Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Vulnerable as Diomedea exulans gibsoni
Listed marine as Diomedea gibsoni
Listed migratory - Bonn as Diomedea gibsoni
This taxon may be listed under the EPBC Act at the species level, see Diomedea exulans (sensu lato) [1073].
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan required, this species had a recovery plan in force at the time the legislation provided for the Minister to decide whether or not to have a recovery plan (19/2/2007).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan] as Diomedea exulans gibsoni.
 
Other EPBC Act Plans Threat Abatement Plan 2006 - Bycatch of Seabirds for the Incidental Catch (or By-catch) of Seabirds During Oceanic Longline Fishing Operations (Australian Government Department of the Environment and Heritage (AGDEH), 2006q) [Threat Abatement Plan].
 
Policy Statements and Guidelines Survey Guidelines for Australia's Threatened Birds. EPBC Act survey guidelines 6.2 (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2010l) [Admin Guideline].
 
Information Sheets Background Paper, Population Status and Threats to Albatrosses and Giant Petrels Listed as Threatened under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011k) [Information Sheet].
 
Information Sheet - Harmful marine Debris (Environment Australia, 2003ac) [Information Sheet].
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument] as Diomedea gibsoni.
 
List of Migratory Species (13/07/2000) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000b) [Legislative Instrument] as Diomedea gibsoni.
 
Declaration under section 248 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of Marine Species (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000c) [Legislative Instrument] as Diomedea gibsoni.
 
Amendment to the list of threatened species under section 178 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (72) (15/12/2008) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2008k) [Legislative Instrument] as Diomedea exulans gibsoni.
 
State Government
    Documents and Websites
NSW:Gibson's Albatross - endangered species listing. NSW Scientific Committee - final determination (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2001b) [Internet].
NSW:Gibson's Albatross - profile (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2005ck) [Internet].
State Listing Status
NSW: Listed as Vulnerable (Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995 (New South Wales): December 2013) as Diomedea gibsoni
QLD: Listed as Vulnerable (Nature Conservation Act 1992 (Queensland): July 2012) as Diomedea antipodensis gibsoni
WA: Listed as Endangered (Wildlife Conservation Act 1950 (Western Australia): September 2013) as Diomedea gibsoni
Scientific name Diomedea exulans gibsoni [82271]
Family Diomedeidae:Procellariiformes:Aves:Chordata:Animalia
Species author  
Infraspecies author Robertson & Warham, 1992
Reference  
Other names Diomedea gibsoni [64466]
Diomedea antipodensis gibsoni [82270]
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images

Scientific name: Diomedea exulans gibsoni

Common name: Gibson's Albatross

Other common name: Auckland Island Wandering Albatross

This profile takes the taxonomy applied by Dickinson (2003), the Australian Faunal Directory (AFD 2007) and Christidis and Boles (2008) where Gibson's Albatross is treated as a subspecies of the Wandering Albatross (Diomedea exulans). This treatment is accepted by many authorities.

Significant authorities (including the Agreement on the Conservation of Albatrosses and Petrels, of which Australia is a signatory) treat Gibson's Albatross as a separate species (i.e. Diomedea gibsoni) following Robertson and Nunn (1997). Robertson and Nunn (1997) are responsible for the widely accepted use of Thalassarche for medium sized albatross and with Diomedea for large species.

Gibson's Albatross is very similar to the Wandering Albatross in appearance. Adults have a white or pale back that extends along the dorsal surface of the wings near the body. The dorsal wing surface has a black trailing edge, black remiges and mottled white patches on black primary coverts. The ventral wing surface is white with a dark trailing edge. The white tail has black edges, except in fully grown males. Females are slightly smaller and duller than males, with greyer fine barring and/or a pink wash over the neck and breast. Up close, the bill is large, shapely, and pale-flesh coloured; and the white plumage of the head and body has very fine grey barring (Pizzey & Knight 1999).

In Australian territory, Gibson's Albatross has been recorded foraging between Coffs Harbour, NSW, and Wilson's Promontory, Victoria (Garnett & Crowley 2000). Males and females appear to use different foraging areas, with females frequenting the Tasman Sea in the vicinity of 40° S, while males either disperse westwards at lower latitudes or north-east towards the mid-Pacific Ocean (EA 2001f).

Gibson's Albatrosses are rarely observed in the Pacific Ocean or Indian Ocean. The only Australian record of this species is from a recapture off Wollongong, NSW, in September 1997. The bird had been banded as a chick on Gough Island four years prior (Leishman 1998; L. Smith n.d., pers. comm., cited in EA 2001f).

There are no breeding colonies of Gibson's Albatross in Australian territory. This albatross visits Australian waters while foraging and during the non-breeding season (EA 2001f). Previously, population decreases of more than 20% have been predicted as a result fishing by-catch mortality (Garnett & Crowley 2000), however, recent programs aimed at reducing these deaths may have been successful (e.g. AGDEH 2006q).

Gibson's Albatross breeds on Adams Island and Auckland Island, New Zealand. The principal feeding area of females is in the Tasman Sea, and principal feeding area of males is further south or the mid-Pacific Ocean (EA 2001f). Non-breeding birds are usually found between the latitudes of 30° and 50° S, where weather systems assist foraging (Nicholls et al. 1997).

Global Population
It is estimated that the global population of Gibson's Albatross is approximately 40 000 individuals. Out of an estimated 10 000 pairs about 6200 pairs breed each year (EA 2001f). Sixty-five pairs breed annually on Auckland Island, 250 pairs on Disappointment Island and the remaining breeding occurs on Adams Island (EA 2001f). In 1999, the population size of Gibson's Albatross was lower than it was in the 1970s (estimated at 20 000 breeding pairs in 1973), and is probably much lower than it was in the 19th century (Walker & Elliott 1999).

A number of surveys for Gibson's Albatross in the Auckland Island group were conducted during the 1990s, however, the results of these surveys are not available (EA 2001f).

Gibson's Albatross is marine, pelagic and aerial. In the Antarctic, it occurs in open water, and rarely enters the belt of icebergs region (Falla 1937a; Hicks 1973). In late summer, it may approach the edge of the pack-ice (Darby 1970).

Gibson's Albatross flies within 15 m of the sea surface, using the updraft from wave fronts for lift. It circles over breeding islands to heights of at least 1500 m (Marchant & Higgins 1990).

On breeding islands, the Gibson's Albatross nests on coastal or inland ridges, slopes, plateaux and plains, often on marshy ground (Falla 1937a; Warham & Bell 1979). Nests of the Gibson's Albatross are sited on moss terraces, in dense tussocks, and often in loose aggregations on the west (windward) side of islands. It prefers open or patchy vegetation (tussocks, ferns or shrubs), and it requires nesting areas that are near exposed ridges or hillocks so that it can take off (Warham & Bell 1979).

The frequency of beachcast (dead) Gibson's Albatrosses in New Zealand is highest in January and June. January coincides with the fledging time of chicks from nearby sub-Antarctic islands, and June coincides with the arrival of young birds from breeding sites and moulting in adults, which makes them more vulnerable to bad weather (Powlesland 1985).

The Gibson's Albatross breeds biennially (if successful) in small, loose colonies among grass tussocks, using a large mud nest (Garnett & Crowley 2000). Nesting starts in summer, but the cycle lasts for 11 months (Serventy et al. 1971). Gibson's Albatrosses return to their breeding sites from November. Old males reappear first, before the previous year's young (the progeny of different adults) have all left, and the eggs are laid in late December and early January (Carrick & Ingham 1967).

Nest building is done mostly by the female, but the male gathers most of the material (Serventy et al. 1971). The female lays a single egg, which is incubated by both parents. The male usually takes the first shift, and attentive periods last two to three weeks. The average incubation period is around 78 days (Tickell 1968). Satellite tracking has shown that breeding adults often forage in the Tasman Sea up to 1000–1500 km from the nesting site (Walker et al. 1995).

Gibson's Albatross eggs hatch in early March, and the chick is brooded by both adults in turn for four to five weeks, after which it is visited on irregularly to be fed. Both adults continue to feed the chick at different times throughout winter (Serventy et al. 1971). There is no desertion period. Wandering Albatross chicks fledge from mid-November to mid-December, an average of 278 days after hatching (Tickell 1968). Breeding success was 64% during the 1989–90 breeding season (P. Dilks, n.d., pers. comm., cited in Gales 1993).

Gibson's Albatross eats squid, fish and crustaceans (Gales 1998; Marchant & Higgins 1990).

Gibson's Albatross feeds pelagically, using the wind to travel great distances to forage, both during and between breeding seasons (Reinke et al. 1998). It feeds from the sea surface or just below it, or makes shallow dives from heights of 2–5 m (Harper 1987; Voisin 1981). Foraging behaviours of albatrosses, such as flying long distances to search for food, following boats, feeding aggressively on offal and diving for baits make them susceptible to being drowned in longline fishing gear (AGDEH 2006q).

Banding returns suggest that adults and young of Gibson's Albatross disperse or migrate east (Tickell 1968). Movements outside of the breeding season are probably circumpolar, but definite proof is still lacking (Marchant & Higgins 1990). Gibson's Albatross is uncommon south of the Antarctic Convergence in winter, indicating that there is a northward shift during this period (Szijj 1967).

The Gibson's Albatross may be confused with the similar Wandering Albatross (Pizzey & Knight 1999).

Gibson's Albatross chicks are unlikely to survive if a parent is killed while foraging at sea (Marchant & Higgins 1990). Due to late breeding (at more than 10 years of age) and low chick production (once every 2–3 years), this species is less able to sustain bycatch mortality (Walker & Elliott 1999). There are four key threats to Gibson's Albatross (EA 2001f):

  • Incidental catch during longline fishing operations.
  • Incidental catch during trawl fishing operations.
  • Intentional shooting/killing
  • Incidental catch during trolling operations

Oceanic longline fishing has been used to target pelagic and demersal fish in the southern oceans since the 1950s, and is used in almost all Australian waters today (AGDEH 2006q). Gales and Brothers (1995) reported that 75% of the birds killed on longlines and retained for identification were albatrosses. Internationally, some longline fishing fleets still operate without substantial by-catch mitigation measures. Murray and colleagues (1993, cited in Walker & Elliott 1999) noted high bycatch of Gibson's Albatross by longline fishing boats. Hook and plastic ingestion also potentially threaten Gibson's Albatross. Hook ingestion by albatross appears to have increased in recent years. Between 50–100 million hooks are set each year in the Southern Ocean and as many as 1.1 billion hooks are set globally. Seabirds and fishing vessels concentrate in areas of high biological productivity (EA 2001f).

The Gibson's Albatross may also die from collisions with cables and warps used on fishing trawlers. Outside of the Australian Fishing Zone, trawlers carrying netsonde monitor cables or their equivalent may cause substantial mortality in albatrosses (EA 2001f).

The species may also be shot by fishermen to protect bait or for sport (EA 2001f; Gales 1998).

Trolling (trailing a line with baited hooks) for pelagic species such as Albacore Tuna (Thunnus alalunga) is another potential threat (EA 2001f; Gales 1998; Weimerskirch et al. 1997; Weimerskirch & Jouventin 1998).

The incidental catch of seabirds during oceanic longline fishing operations is listed as a key threatening process under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999. A threat abatement plan for the incidental catch (or by-catch) of seabirds during oceanic longline fishing operations (AGDEH 2006q) has been prepared. This plan aims to reduce seabird by-catch to below 0.05 seabirds per thousand hooks (a reduction of up to 90% of seabird by-catch within the Australian Fishing Zone) by 2011 (AGDEH 2006q). Actions aimed at achieving this goal include:

  • prescribing modifications to fishing practices or equipment (mitigation measures)
  • developing new mitigation measures
  • educating fishers and the public
  • improving knowledge of seabird-longline fishery interactions.

The long-term aim is to achieve a zero by-catch of seabirds in longline fisheries, especially of threatened albatross and petrel species (AGDEH 2006q).

Projects supported by Australian Government funding
Ocean Watch Australia Ltd (NSW) received $24 860 of funding through the Threatened Species Network Community Grants in 2003–04, part of which was for demonstration of de-hookers and line-cutters to fishermen to increase industry's awareness of their application; provision of the devices and monitoring of experiences; project outcomes communicated to fishermen and production of instruction video; aiming to reduce by-catch fatalities for this species.

The Action Plan for Australian Birds (Garnett & Crowley 2000) and the National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (EA 2001f) provide guides to threat abatement and management strategies for the Gibson's Albatross. The Threat Abatement Plan 2006 - Bycatch of Seabirds for the Incidental Catch (or By-catch) of Seabirds During Oceanic Longline Fishing Operations (AGDEH 2006q) outlines measures to mitigate the threat from logline fishing.

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Biological Resource Use:Fishing and Harvesting Aquatic Resources:Commercial harvest National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Fishing and Harvesting Aquatic Resources:Illegal fishing practices and entanglement in set nets National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Fishing and Harvesting Aquatic Resources:Incidental capture and death due to trawling fishing activities National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Diomedea exulans gibsoni in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006hf) [Internet].
National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Fishing and Harvesting Aquatic Resources:Incidental capture and death due to trolling fishing activities National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Fishing and Harvesting Aquatic Resources:Incidental capture and drowning by longline fishing National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Threat Abatement Plan for the incidental catch (or by-catch) of seabirds during oceanic longline fishing operations (Environment Australia, 1998) [Threat Abatement Plan].
National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Fishing and Harvesting Aquatic Resources:Mortality due to capture, entanglement/drowning in nets and fishing lines National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Fishing and Harvesting Aquatic Resources:Overfishing, competition with fishing operations and overfishing of prey fishing National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Gathering Terrestrial Plants:Commercial harvest National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Climate Change and Severe Weather:Climate change altering atmosphere/hydrosphere temperatures, rainfall patterns and/or frequency of severe weather events National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Climate Change and Severe Weather:Habitat changes caused by climate change National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Habitat Shifting and Alteration:Habitat modification, destruction and alteration due to changes in land use patterns National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human disturbance as the result of ecotourism National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human induced disturbance due to unspecified activities National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Mechanical disturbance during construction, maintanance or recreational activities National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:inappropriate conservation measures National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Recreational Activities:shooting National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Oryctolagus cuniculus (Rabbit, European Rabbit) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Felis catus (Cat, House Cat, Domestic Cat) The threat posed by pest animals to biodiversity in New South Wales (Coutts-Smith, A.J., P.S. Mahon, M. Letnic & P.O. Downey, 2007) [Management Plan].
National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Rattus norvegicus (Brown Rat, Norway Rat) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Rattus rattus (Black Rat, Ship Rat) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Nasua narica (Common Coati, Coatimundi) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Mustela erminea ferghanae (Ermin, Stoat) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Canis lupus familiaris (Domestic Dog) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation by rats National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, competition and/or habitat degradation Mus musculus (House Mouse) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, tramping, competition and/or habitat degradation Capra hircus (Goat) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, tramping, competition and/or habitat degradation Ovis aries (Sheep) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, tramping, competition and/or habitat degradation Sus scrofa (Pig) The threat posed by pest animals to biodiversity in New South Wales (Coutts-Smith, A.J., P.S. Mahon, M. Letnic & P.O. Downey, 2007) [Management Plan].
National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, tramping, competition and/or habitat degradation Bos taurus (Domestic Cattle) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Predation, competition, habitat degradation and/or spread of pathogens by introduced species National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Presence of pathogens and resulting disease National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Problematic Native Species:Competition and/or predation by birds National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Pollution:Garbage and Solid Waste:Dumping of household and industrial waste National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Pollution:Garbage and Solid Waste:Ingestion and entanglement with marine debris National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Pollution:Pollution:Deterioration of water and soil quality (contamination and pollution) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Pollution:Pollution:Pollution due to oil spills and other chemical pollutants National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Pollution:Pollution:heavy metals National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Pollution:Pollution:spillage National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Low numbers of individuals National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].

Australian Faunal Directory (AFD) (2007). Australian Faunal Directory. [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/abrs/online-resources/fauna/afd/index.html.

Australian Government Department of the Environment and Heritage (AGDEH) (2006q). Threat Abatement Plan 2006 - Bycatch of Seabirds for the Incidental Catch (or By-catch) of Seabirds During Oceanic Longline Fishing Operations. [Online]. Available from: http://www.aad.gov.au/default.asp?casid=20587.

Christidis, L. & W.E. Boles (2008). Systematics and Taxonomy of Australian Birds. Collingwood, Victoria: CSIRO Publishing.

Dickinson, E.C., ed. (2003). The Howard and Moore Complete Checklist of the Birds of the World. Page(s) 1039. London: Christopher Helm.

Environment Australia (EA) (2001f). National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005. [Online]. Canberra, ACT: Environment Australia. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/archive/biodiversity/threatened/publications/recovery/albatross/index.html.

Gales, R. (1993). Cooperative Mechanisms for the Conservation of Albatrosses. Hobart, Tasmania: Australian Nature Conservation Agency, Tasmanian Government Printer.

Leishman, A.J. (1998). Recovery round-up. Corella. 22:34-36.

Robertson, C.J.R. & G.B. Nunn (1997). Toward a new taxonomy for albatrosses. In: Robertson, G. & R. Gales, eds. Albatross: Biology and Conservation. Page(s) pp. 413-19. Chipping Norton, NSW: Surrey Beatty & Sons.

Tickell, W.L.N. (1968). The biology of the Great Albatrosses, Diomedea exulans and Diomedea epomophora. Antarctic Research Series. 12:1-55.

Walker, K., G. Elliot, D. Nicholls, D. Murray & P. Dilks (1995). Satellite tracking of Wandering albatross Diomedea exulans from the Auckland Islands: Preliminary results. Notornis. 42:127-137.

Weimerskirch, H. & J. Jouventin (1998). Changes in population size and demographic parameters of six albatross species in French sub-Antarctic islands. In: Robertson, G. & R. Gales, eds. The Albatross: Biology and Conservation. Page(s) 84-91. Chipping Norton, NSW: Surrey Beatty and Sons.

Weimerskirch, H., N. Brothers & J. Jouventin (1997). Population dynamics of wandering albatross, Diomedea exulans, and Amsterdam albatross D. amsterdamensis in the Indian Ocean and their relationships with long-line fisheries: conservation implications. Biological Conservation. 79:257-270.

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This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Diomedea exulans gibsoni in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Fri, 18 Apr 2014 16:44:49 +1000.