrows are clustered at densities (mean±standard error) of 0.18±0.03 burrows per m² at Woody Island (Powell et al. 2007) and 0.123±0.024 burrows per m² at Lord Howe Island (Priddel et al. 2006).

The Flesh-footed Shearwater is most easily confused with the Black Petrel (Procellaria parkinsoni), especially where the distributions of the two species overlap, but the Black Petrel is larger and bulker, has longer and broader wings, and has a bi-coloured yellow and black bill. The Flesh-footed Shearwater could potentially also be confused with the White-chinned Petrel (P. aequinoctialis) and Westland Petrel (P. westlandica), but each of these species is much larger and bulkier, and has a very large bill and black feet. The Flesh-footed Shearwater is superficially similar to the dark-plumaged Great-winged Petrel (Pterodroma macroptera) and other dark-plumaged shearwaters, but can be distinguished from the former by its appearance and mode of flight, and from the latter by its more robust bill with a pale base (Brooke 2004; Enticott & Tipling 1997; Marchant & Higgins 1990; Serventy et al. 1971).

The Flesh-footed Shearwater forages during the day and is typically active around colonies at night (Falla 1934; Heather & Robertson 1997; Marchant & Higgins 1990; Warham 1958).

The Flesh-footed Shearwater can be detected at sea by shipboard surveys (Reid et al. 2002) or on land by conducting area searches or transect surveys for nesting burrows during the day and follow-up spotlight surveys to identified colonies at night when adult birds are present and active. The species could also be detected during surveys for beach-cast birds, but such surveys are of limited value in determining the origin of specimens as corpses are typically displaced by ocean currents and winds.

Current Threats
The current main threat to the Flesh-footed Shearwater within Australian jurisdiction is incidental mortality arising from interactions with longline fishing operations (Australian Antarctic Division 2006; Baker et al. 2002; Baker & Wise 2005; Gales et al. 1998). The Flesh-footed Shearwater routinely attends fishing vessels to feed on cast baits, discarded scraps and attracted prey (Baker et al. 2002; Baker & Wise 2005; Bartle 1974; Falla 1934; Serventy et al. 1971). Seabirds can be killed or injured when they ingest baited hooks during the setting or hauling of longlines; become hooked or entangled in fishing gear other than that being targeted; ingest hooks embedded in discarded scraps; or are shot by fishermen. The death of breeding birds by any of these causes can also result in the loss of eggs or dependent young. The main cause of mortality is drowning when hooked birds are dragged underwater by the weight of the longline. This most frequently occurs during setting of the longline (Australian Antarctic Division 2005a; Baker et al. 2002).

A Japanese longline fishery for Southern Bluefin Tuna (Thunnus maccoyii) that operated under license in the Australian Fishing Zone (AFZ) from 1986 to 1997 (Caton 2003) is estimated to have killed up to 1483 Flesh-footed Shearwaters per year from 1989 to 1995 (Gales et al. 1998). The domestic Eastern Tuna and Billfish Fishery, which operates off eastern Australia in the AFZ and adjacent high seas, is estimated to have killed a total of 8972 to 18 490 birds from 1998 to 2002, with an average of 1794 to 4486 birds killed per year. Population models incorporating bycatch rates from the Eastern Tuna and Billfish Fishery have predicted that the eastern Australian population of Flesh-footed Shearwater will decline by 50% under most scenarios tested within 55 years, and by 80% (quasi-extinction) within 120 years. In reality the rate of decline could be even greater given that models assumed that juvenile birds were not affected by the Eastern Tuna and Billfish Fishery and did not account for possible additional mortality from other fisheries (Baker & Wise 2005).

It is possible that bycatch of Flesh-footed Shearwaters by domestic longline fisheries has decreased in recent years. Although no published data are available for the Flesh-footed Shearwater specifically, the introduction of compulsory bycatch mitigation measures by the Australian federal government has seen total seabird bycatch rates drop from an observed rate of 0.92 birds/1000 hooks in the Australian longline fishery for Southern Bluefin Tuna (Brothers & Foster 1997) during the mid 1990s to less than 0.05 birds/1000 hooks in a number of Australian longline fisheries in recent years (Australian Antarctic Division 2005a), including in 2004–2005 the Eastern Tuna and Billfish Fishery (Australian Antarctic Division 2006). The compulsory mitigation measures prescribed for domestic longline fleets were recently revised after it was found that a prescription that permitted longlines to be set at night in isolation of other mitigation measures was not sufficiently effective at reducing bycatch of Flesh-footed Shearwaters (Australian Antarctic Division 2006).

Other current threats within Australian jurisdiction are marine pollution, clearance or modification of habitat by humans, degradation of habitat by cattle or introduced invasive Kikuyu Grass (Pennisetum clandestinum), destruction or disturbance of nesting burrows by humans or cattle, predation by domestic dogs or rodents, exposure to herbicides and mortality arising from collisions with vehicles (Department of Environment and Climate Change [NSW] 2005; 2007; Priddel 1996). At Lord Howe Island, urban expansion was the primary cause of a 35.6% reduction in the total area of Flesh-footed Shearwater breeding habitat from 1978 to 2003 (Priddel et al. 2006); sizeable quantities of plastics have been retrieved from Flesh-footed Shearwater carcasses (DECC 2007); small numbers of birds are killed by collisions with vehicles (Hutton 2003); and birds are occasionally attacked by domestic dogs (DECC 2007).

Other potential threats within Australian jurisdiction include interactions with trawl and gillnet fisheries, dependence on fishery discards, over-extraction of prey species by fisheries and exposure to avian parasites and disease (Baker et al. 2002). It is not known what impacts, if any, these threats are having on Flesh-footed Shearwaters within Australian jurisdiction.

The population migrates beyond Australian jurisdiction in the non-breeding season (Bourne & Radford 1961; McClure 1974; McKean & Hindwood 1965). This pattern of extensive movement exposes the population to threats operating outside of Australian jurisdiction (Baker & Wise 2005; McKean & Hindwood 1965; Purchase 1971).

Past Threats
Predation by European Red Foxes was thought to be responsible for the extinction of a breeding population on mainland Western Australia in the 1930s (Warham 1958). On Lord Howe Island, Flesh-footed Shearwaters were formerly harvested in large numbers for food, down and oil (Hutton 1991).

The following actions aid the conservation of the Flesh-footed Shearwater:

  • A national threat abatement plan for the 'incidental catch (or bycatch) of seabirds during longline fishing operations' has been developed and implemented (Australian Antarctic Division 2006).

  • The 'incidental catch (or bycatch) of seabirds during longline fishing operations' and 'injury or fatality to vertebrate marine life caused by ingestion of, or entanglement in, harmful marine debris' are listed as key threatening processes under the EPBC Act.

  • 'Entanglement in or ingestion of anthropogenic debris in marine and estuarine environments' is listed as a key threatening process under the NSW Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995.

  • Longline fisheries operating within Australian waters are required by law to adopt prescribed measures to reduce seabird bycatch (Australian Antarctic Division 2005a; 2006).

  • Seabird bycatch rates in the Australian Fishing Zone are monitored (Australian Antarctic Division 2005a; 2006).

  • A management plan for biodiversity on Lord Howe Island has been developed and implemented (DECC 2007). This plan advocates a range of actions to preserve biodiversity on Lord Howe Island, some of which should prove beneficial to the Flesh-footed Shearwater.

  • All known breeding colonies on Lord Howe Island were surveyed and mapped in 1978 (Fullagar et al. 1981) and 2002–2003 (Priddel et al. 2006).

  • Feral cats and feral pigs have been eradicated from Lord Howe Island (Department of Environment and Climate Change [NSW] 2007). Cats and pigs are known predators of Flesh-footed Shearwaters (Carboneras 1992a).

Marine bioregional plans have been developed for four of Australia's marine regions - South-west, North-west, North and Temperate East. Marine Bioregional Plans will help improve the way decisions are made under the EPBC Act, particularly in relation to the protection of marine biodiversity and the sustainable use of our oceans and their resources by our marine-based industries. Marine Bioregional Plans improve our understanding of Australia's oceans by presenting a consolidated picture of the biophysical characteristics and diversity of marine life. They describe the marine environment and conservation values of each marine region, set out broad biodiversity objectives, identify regional priorities and outline strategies and actions to address these priorities. Click here for more information about marine bioregional plans.

The Flesh-footed Shearwater has been identified as a conservation value in the South-west (DSEWPaC 2012z) and Temperate East (DSEWPaC 2012aa) marine regions. See Schedule 2 of the Temperate East Marine Bioregional Plan (DSEWPaC 2012aa) and the South-west Marine Bioregional Plan (DSEWPaC 2012z) for regional advice. Maps of Biologically Important Areas have been developed for flesh-footed shearwater in the South-west (DSEWPaC 2012z) and Temperate East (DSEWPaC 2012aa) marine regions and may provide additional relevant information. Go to the conservation values atlas to view the locations of these Biologically Important Areas. The "species group report card - seabirds" for the Temperate East (DSEWPaC 2012aa) and South-west (DSEWPaC 2012z) marine regions provide additional information.

There have been a small number of major studies on the Flesh-footed Shearwater within Australian jurisdiction, including Dyer (2002), Baker and Wise (2005), Priddel and colleagues (2006), Powell and colleagues (2007), Thalmann and colleagues (2007), Warham (1958) and Wood (1990).

The key national management document for the Flesh-footed Shearwater in Australia is the Threat Abatement Plan for the Incidental Catch or Bycatch of Seabirds During Longline Fishing Operations (Australian Antarctic Division 2006).

The Flesh-footed Shearwater is also included in the The South-west Marine Bioregional Plan: Bioregional Profile (DEWHA 2008a).

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Biological Resource Use:Fishing and Harvesting Aquatic Resources:Incidental capture and drowning by longline fishing Threat Abatement Plan for the incidental catch (or by-catch) of seabirds during oceanic longline fishing operations (Environment Australia, 1998) [Threat Abatement Plan].
Lord Howe Island Biodiversity Management Plan (NSW Department of Environment and Climate Change (NSW DECC), 2007b) [Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Fishing and Harvesting Aquatic Resources:Mortality due to capture, entanglement/drowning in nets and fishing lines The threat posed by pest animals to biodiversity in New South Wales (Coutts-Smith, A.J., P.S. Mahon, M. Letnic & P.O. Downey, 2007) [Management Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Hunting and Collecting Terrestrial Animals:Harvesting for commercial purposes The threat posed by pest animals to biodiversity in New South Wales (Coutts-Smith, A.J., P.S. Mahon, M. Letnic & P.O. Downey, 2007) [Management Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Hunting and Collecting Terrestrial Animals:illegal control Lord Howe Island Biodiversity Management Plan (NSW Department of Environment and Climate Change (NSW DECC), 2007b) [Recovery Plan].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Habitat Shifting and Alteration:Habitat loss, modification and/or degradation Norfolk Island Region Threatened Species Recovery Plan (Director of National Parks (DNP), 2010a) [State Recovery Plan].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Habitat Shifting and Alteration:Habitat modification, destruction and alteration due to changes in land use patterns Norfolk Island Region Threatened Species Recovery Plan (Director of National Parks (DNP), 2010a) [State Recovery Plan].
Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Ecosystem Degradation:Decline in habitat quality Norfolk Island Region Threatened Species Recovery Plan (Director of National Parks (DNP), 2010a) [State Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human induced disturbance due to unspecified activities The threat posed by pest animals to biodiversity in New South Wales (Coutts-Smith, A.J., P.S. Mahon, M. Letnic & P.O. Downey, 2007) [Management Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Mechanical disturbance during construction, maintanance or recreational activities The threat posed by pest animals to biodiversity in New South Wales (Coutts-Smith, A.J., P.S. Mahon, M. Letnic & P.O. Downey, 2007) [Management Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Vulpes vulpes (Red Fox, Fox) The threat posed by pest animals to biodiversity in New South Wales (Coutts-Smith, A.J., P.S. Mahon, M. Letnic & P.O. Downey, 2007) [Management Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Felis catus (Cat, House Cat, Domestic Cat) The threat posed by pest animals to biodiversity in New South Wales (Coutts-Smith, A.J., P.S. Mahon, M. Letnic & P.O. Downey, 2007) [Management Plan].
Norfolk Island Region Threatened Species Recovery Plan (Director of National Parks (DNP), 2010a) [State Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Rattus rattus (Black Rat, Ship Rat) The threat posed by pest animals to biodiversity in New South Wales (Coutts-Smith, A.J., P.S. Mahon, M. Letnic & P.O. Downey, 2007) [Management Plan].
Norfolk Island Region Threatened Species Recovery Plan (Director of National Parks (DNP), 2010a) [State Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Canis lupus familiaris (Domestic Dog) The threat posed by pest animals to biodiversity in New South Wales (Coutts-Smith, A.J., P.S. Mahon, M. Letnic & P.O. Downey, 2007) [Management Plan].
Lord Howe Island Biodiversity Management Plan (NSW Department of Environment and Climate Change (NSW DECC), 2007b) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, tramping, competition and/or habitat degradation Sus scrofa (Pig) The threat posed by pest animals to biodiversity in New South Wales (Coutts-Smith, A.J., P.S. Mahon, M. Letnic & P.O. Downey, 2007) [Management Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Problematic Native Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation with Kestrels (Falco spp.) Norfolk Island Region Threatened Species Recovery Plan (Director of National Parks (DNP), 2010a) [State Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Problematic Native Species:Competition and/or predation by birds The threat posed by pest animals to biodiversity in New South Wales (Coutts-Smith, A.J., P.S. Mahon, M. Letnic & P.O. Downey, 2007) [Management Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Problematic Native Species:Predation by reptiles The threat posed by pest animals to biodiversity in New South Wales (Coutts-Smith, A.J., P.S. Mahon, M. Letnic & P.O. Downey, 2007) [Management Plan].
Pollution:Garbage and Solid Waste:Ingestion and entanglement with marine debris Lord Howe Island Biodiversity Management Plan (NSW Department of Environment and Climate Change (NSW DECC), 2007b) [Recovery Plan].
Residential and Commercial Development:Housing and Urban Areas:Fauna collision with human infrastructure such as windows The threat posed by pest animals to biodiversity in New South Wales (Coutts-Smith, A.J., P.S. Mahon, M. Letnic & P.O. Downey, 2007) [Management Plan].
Residential and Commercial Development:Housing and Urban Areas:Habitat loss, modification and fragmentation due to urban development Lord Howe Island Biodiversity Management Plan (NSW Department of Environment and Climate Change (NSW DECC), 2007b) [Recovery Plan].
Transportation and Service Corridors:Roads and Railroads:Vehicle related mortality Lord Howe Island Biodiversity Management Plan (NSW Department of Environment and Climate Change (NSW DECC), 2007b) [Recovery Plan].

Abbott, I. (1978a). Seabird Islands 55: Breaksea Island, King George Sound, Western Australia. Corella. 2:24-25.

Abbott, I. (1978b). Seabird Islands 56: Michaelmas Island, King George Sound, Western Australia. Corella. 2:26-27.

Abbott, I. (1981b). Seabird Islands 110: Sandy Island, Western Australia. Corella. 5:69-70.

Ainley, D.G. (1976). The occurrence of seabirds in the coastal region of California. Western Birds. 7:33-68.

Austin, J.J. (1996). Molecular phylogenetics of Puffinus shearwaters: preliminary evidence from mitochondrial cytochrome b gene sequences. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 6:77-88.

Australian Antarctic Division (AAD) (2005a). Background to the Threat Abatement Plan for the Incidental Catch (or By-catch) of Seabirds During Oceanic Longline Fishing Operations. Kingston, Tasmania: Australian Antarctic Division.

Australian Antarctic Division (AAD) (2006). Threat Abatement Plan for the Incidental Catch (or Bycatch) of Seabirds During Oceanic Longline Fishing Operations. [Online]. Kingston, Tasmania: Australian Antarctic Division. Available from: http://www.aad.gov.au/MediaLibrary/asset/MediaItems/ml_399394109837963_FINAL%20ThreatAbatement2007-4-combined6c.pdf.

Bailey, R.S. (1966). The seabirds of the southeast coast of Arabia. Ibis. 108:224-264.

Baker, G.B. & B.S. Wise (2005). The impact of pelagic longline fishing on the Flesh-footed Shearwater Puffinus carneipes in eastern Australia. Biological Conservation. 126:306-316.

Baker, G.B., R. Gales, S. Hamilton & V. Wilkinson (2002). Albatrosses and petrels in Australia: a review of their conservation and management. Emu. 102:71-97.

Barrett, G., A. Silcocks, S. Barry, R. Cunningham & R. Poulter (2003). The New Atlas of Australian Birds. Melbourne, Victoria: Birds Australia.

Bartle, J.A. (1974). Seabirds of eastern Cook Strait, New Zealand, in autumn. Notornis. 21:135-166.

BirdLife International (2007l). Species factsheet: Puffinus carneipes. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 6 May 2008. [Online]. Available from: http://www.birdlife.org.

Bourne, W.R.P. (1962). Flesh-footed Shearwater Puffinus carneipes. In: Palmer, R.S., ed. Handbook of North American Birds. Volume 1: Loons Through Flamingos. Page(s) 160-16. New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press.

Bourne, W.R.P. & M.C. Radford (1961). Notes on observations of seabirds received during 1960. Sea Swallow. 14:7-27.

Bradley, J.S., R.D. Wooller, I.J. Skira & D.L. Serventy (1989). Age-dependent survival of breeding Short-tailed Shearwaters Puffinus tenuirostris. Journal of Animal Ecology. 58:175-188.

Brooke, M. (2004). Albatrosses and Petrels Across the World. Oxford, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press.

Brothers, N.P. & A.B. Foster (1997). Seabird catch rates: an assessment of causes and solutions Australia's domestic tuna longline fishery. Marine Ornithology. 25:37-42.

Brown, R.G.B., W.R.P. Bourne & T.R. Wahl (1978). Diving by shearwaters. Condor. 80:123-125.

Burbidge, A.A. & P.J. Fuller (1996). The Western Australian Department of Conservation and Land Management seabird breeding islands database. In: Ross, G.J.B., K. Weaver & J.C. Greig, eds. The status of Australia's seabirds Proceedings of the National Seabird Workshop, Canberra, 1-2 November 1993. Page(s) 73-137. Canberra: Biodiversity Group, Env. Aust.

Burbidge, A.A., R.E. Johnstone & P.J. Fuller (1996). The status of seabirds in Western Australia. In: Ross, G.J.B., K. Weaver & J.C. Greig, eds. The Status of Australia's Seabirds: Proceedings of the National Seabird Workshop, Canberra, 1-2 November 1993. Page(s) 57-71. Canberra: Biodiversity Group, Environment Australia.

Campbell, A.J. (1900). Nests and Eggs of Australian Birds. Sheffield, Private.

Carboneras, C. (1992a). Family Procellariidae (Petrels and Shearwaters). In: del Hoyo, J., A. Elliott, & J. Sargital, eds. Handbook of the Birds of the World. Page(s) 216-257. Barcelona: Lynx Edicions.

Caton, A.E. (2003). Fishery Status Reports 2002-2003: Assessments of the Status of Fish Stocks Managed by the Australian Government. Canberra: Bureau of Rural Science.

Christidis, L. & W.E. Boles (1994). The Taxonomy and Species of Birds of Australia and its Territories. Royal Australasian Ornithologists Union Monograph 2. Melbourne, Victoria: Royal Australasian Ornithologists Union.

Christidis, L. & W.E. Boles (2008). Systematics and Taxonomy of Australian Birds. Collingwood, Victoria: CSIRO Publishing.

Copley, P.B. (1996). The status of seabirds in South Australia. In: Ross, G.J.B., K. Weaver & J.C. Grieg, eds. The Status of Australia's Seabirds: Proceedings of the National Seabird Workshop, Canberra, 1-2 November 1993. Page(s) 139--180. Biodiversity Group, Environment Australia, Canberra.

Department of Environment and Climate Change (NSW) (2005). Flesh-footed Shearwater profile. Viewed on 15 May 2008. [Online]. Available from: http://www.threatenedspecies.environment.nsw.gov.au.

Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA) (2008a). The South-West Marine Bioregional Plan: Bioregional Profile: A Description of the Ecosystems, Conservation Values and Uses of the South-West Marine Region. [Online]. Canberra: DEWHA. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/resource/south-west-marine-bioregional-plan-bioregional-profile-description-ecosystems-conservation.

Dyer, P.K. (2002). Burrow occupancy by Wedge-tailed Shearwaters and Flesh-footed Shearwaters on Lord Howe Island. Corella. 26:38-40.

Enticott, J. & D. Tipling (1997). Photographic Handbook of the Seabirds of the World. New Holland, London.

Falla, R.A. (1934). The distribution and breeding habits of petrels in northern New Zealand. Records of the Auckland Institute and Museum. 1:245-260.

Fullagar, P.J. (1978). Seabird Islands No. 54: Eclipse Island, Western Australia. Corella. 2:21--23.

Fullagar, P.J. & H.J. de S. Disney (1981). Studies on the Flesh-footed Shearwaters, Puffinus carneipes. Occasional Reports of the Australian Museum. 1:31-32.

Gales, R., N. Brothers & T. Reid (1998). Seabird mortality in Japanese tuna longline fishery around Australia, 1988-1995. Biological Conservation. 86:37-56.

Garnett, S.T. & G.M. Crowley (2000). The Action Plan for Australian Birds 2000. [Online]. Canberra, ACT: Environment Australia and Birds Australia. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/action/birds2000/index.html.

Gould, P., P. Ostrom & W. Walker (1997). Food of Flesh-footed Shearwaters Puffinus carneipes associated with high-seas driftnets in the central Pacific Ocean. Emu. 97:168--173.

Guzman, J.R. & M.T. Myers (1983). The occurrence of shearwaters (Puffinus spp.) off the west coast of Canada. Canadian Journal of Zoology. 60:2064-2077.

Harper, P.C., J.P. Croxall & J.A. Cooper (1985). Guide to Foraging Methods used by Marine Birds in Antarctic and Subantarctic Seas. BIOMASS Handbook. 24:1--22.

Harrison, C.J.O. (1970). Shearwater taking food on land. Emu. 70:33-34.

Heather, B.D. & H.A. Robertson (2000a). The Field Guide to the Birds of New Zealand. Oxford, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press.

Heidrich, P., J. Amengual & M. Wink (1998). Phylogenetic relationships in Mediterranean and North Atlantic shearwaters (Aves: Procellariidae) based on nucleotide sequences of mtDNA. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology. 26:145-170.

Hindwood, K.A. (1940). The birds of Lord Howe Island. Emu. 40:1-86.

Hobcroft, D. (2002). Personal communication.

Hutton, I. (1991). Birds of Lord Howe Island: Past and Present. Coffs Harbour, NSW: author published.

Hutton, I. (2003). Management for Birds on Lord Howe Island. Report to the Department of Environment and Conservation, Sydney.

International Species Information System (2008). Species holdings. Viewed on 29 April 2008. [Online]. Available from: http://app.isis.org/abstracts/abs.asp.

Johnstone, R.E. & G.M. Storr (1998). Handbook of Western Australian Birds. Vol. 1: Non-passerines (Emu to Dollarbird). Perth, Western Australia: West Australian Museum.

Jouventin, P. (1994). Past, present and future of Amsterdam Island, Indian Ocean. In: Nettleship, D.N., J. Burger, & M. Gochfeld, eds. Seabirds on Islands - Threats, Case Studies and Action Plans. Page(s) 122-132. Cambridge, BirdLife Conservation Series 1.

Kuroda, N. (1955). Observations on pelagic birds of the northwest Pacific. Condor. 57:290-300.

Lane, J.A.K. (1978). Seabird Islands 61: Saint Alouarn Island, Western Australia. Corella. 2:36-37.

Lane, S.G. (1982a). Seabird Islands 116: Ram Island, Archipelago of the Recherche, Western Australia. Corella. 6:55-56.

Lane, S.G. (1982b). Seabird Islands 119: Frederick Island, Archipelago of the Recherche, Western Australia. Corella. 6:61-62.

Lane, S.G. (1982c). Seabird Islands 121: Remark Island, Archipelago of the Recherche, Western Australia. Corella. 6:65-66.

Lane, S.G. (1985a). Seabird Islands 148: Stanley Island, Western Australia. Corella. 8:121-122.

Lane, S.G. (1985b). Seabird Islands 149: Flat Island, Western Australia. Corella. 8:123-124.

Lane, S.G. & A.K. Daw (1985). Charley Island, Archipelago of the Recherche, Western Australia. Corella. 8:119-120.

Marchant, S. & P.J. Higgins, eds. (1990). Handbook of Australian, New Zealand and Antarctic Birds. Volume One - Ratites to Ducks. Melbourne, Victoria: Oxford University Press.

Mayr, E., & G.W. Cottrell (Eds) (1979). Check-list of Birds of the World. Volume 1. Second Edition. Massachusetts, USA: Harvard Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge.

McClure, H.E. (1974). Migration and Survival of the Birds of Asia. US Army Component, SEATO Medical Research Lab., Bangkok.

McKean, J.L. & K.A. Hindwood (1965). Additional notes on the birds of Lord Howe Island. Emu. 64:79-97.

McKean, J.L., O. Evans & J.H. Lewis (1976). Notes on the birds of Norfolk Island. Notornis. 23:299-301.

Moore, J.L. (1985). Norfolk Island notes. Notornis. 32:311-318.

Murray, M.D. (1994). Recovery round-up. Corella. 18:62-64.

NSW Department of Environment and Climate Change (NSW DECC) (2007b). Lord Howe Island Biodiversity Management Plan. [Online]. Sydney, NSW: NSW Department of Environment and Climate Change. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/recovery/lord-howe/index.html.

Nunn, G.B. & S.E. Stanley (1998). Body size effects and rates of cytochrome b evolution in tube-nosed seabirds. Molecular Biology and Evolution. 15:1360-1371.

Oka, N. (1994a). Underwater feeding of three shearwaters: Pale-footed (Puffinus carneipes), Sooty (Puffinus griseus) and Streaked (Calonectris leucomelas) Shearwaters. Journal of the Yamashina Institute for Ornithology. 26:81-84.

Onley, D. & P. Scofield (2007). Albatrosses, Petrels and Shearwaters of the World. London: Christopher Helm.

Penhallurick, J. & M. Wink (2004). Analysis of the taxonomy and nomenclature of the Procellariiformes based on complete nucleotide sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. Emu. 104:125-147.

Powell, C.D.L., R.D. Wooller & J.S. Bradley (2007). Breeding biology of the Flesh-footed Shearwater (Puffinus carneipes) on Woody Island, Western Australia. Emu. 107:275-283.

Priddel, D. (1996). The status of seabirds in New South Wales. In: Ross, G.J.B., K. Weaver & J.C. Greig, eds. The status of Australia's seabirds Proceedings of the National Seabird Workshop, Canberra, 1-2 November 1993. Page(s) 201-208. Canberra: Biodiversity Group, Environment Australia.

Priddel, D., N. Carlile, P. Fullagar, I. Hutton & L. O'Neill (2006). Decline in the distribution and abundance of Flesh-footed Shearwaters (Puffinus carneipes) on Lord Howe Island, Australia. Biological Conservation. 128:412-424.

Purchase, D. (1971). Sixteenth Annual Report of the Australian Bird Banding Scheme, July 1969 to June 1970. CSIRO Division of Wildlife Research Technical Paper 22. Canberra, CSIRO Division of Wildlife Research.

Radamaker, K. & G. McCaskie (2006). First verifiable record of the Flesh-footed Shearwater for Mexico. Western Birds. 37:51-52.

Recher, H.F. & S.S. Clark (1974a). Environmental Survey of Lord Howe Island. A report to the Lord Howe Island Board. Sydney, New South Wales Government Printer.

Reid, T.A., M.A. Hindell, D.W. Eades & M. Newman (2002). Seabird Atlas of South-east Australian Waters. Royal Australasian Ornithologists Union Monograph 4. Melbourne, Victoria: Birds Australia (R.A.O.U.).

Remsen, J.V., C.D. Cadena, A. Jaramillo, M. Nores, J.F. Pacheco, M.B. Robbins, T.S. Schulenberg, F.G. Stiles, D.F. Stotz & K.J. Zimmer. Version 16 May (2008). A classification of the bird species of South America. American Ornithologists Union. Viewed on 16 May 2008. [Online]. Available from: http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.html.

Robinson, A.C., A. Spiers & S.A. Parker (1986). First breeding record of the Fleshy-footed Shearwater in South Australia. South Australian Ornithologist. 30:13-14.

Rogers, J. (1988). Curry County (Oregon) pelagic trips. Oregon Birds. 14:127-128.

Roux, J.P. (1985). Le statut du puffin a pieds pales (Puffinus carneipes) a L'ile Saint-paul (38º43"s, 77º 30"e. L'Oiseau et la Revue Francaise d'Ornithologie. 55:155-157.

Schodde, R., P. Fullagar & N. Hermes (1983). A review of Norfolk Island birds: past and present. Australian National Parks and Wildlife Service Special Publication. 8.

Serventy, D.L. & H.M. Whittell (1976). Birds of Western Australia. Perth: University of Western Australia Press.

Serventy, D.L., V.N. Serventy & J. Warham (1971). The Handbook of Australian Seabirds. Sydney, NSW: A.H. & A.W. Reed.

Shuntov, V.P. (1972). Seabirds and the Biological Structure of the Ocean. Springfield, Virginia, National Technical Information Service, Department of Commerce.

Sibley, C.G. & B.L. Monroe (1990). Distribution and Taxonomy of the Birds of the World. New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press.

Smith, G.T. & N. Kolichis (1980). The flora and fauna of Coffin Island. Western Australian Naturalist. 14:225-228.

Smith, L.A. & R.E. Johnstone (1988b). Forrest Island, Archipelago of the Recherche, Western Australia. Corella. 12:91-92.

Taylor, G.A. (2000b). Action Plans for Seabird Conservation in New Zealand. Part B: Non-Threatened Seabirds. Wellington, Biodiversity Recovery Unit, Department of Conservation.

Thalmann, S., G.B. Baker, M. Hindell, M.C. Double & R. Gales (2007). Using biometric measurements to determine gender of Flesh-footed Shearwaters, and their application as a tool in long-line by-catch management and ecological field studies. Emu. 107:231-238.

Tingay, A. & S.R. Tingay (1982). Seabird Islands 120: Sandy Hood Island, Archipelago of the Recherche, Western Australia. Corella. 6:63-64.

Warham, J. (1958). The nesting of the shearwater Puffinus carneipes. Auk. 75:1-14.

Warham, J. (1996). The Behaviour, Population Biology and Physiology of the Petrels. London: Academic Press.

Wolters, H.E. (1982). Die Vogelarten der Erde. Parey, Hamburg/Berlin.

Wood, K.A. (1990). Temporal and zonal patterns of abundance of shearwaters Puffinus off central New South Wales, Australia. Australian Wildlife Research. 17:453-466.

EPBC Act email updates can be received via the Communities for Communities newsletter and the EPBC Act newsletter.

This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Ardenna carneipes in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Mon, 28 Jul 2014 15:55:42 +1000.