In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.
|EPBC Act Listing Status||Listed as Vulnerable|
|Listing and Conservation Advices||
Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Myriophyllum coronatum (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008s) [Conservation Advice].
|Recovery Plan Decision||
Recovery Plan not required, included on the Not Commenced List (1/11/2009).
|Adopted/Made Recovery Plans|
|Other EPBC Act Plans||
Threat Abatement Plan for Predation, Habitat Degradation, Competition and Disease Transmission by Feral Pigs (Australian Government Department of the Environment and Heritage (AGDEH), 2005p) [Threat Abatement Plan].
Federal Register of
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument].
|State Listing Status||
|Scientific name||Myriophyllum coronatum |
|Reference||Blumea 17 (1969) 305.|
This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.
Scientific name: Myriophyllum coronatum Meijden.
Myriophyllum coronatum is a small, semi-aquatic or terrestrial mat-forming herb with stems up to 5 cm high. The plant has small (3-4 mm) linear leaves and small (1 mm) bright-red fruits (Landsberg & Clarkson 2004). This species lacks bracteoles (small, modified leaf occurring immediately below an axis) (Orchard 1986), and has unusual male flowers consisting of a single stamen and two strap-like 'petals' (Landsberg & Clarkson 2004). The feature of the male flower is shared only with Myriophyllum species from Indo-China and Madagascar (Landsberg & Clarkson 2004; Orchard 1986). The fruits are also distinctive, having three basal crests each bearing tiny spines, and cannot be confused with those from any other Australian species (Landsberg & Clarkson 2004; Orchard 1986). The lack of bracteoles, reduced male florets and distinctive fruit place this species in a very distinct group (Orchard 1986).
In Australia, this species is known only from a very small area at Lake Bronto, at the top of Cape York Peninsula, northern Queensland (Landsberg & Clarkson 2004; Orchard 1986). Although several kilometres of potential habitat exist around the lake margins, these have not been searched due to swampy terrain, lack of road access and the abundance of salt-water crocodiles (Landsberg & Clarkson 2004).
The extent of occurrence for M. coronatum is estimated at potentially several kilometres, based on information contained within Landsberg and Clarkson (2004).
The area of occupancy for M. coronatum is estimated at 0.01 km2 (Landsberg & Clarkson 2004).
The only other recorded location of this species is near Weam, in the Western District of Papua New Guinea (Landsberg & Clarkson 2004; Orchard 1986). Other species of the genus Myriophyllum occur in Indo-China and Madagascar (Landsberg & Clarkson 2004; Orchard 1986).
Myriophyllum coronatum is a semi-aquatic or terrestrial mat-forming herb (Orchard 1986). The Australian population grows on the shores of a shallow lake fringed by open woodland (Landsberg & Clarkson 2004). Specimens are reported as coming from the inner edge of the lake (BRI collection records), in moist-to-wet, sandy soils and a sheltered, shaded position (Landsberg & Clarkson 2004). Other species growing in association with M. coronatum include Asteromyrtus symphyocarpa, Dillenia alata (Sweet Wattle) and several sedges dominated by Dapsilanthus ramosus (Landsberg & Clarkson 2004).
The species has a naturally restricted distribution, with the only known Australian population vulnerable to pressures such as direct destruction of individuals, feral animals, weeds, altered fire regimes and water table changes (Landsberg & Clarkson 2004).
The location of the population makes the plants and their habitat vulnerable to inadvertent damage by local people who camp, fish and hunt in the general area (Landsberg & Clarkson 2004).
There are signs of habitat degradation caused by feral pig activity in the general area in which the species occurs, but there is little sign of damage in the immediate vicinity of the M. coronatum plants, possibly because the presence of crocodiles reduces pig activity close to the lake's margin (Landsberg & Clarkson 2004).
The habitat is also vulnerable to incursions of weeds transported by people or feral animals.
Recommended conservation measures for this species include the development and implementation of an appropriate conservation plan (Landsberg & Clarkson 2004). The input and cooperation of the local Aboriginal people in developing and implementing such a plan is considered crucial (Landsberg & Clarkson 2004). Landsberg and Clarkson (2004) recommend that the conservation plan include the following actions:
- raising awareness among local land-holders and natural resource managers;
- managing the habitat to reduce threats; and
- undertaking further surveys to determine the full extent of the distribution of the species.
The Threat Abatement Plan for Predation, Habitat, Degradation, Competition and Disease Transmission by Feral Pigs sets out a national framework to guide coordinated actions to contain the spread of this threatening process and manage the impact on threatened species and ecological communities as listed under the Environmental Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (EPBC Act).
The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.
|Threat Class||Threatening Species||References|
|Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Ecosystem Degradation:Decline in habitat quality||Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Myriophyllum coronatum (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008s) [Conservation Advice].|
|Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Indirect Ecosystem Effects:Restricted geographical distribution (area of occupancy and extent of occurrence)||Myriophyllum coronatum in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006pb) [Internet].|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation by weeds||Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Myriophyllum coronatum (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008s) [Conservation Advice].|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, tramping, competition and/or habitat degradation||Sus scrofa (Pig)||Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Myriophyllum coronatum (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008s) [Conservation Advice].|
|Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Alteration of hydrological regimes and water quality|
|Residential and Commercial Development:Residential and Commercial Development:Habitat modification (clearance and degradation) due to urban development|
Australian Government Department of the Environment and Heritage (AGDEH) (2005p). Threat Abatement Plan for Predation, Habitat Degradation, Competition and Disease Transmission by Feral Pigs. [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/tap/pig.html.
Landsberg, J. & J. Clarkson (2004). Threatened Plants of the Cape York Peninsula: A report to the Australian Government Department of the Environment and Heritage. Brisbane: Queensland Parks & Wildlife Service.
Orchard, A.E. (1986). Myriophyllum ( Haloragaceae ) in Australasia. II The Australian species. Brunonia. 8:173-291.
Queensland Herbarium (2008b). Unpublished data.
This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.
Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Myriophyllum coronatum in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Thu, 10 Jul 2014 13:31:43 +1000.