Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Endangered as Diomedea epomophora sanfordi
Listed marine as Diomedea sanfordi
Listed migratory - Bonn as Diomedea sanfordi
This taxon may be listed under the EPBC Act at the species level, see Diomedea epomophora (sensu stricto) [1072].
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan required, this species had a recovery plan in force at the time the legislation provided for the Minister to decide whether or not to have a recovery plan (19/2/2007).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan] as Diomedea epomophora sanfordi.
 
Other EPBC Act Plans Threat Abatement Plan 2006 - Bycatch of Seabirds for the Incidental Catch (or By-catch) of Seabirds During Oceanic Longline Fishing Operations (Australian Government Department of the Environment and Heritage (AGDEH), 2006q) [Threat Abatement Plan].
 
Policy Statements and Guidelines Survey Guidelines for Australia's Threatened Birds. EPBC Act survey guidelines 6.2 (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2010l) [Admin Guideline].
 
Information Sheets Background Paper, Population Status and Threats to Albatrosses and Giant Petrels Listed as Threatened under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011k) [Information Sheet].
 
Information Sheet - Harmful marine Debris (Environment Australia, 2003ac) [Information Sheet].
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument] as Diomedea sanfordi.
 
List of Migratory Species (13/07/2000) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000b) [Legislative Instrument] as Diomedea sanfordi.
 
Declaration under section 248 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of Marine Species (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000c) [Legislative Instrument] as Diomedea sanfordi.
 
Amendment to the list of threatened species under section 178 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (72) (15/12/2008) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2008k) [Legislative Instrument] as Diomedea epomophora sanfordi.
 
State Listing Status
SA: Listed as Endangered (National Parks and Wildlife Act 1972 (South Australia): June 2011 list) as Diomedea epomophora sanfordi
WA: Listed as Endangered (Wildlife Conservation Act 1950 (Western Australia): September 2013 list) as Diomedea sanfordi
Scientific name Diomedea epomophora sanfordi [82331]
Family Diomedeidae:Procellariiformes:Aves:Chordata:Animalia
Species author  
Infraspecies author Murphy, 1917
Reference  
Other names Diomedea sanfordi [64456]
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images

Victoria: At the species level, Diomedea epomophora is listed as Threatened under the Flora and Fauna Guarantee Act 1988.

International: Listed as Endangered on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) Redlist of Threatened Species.

Scientific name: Diomedea epomophora sanfordi

Common name: Northern Royal Albatross


Significant taxonomic confusion exists within the albatross group. The Northern Royal Albatross is now recognised as the subspecies Diomedea epomophora sanfordi according to AFD (2006), CAVS (2006), Christidis and Boles (2008), and Dickinson (2003) on morphological, biogeographical and molecular grounds. As such, it is one of two subspecies within the species Diomedea epomophora, Royal Albatross.

The Northern Royal Albatross was previously considered to be a race of the Royal Albatross Diomedea epomophora, and as such is sometimes referred to as D. epomophora race sanfordi (Pizzey & Knight 1999).

The Agreement on the Conservation of Albatrosses and Petrels (ACAP), of which Australia is a signatory, has established a working group on the taxonomy of albatrosses and petrels. This working group agreed to follow Robertson and Nunn (1997) in splitting the Royal Albatross complex and raising the two subspecies to full species status: with Diomedea epomophora representing the Southern Royal Albatross, and D. sanfordi the Northern Royal Albatross.

This profile treats the Northern Royal Albatross as a subspecies D. epomophora sanfordi, following Christidis and Boles (2008).

Adult Northern Royal Albatross have a white head, neck, body and tail, sharply contrasting against the black wings. The underwing is white except for a dark trailing edge and a large dark tip. Juvenile Northern Royal Albatrosses have indistinct brown mottling on the crown, and pronounced black mottling on the lower back and rump, and a narrow black terminal band on the tail. The bill is large, with a bulbous tip, pinkish coloured horn and a diagnostic black cutting edge on the upper mandible. In breeding birds, the bill may flush to a brighter pink. The iris is brown, and the feet and legs are pinkish to blueish-white, with blueish webs (Marchant & Higgins 1990).

The Northern Royal Albatross ranges widely over the Southern Ocean, with individuals seen in Australian waters off south-eastern Australia (Environment Australia 2001f). The Northern Royal Albatross feeds regularly in Tasmanian and South Australian waters, and less frequently in NSW waters (Garnett & Crowley 2000).

The Northern Royal Albatross breeds on Chatham Island and Taiaroa Head on the South Island of New Zealand (Gales 1998). Its non-breeding range extends over the Southern Ocean from 36° S to at least 52° S, though they are rarely seen below 49° S. Individuals disperse to the south west Atlantic off Argentina, the eastern south Pacific near Chile, the southern Indian Ocean and south-east Australia (DEWHA 2009k; Environment Australia 2001f).

Most (99%) of Northern Royal Albatrosses breed at the Chatham Islands where there is an estimated breeding population of 6500 to 7000 pairs. There is a projected total population of 20 000 individual birds (DEWHA 2009k). The South Island Taiaroa Head population is small, with less than 28 pairs breeding annually (DEWHA 2009k). The South Island population is slowly increasing under intensive human surveillance and management, while the other populations are thought to be decreasing (DEWHA 2009k; Environment Australia 2001f).

The Northern Royal Albatross is threatened extralimitally at breeding colonies (Robertson 1998).

The Northern Royal Albatross is known to hybridise with the Southern Royal Albatross D. epomophora. The tiny breeding colony on New Zealand's South Island includes five Northern Royal x Southern Royal Albatross hybrids (DEWHA 2009k).

The Northern Royal Albatross is marine, pelagic and aerial. Its habitat includes subantarctic, subtropical, and occasionally Antarctic waters (Marchant & Higgins 1990). It occurs where the surface temperature of the water is between 6–20 °C (Barton 1977, 1980; Jehl 1973; Szijj 1967). In Chile, its preferred range of water temperatures is 8–12 °C (Jehl 1973).

The Northern Royal Albatross flies low or moderately high over open waters, using updraft from wave fronts for lift (Marchant & Higgins 1990).

The Northern Royal Albatross nests on flat or gently sloping ground, on slopes, ridges, gullies and plateaux of large islands, and on the summits of islets (Bailey & Sorensen 1962; Dawson 1973; Westerkov 1963). Depressions, gullies, lee slopes and vegetation provide shelter for its nests, but exposed sites are also needed nearby so that the Southern Royal Albatross can take off and land. Its nests are placed among vegetation that are open enough for adults to easily walk through (Westerkov 1963).

The Northern Royal Albatross breeds biennially. Its eggs are laid in late November and early December. Males arrive at the breeding Island in October, before the females arrive. They form pairs in November, and the pair-bond usually lasts for life (Richdale 1950). The clutch size is one egg, which is incubated by both sexes for an average of 79 days (Richdale 1952). The male takes the first incubation shift (Sorensen 1950).

Nestlings of the Northern Royal Albatross are brooded by both parents in turn in irregular spans for around five weeks, and then fed by both adults. There is no desertion period (Serventy et al. 1971). Chicks fledge when they are around 236 days old (Sorensen 1950).

The Northern Royal Albatross feeds primarily on cephalopods, fish, crustaceans and salps (pelagic tunicates) (Gales 1998; Marchant & Higgins 1990). Most food is taken by surface seizing and rarely by surface plunging (Marchant & Higgins 1990).

Large seabirds such as albatrosses feed on or close to the surface of the water. Foraging behaviours such as flying long distances to search for food, following boats, feeding aggressively on offal and diving for baits make them susceptible to drowning in longline fishing gear (AGDEH 2006q).

The Northern Royal Albatross is migratory, and possibly circumpolar (Robertson & Kinsky 1972). There are records of it from all sectors of the Southern Ocean (Enticott 1986).

There have been no recoveries of banded immature Northern Royal Albatrosses during the non-breeding period. An adult banded at Taiaroa Head in New Zealand was recovered in the south western Atlantic after successful breeding, suggesting that there is long-range dispersal of adults between successive breeding seasons (Marchant & Higgins 1990).

Although banding records show that the Northern Royal Albatross has a uniform longitudinal range throughout the year, most records of it from the African sector occurred in winter (Enticott 1986). This suggests that the African region is an important wintering area (Marchant & Higgins 1990).

Distinctiveness
The Northern Royal Albatross may be confused with the Southern Royal Albatross D. epomophora with which it was considered conspecific until recently. It may also be confused with the Wandering Albatross D. exulans (Marchant & Higgins 1990).

The primary threat to the Northern Royal Albatross is drowning in longline fishing gear (Garnett & Crowley 2000). Oceanic longline fishing has been used to target pelagic and demersal fish in the southern oceans since the 1950s, and is used in almost all Australian waters today (AGDEH 2006q). Gales and Brothers (1995) reported that 75% of the birds killed on longlines and retained for identification were albatrosses. Internationally, some longline fishing fleets still operate without substantial bycatch mitigation measures. Therefore, birds breeding within the Australian Fishing Zone are still killed on longlines from vessels operating outside the Australian Fishing Zone (Environment Australia 2001f). Hook and plastic ingestion also potentially threaten the Northern Royal Albatross. Between 50 and 100 million hooks are set each year in the Southern Ocean and as many as 1.1 billion hooks are set globally. Both seabirds and fishing vessels concentrate in areas of high biological productivity (Environment Australia 2001f).

The Northern Royal Albatross may also die from collisions with cables and warps used on fishing trawlers. Outside of the Australian Fishing Zone, trawlers carrying netsonde monitor cables or their equivalent may cause substantial mortality in albatrosses. Trolling (trailing a line with baited hooks) for pelagic species such as Albacore Tuna Thunnus alalunga is another potential threat (Environment Australia 2001f; Gales 1998; Weimerskirch & Jouventin 1998). The species may also be shot by fishermen to protect bait or for sport (Environment Australia 2001f; Gales 1998). The chick is unlikely to survive if a parent is killed while it is foraging at sea (Marchant & Higgins 1990).

Fishing mortality will probably decrease the global population of the species over the next three generations, around 75 years (Environment Australia 2001f; Gales 1998; Garnett & Crowley 2000; Marchant & Higgins 1990).

When migrating through the East Marine Region the Northern Royal Albatross may also be at threat from a loss of food stock, ingestion or being caught in marine debris, oil spills, pollution and commercial fishing that occurs within the region (DEWHA 2009m).

The incidental catch of seabirds during oceanic longline fishing operations was listed as a key threatening process under the EPBC Act. The Department of the Environment and Heritage developed a threat abatement plan for the Incidental Catch (or bycatch) of Seabirds During Oceanic Longline Fishing Operations (AGDEH 2006q). The threat abatement plan aims to reduce seabird bycatch to below 0.05 seabirds per thousand hooks (a reduction of up to 90% of seabird bycatch within the Australian Fishing Zone) within five years by:

  • Mitigation - Effective measures will be put in place, both through legislative frameworks and fishing practices, to ensure the rate of seabird bycatch is continually reduced.
  • Education - Results from data analysis will be communicated throughout the community, stakeholder groups and international forums, and programs will be established that provide information and education to longline operators.
  • International initiatives - Global adoption of seabird bycatch mitigation targets and methods will be pursued through international conservation and fisheries management fora.
  • Research and Development - Research into new mitigation measures and their development, trialling and assessment will be supported through the granting of individual permits and the potential certification of new measures to apply throughout a fishery.
  • Innovation - Potential individual accreditation of longline operators who are able to demonstrate `bird-friendly' fishing practices will be supported.

The long-term aim is to achieve zero bycatch of seabirds in longline fisheries, especially of threatened albatross and petrel species.

The Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts is in the process of updating the National Recovery Plan for Threatened Albatrosses and Giant Petrels 2009-2014 (DEWHA 2009s). The overall objective of the recovery plan is to ensure the long term survival and recovery of albatross and giant petrel populations breeding and foraging in Australian jurisdiction by reducing or eliminating human related threats at sea and on land.

This will be achieved through the following specific objectives:

  • Research and monitor the biology, ecology and population dynamics of albatrosses and giant petrels breeding within Australian jurisdiction to understand conservation status and to implement effective and efficient conservation measures.
  • Quantify and reduce land-based threats to the survival and breeding success of albatrosses and giant petrels breeding within areas under Australian jurisdiction.
  • Quantify and reduce marine-based threats to the survival and breeding success of albatrosses and giant petrels foraging in waters under Australian jurisdiction.
  • Educate fishers and raise public awareness on the threats to albatrosses and giant petrels.
  • Promote and develop favourable conservation status of albatrosses and giant petrels globally in international conservation and fishing fora.

The Action Plan for Australian Birds (Garnett & Crowley 2000), the Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia 2001f) and the Draft National Recovery Plan for Threatened Albatrosses and Giant Petrels 2009-2014 (DEWHA 2009s) provide guides to threat abatement and management strategies for the Northern Royal Albatross.

The Threat Abatement Plan 2006 for the Incidental Catch (or bycatch) of Seabirds During Oceanic Longline Fishing Operations (AGDEH 2006q) and The East Marine Bioregional Plan, Bioregional Profile (DEWHA 2009m) also provide management documentation.

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Biological Resource Use:Fishing and Harvesting Aquatic Resources:Commercial harvest National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Fishing and Harvesting Aquatic Resources:Illegal fishing practices and entanglement in set nets National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Fishing and Harvesting Aquatic Resources:Incidental capture and death due to trawling fishing activities National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Fishing and Harvesting Aquatic Resources:Incidental capture and death due to trolling fishing activities National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Fishing and Harvesting Aquatic Resources:Incidental capture and drowning by longline fishing National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Threat Abatement Plan for the incidental catch (or by-catch) of seabirds during oceanic longline fishing operations (Environment Australia, 1998) [Threat Abatement Plan].
National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Fishing and Harvesting Aquatic Resources:Mortality due to capture, entanglement/drowning in nets and fishing lines National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Fishing and Harvesting Aquatic Resources:Overfishing, competition with fishing operations and overfishing of prey fishing National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Gathering Terrestrial Plants:Commercial harvest National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Climate Change and Severe Weather:Climate change altering atmosphere/hydrosphere temperatures, rainfall patterns and/or frequency of severe weather events National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Climate Change and Severe Weather:Habitat changes caused by climate change National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Habitat Shifting and Alteration:Habitat modification, destruction and alteration due to changes in land use patterns National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Habitat loss/conversion/quality decline/degradation National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human disturbance as the result of ecotourism National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human induced disturbance due to unspecified activities National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Mechanical disturbance during construction, maintanance or recreational activities National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:inappropriate conservation measures National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Recreational Activities:shooting National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Oryctolagus cuniculus (Rabbit, European Rabbit) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Felis catus (Cat, House Cat, Domestic Cat) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Rattus norvegicus (Brown Rat, Norway Rat) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Rattus rattus (Black Rat, Ship Rat) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Nasua narica (Common Coati, Coatimundi) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Mustela erminea ferghanae (Ermin, Stoat) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Canis lupus familiaris (Domestic Dog) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation by rats National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, competition and/or habitat degradation Mus musculus (House Mouse) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, tramping, competition and/or habitat degradation Capra hircus (Goat) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, tramping, competition and/or habitat degradation Ovis aries (Sheep) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, tramping, competition and/or habitat degradation Sus scrofa (Pig) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, tramping, competition and/or habitat degradation Bos taurus (Domestic Cattle) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Predation, competition, habitat degradation and/or spread of pathogens by introduced species National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Presence of pathogens and resulting disease National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Problematic Native Species:Competition and/or predation by birds National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Pollution:Garbage and Solid Waste:Dumping of household and industrial waste National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Pollution:Garbage and Solid Waste:Ingestion and entanglement with marine debris National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Pollution:Pollution:Deterioration of water and soil quality (contamination and pollution) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Pollution:Pollution:Pollution due to oil spills and other chemical pollutants National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Pollution:Pollution:heavy metals National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Pollution:Pollution:spillage National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Low numbers of individuals National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].

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Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA) (2009s). Draft National Recovery Plan for Threatened Albatrosses and Giant Petrels 2009-2014.

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Gales, R. & N. Brothers (1995). Characteristics of seabirds killed in the Japanese tuna longline fishery in the Australian region. Document prepared for the first meeting of the Commission for the Conservation of Southern Bluefin Tuna Ecologically Related Species Working Group, 18-20 December 1995, Wellington, New Zealand. CCSBT-ERS/95.

Garnett, S.T. & G.M. Crowley (2000). The Action Plan for Australian Birds 2000. [Online]. Canberra, ACT: Environment Australia and Birds Australia. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/action/birds2000/index.html.

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Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Diomedea epomophora sanfordi in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Tue, 2 Sep 2014 14:49:17 +1000.