In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.
|EPBC Act Listing Status||Listed as Endangered as Petrophile latericola|
|Listing and Conservation Advices||
Commonwealth Conservation Advice for Petrophile latericola (Laterite Petrophile) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2013dk) [Conservation Advice].
|Recovery Plan Decision||
Recovery Plan not required, included on the Not Commenced List (1/11/2009).
|Adopted/Made Recovery Plans|
|Other EPBC Act Plans||
Threat abatement plan for disease in natural ecosystems caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi (Department of the Environment, 2014a) [Threat Abatement Plan].
Federal Register of
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument] as Petrophile latericola.
Amendment to the list of threatened species under section 178 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (11/04/2007) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2007f) [Legislative Instrument] as Petrophile sp. Whicher Range (G.J.Keighery 11790) WA Herbarium.
Amendment to the list of threatened species under section 178 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (151) (31/05/2013) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2013r) [Legislative Instrument] as Petrophile latericola.
Documents and Websites
|State Listing Status||
|Scientific name||Petrophile latericola |
|Reference||Keighery, G.J. (2010) A new species of Petrophile (Proteaceae) from the Whicher Range. The Western Australian Naturalist 27(2): 103-106, Figs 1, 2 [tax. nov.]|
Petrophile sp. Whicher Range (G.J.Keighery 11790) WA Herbarium 
Petrophile latericola Keighery ms. 
This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.
Laterite Petrophile is a multi-stemmed (Western Australian Herbarium 2007) or single-stemmed (Brown et al. 1998; Phillimore et al. 2001) erect open shrub that grows from 0.42 m high (Brown et al. 1998; Williams et al. 2001a). The hard, linear leaves are 1550 mm long, circular in cross-section, end in a rigid, sharp point and are held erect and close to the stem.
Laterite Petrophile has small, rounded flowers at the ends of the branchlets, with numerous, overlapping brown bracts at their base. The flowers are bright yellow, hairy, and are about 20 mm long. The pollen presenter is erect and yellow, 35 mm long and has a hairy brush near the tip. The fruiting heads are rounded and up to 20 mm long (Brown et al. 1998; Phillimore et al. 2001a).
Laterie Petrophile is known from three natural and two translocated locations on the Southern Swan Coastal Plain, south-east of Busselton, Western Australia (WA DEC 2007). It is found at the base of Whicher Range and on the Wonnerup-Ruabon rail reserve (Brown et al. 1998).
This species occurs in the South West Natural Resource Management Region. Although this species is highly restricted, it is not considered fragmented.
The extent of occurrence of Laterite Petrophile is calculated to be 4.13 km². The Western Australian Department of Environment and Conservation's (DEC) Threatened Flora Database (which contains GPS coordinate for each subpopulation) was used to create a minimum convex polygon (WA DEC 2007).
The area of occupancy is estimated to be less that 5 hectares or 0.05 km². This is based on the estimate from population monitoring for subpopulation 2a which is 2.5 hectares. The only other subpopulation of similar size is subpopulation 2b, and although there are no estimates from monitoring, it is not likely to be more than 2.5 hectares. Estimates of area of occupancy for other subpopulations are negligible (WA DEC 2007).
There is some data to indicate a decline in the area of occupancy of Laterite Petrophile, as subpopulation 1a has been destroyed by fire and is now presumed extinct. There are no data to indicate a future decline in area of occupancy, however this species occurs on an extremely restricted soil type in an area where Phytophthora is present (WA DEC 2007).
Two translocations were undertaken in 2001 to Nature Reserves (Phillimore et al. 2001a). Results of the program vary, with many adverse impacts caused by Feral Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus), weeds, strong winds and below average rainfall. Watering systems have been set up at both sites, weed control is being implemented and windbreaks were to be planted in 2002. There is no further information on survival rates or the success of the translocation at this time (WA DEC 2007).
The Botanic Gardens and Parks Authority (BGPA) had 100 Laterite Petrophile plants in cultivation representing 15 clones. In 2001, 62 plants were potted in the nursery and 38 were in the Botanic Gardens. Plants were propagated from seed and cutting material taken since 1992. The species grows well from cuttings, with results ranging from 10% to 100% success (A. Shade pers. comm., cited in Phillimore et al. 2001a).
A single specimen of Laterite Petrophile was discovered in 1991 on a rail reserve (subpopulation 1a) during a floristic survey of the southern Swan Coastal Plain (Gibson et al. 1994). During the same survey, subpopulations 2a and 2b, consisting of 287 plants, were located in nearby State Forest. Western Australia Department of Environment and Conservation district staff have since located additional plants (subpopulations 1b and 3) in remnant vegetation that adjoins subpopulation 1a (Gibson et al. 1994).
Subpopulation 1a was destroyed by fire in May 1993 and has not been relocated. This may be because the original location information was inadequate, but it is much more likely that the subpopulation has become extinct. After being burnt in a hot summer wildfire in 1999, subpopulation 2a has had good regeneration from seed (Phillimore et al. 2001a).
The following table presents the survey record for each subpopulation (WA DEC 2007):
|Subpopulation||Survey History||Number of Plants Recorded||Area|
0 (presumed extinct)
25 000 m²
Laterite Petrophile is known from three natural and two translocated locations which can be considered five subpopulations. Subpopulations are defined by differences in land tenure and management, as well as location.
The total population size for this species is estimated to be 203 mature plants. This is an estimate derived from population monitoring (WA DEC 2007).
The population appears to be in decline. Subpopulation 1a is now presumed extinct, and subpopulations 1b and 3 do not appear to be regenerating. Subpopulation 2a appears to be stable at present, while subpopulation 2b is in decline. These subpopulations are at significant risk from a number of threats (WA DEC 2007).
Given that this species is known from only three natural locations it is considered that all known habitat for known and translocated populations is essential to its survival (WA DEC 2007). The wild populations are all important to the survival of the species, as they represent the only known natural habitat in which this species occurs and may also provide plants for future translocations.
Only the translocated Laterite Petrophile subpopulations are located in nature reserves, and are managed for conservation of flora and fauna. There is no current information on the success of the translocated subpopulations, however, they should not be regarded as successful (WA DEC 2007).
Laterite Petrophile inhabits tall and low heath on winter-wet flats of red sandy-clay over ironstone (Brown et al. 1998; Gibson et al. 1994) in association with Teatree (Pericalymma ellipticum) and Fringed Regelia (Regelia ciliata) (Brown et al. 1998; Phillimore et al. 2001a).
The sites in which this species occurs are two of 13 occurrences of a species-rich plant community located on seasonal wetlands on ironstone and heavy clay soils on the Swan Coastal Plain near Busselton (English 1999c). Associated species include Hakea varia, Loxocarya magna and Royce's Waxflower (Chamelaucium roycei). Much of the species diversity in the community comes from annuals and geophytes. Typical and common native species are the shrubs Kunzea micrantha, Hakea oldfieldii, Hemiandra pungens and Golden Spray (Viminaria juncea), and the herbs Aphelia cyperoides and Pointed Centrolepis (Centrolepis aristata) (Gibson et al. 1994).
Two subpopulations of Laterite Petrophile occur within the Shrublands on Southern Swan Coastal Plain Ironstones (Busselton Area, Southern Ironstone Association) threatened Ecological Community which is listed as Endangered under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (EPBC Act), and ranked in Western Australia as Critically Endangered (Gibson et al 1994). These ironstone soils are highly restricted in distribution.
Laterite Petrophile occurs in association with six other listed threatened flora: the EPBC Act-listed Endangered Butterfly-leaved Gastrolobium (Gastrolobium papilio), Prickly Honeysuckle (Lambertia echinata subsp. occidentalis) and Abba Bell (Darwinia sp. Williamson (G.J.Keighery 12717)); Dryandra nivea subsp. uliginosa; and the EPBC Act-listed Vulnerable Whicher Range Dryandra (Dryandra squarrosa subsp. argillacea) and Royce's Waxflower (Chamelaucium sp. C Coast Plain (R.D.Royce 4872)) (WA DEC 2007).
Monitoring of Laterite Petrophile suggests that this species is an obilgate seeder with germination occurring from seed following fire events. Subpopulations restricted from fire become woody and senesce and eventually become locally extinct if fire is suppressed indefinitely. However, fire at regenerating sites before plants reach sexual maturity will deplete the soil seed bank and lead to localised extinction (Phillimore et al. 2001a).
Laterite Petrophile flowers from October to November (Brown et al. 1998). Little is known about the mating system, reproductive strategies or pollination biology of this species (Phillimore et al. 2001a).
Laterite Petrophile differs from Sandplain Pixie Mop (Petrophile brevifolia) in having longer, spreading leaves and having more flowers on its inflorescences (Brown et al, 1998). Laterite Petrophile is best surveyed when it is in flower from October to November (Phillimore et al. 2001).
Phillimore and colleagues (2001a) defined the threats to each subpopulation of Laterite Petrophile:
|Sub-population Number||Current Condition||Past||Present||Potential Future|
|1a||Poor||Land-clearing, inappropriate fire regimes; hydrological changes; changes as a result of mineral sand exploration (1992) and mining (2004), and associated rise in water levels; and fragmentation as a result of accidental widening of the firebreak in 2000.||Dieback caused by Phytophthora; waterlogging; salinity and associated hydrological changes as a result of mining activities; weeds; feral rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus); and insect damage.||Inappropriate fire regimes, and road and railway maintenance.|
|1b||Healthy||Dieback caused by Phytophthora.||Drainage channel maintenance.|
|2a||Healthy||Canker (probably Armillaria) and dieback caused by Phytophthora.|
|2b||Healthy||Dieback caused by Phytophthora.|
|3||Poor||Competition from other vagetation.||Road and railway maintenance.|
Road, rail and firebreak maintenance activities threaten Laterite Petrophile and its habitat. Threats include road grading, chemical drift (associated with weed control) and drainage line maintenance. These disturbance events often encourage weed invasion or vegetative damage to Laterite Petrophile. In 2000, the habitat of subpopulation 1b was degraded and fragmented by accidental widening of the firebreak. The site was initially allowed to regenerate naturally, however, the site may require further rehabilitation measures (WA DEC 2007).
Drainage channel maintenance may threaten the habitat near subpopulation 1b. A Water Corporation WA Drain Reserve includes a drainage channel and its maintenance track that both run parallel to the road reserve that contains Laterite Petrophile. During maintenance, the channel is scoured and removed soil is mounded on the maintenance track. This action disturbs vegetation and exacerbates weed invasion into the narrow road reserve. Initial consultations indicate it may be possible to have the maintenance track established on the northern side of the drainage channel between the channel and a fence, thereby effectively increasing the vegetated width of the road reserve (Phillimore et al. 2001a). There is no information on the progress of this activity (WA DEC 2007).
Subpopulations 1a and 1b, which occur on a sand mining lease, were damaged during mining exploration in 1992 (Williams et al. 2001).
Disease threatens all subpopulations of Laterite Petrophile. Although it is not known whether Laterite Petrophile is susceptible to dieback caused by Phytophthora species, deaths of Dryandra nivea subsp. uliginosa has occurred in adjacent habitat. Field observations suggest that the species is highly susceptible to Phytophthora dieback (Gibson et al. 1994; Williams et al. 2001). Dieback is present in subpopulations 1a, 1b, 2a and 2b. Canker (probably Armillaria luteobalina) is also present in the habitat of subpopulation 2a (Phillimore et al. 2001a).
Invasion by weeds is a threat to subpopulation 3. This population occurs in a very narrow linear area immediately adjacent to cleared paddocks that are already infested by exotic grasses and broadleaved weeds. Weeds suppress early plant growth by competing for soil moisture, nutrients and light. They also exacerbate grazing pressure and increase the fire hazard due to of high fuel loads, associated with annual grassy weeds (Phillimore et al. 2001a).
Hydrological change may become a threat to all subpopulations in the future (Tille & Lantzke 1990 cited in Phillimore et al. 2001a). Extensive clearing for agriculture in the area where Laterite Petrophile occurs is likely to result in increased surface runoff and groundwater recharge; thus, waterlogging and salinity require monitoring. Levels of salinity in the groundwater in the South West Capes area have been measured (Hirschberg 1989 cited in Phillimore et al. 2001a), and water found near the populations ranged between 200 and 400 per litre total dissolved solids, which is reasonably fresh. Conversely, the habitat appears to be drought prone during summer months (Brown et al. 1998). Adjacent developments, including mining, also have the potential to alter hydrological processes and threaten the populations (Phillimore et al. 2001a).
Subpopulations 1a and 1b, which occur on a sand mining lease, were affected by hydrological changes in 2004 as a result of mineral sand exploration and mining (WA DEC 2007).
Laterite Petrophile germinates from seed following fire and too frequent fire would deplete the soil seed bank and lead to local extinction. Occasional fires are required for reproduction of the species (Phillimore et al. 2001a).
Competition from local dodder and reed species is a threat to subpopulation 3, as these weeds cover some adult plants. Dodder not only competes for light, nutrients and possibly pollinators but also physically restricts the host, therefore posing a threat to individual plants (Phillimore et al. 2001a).
Existing recovery actions
The known populations of Laterite Petrophile were surveyed and boundaries mapped with GPS in 1999. Three blocks of 42 hectares of the Shrubland Association on Southern Swan Coastal Plain Ironstone threatened Ecological Community have been purchased. In 2000, two other ironstone species were translocated to these sites. The South West Region Threatened Flora and Communities Recovery Team (SWRTFCRT) is overseeing the implementation of this Interim Recovery Plan and will include it in its annual report to Western Australia's Department of Environment and Conservation (WA DEC) Corporate Executive and funding bodies. Staff from the WA DEC Blackwood District office regularly monitor the populations (Phillimore et al. 2001a).
Notification of relevant land managers
Westrail and private property owners have been formally notified of the presence of the Laterite Petrophile subpopulations on their lands. Negotiation continue to alter the tenure of the land on which subpopulation 1 and 3 occur from rail reserve to a Class A Nature Reserve (Phillimore et al. 2001a). The WA DEC Blackwood District office has provided maps that indicate the area in which Laterite Petrophile occurs is an exclusion zone not available for commercial wildflower picking. This will help to ensure that wildflower pickers do not enter the areas (Phillimore et al. 2001a).
Roadside marking and vehicle exclusion
Declared Rare Flora (DRF) markers have been installed at subpopulations 1b, 2b and 3. These markers alert people working in the area to the presence of significant flora and communities, and help prevent accidental damage during maintenance operations. Awareness of the significance of these markers is being promoted to relevant bodies through the distribution of dashboard stickers and posters informing of the purpose of DRT markers (Phillimore et al. 2001a). Bollards were installed across the access track in 1999 to prevent vehicular access to subpopulation 2a. A small barrier was placed parallel to the fenceline and adjacent to the vegetation at subpopulation 3 to prevent accidental damage to plants (Phillimore et al. 2001a).
Collection of plant material
Seed has been collected and stored and cuttings have been forwarded to the Botanical Gardens and Parks Association (BGPA) (Phillimore et al. 2001a).
An experimental application of phosphite was made to the ecological community that contains subpopulation 2a and 2b in 1996. This included a 4.2 hectare area which was sprayed three times in May, June and again in spring 1996. Follow-up spraying occurred in April and December 1998, and May 2000. A 7 hectare area that contains subpopulations 1 and 3 was also sprayed twice with phosphite in May 2000. The spread and impact of the disease are being monitored. WA DEC staff are assessing the effectiveness of this treatment by monitoring the local key dieback indicator species Prickly Honeysuckle, Dryandra nivea subsp. uliginosa and Whicher Range Dryandra (Phillimore et al. 2001a).
Future recovery actions
Acquire areas where populations occur and alter management to Class A reserve
Acquire land where subpopulations 1, 2 and 3 occur and alter management to appropriately manage threats associated with Laterite Petrophile (Phillimore et al. 2001a).
Apply phosphite and monitor
WA DEC will continue applying phosphite to the areas of the threatened ecological community in which Laterite Petrophile occurs. This action will benefit a number of other threatened plant species in the area and will help conserve the community as a whole (Phillimore et al. 2001a).
Implement disease hygiene measures
Disease hygiene measures will be applied to restrict access, especially when the site is wet. Install signs to inform public of the risk of pathogen infection (Phillimore et al. 2001a).
Develop and implement a drainage management strategy
A drainage control and rehabilitation strategy will be developed for the habitat of subpopulation 1b and implemented in liaison with relevant stakeholders including the Water Corporation and local shire. Such a strategy may include the alteration of the track so it occurs on the opposite side of the drain. This would increase the area of potential habitat for Laterite Petrophiles, and reduce the risk of disturbance and weed invasion during future drain maintenance activities (Phillimore et al. 2001a).
Propagate plants for translocation
The propagation of plants in readiness for translocation is essential as the only known wild populations of Laterite Petrophile are under serious threat (Phillimore et al. 2001a).
Undertake and monitor translocation
Laterite Petrophile will be translocated into two sites into which the critically endangered species (in Western Australia) McCutcheon's Grevillea (Grevillea maccutcheonii) and Prickly Honeysuckle have already been planted. The sites contain a similar soil type, associated vegetation and structure to that of the habitat of the known populations. Monitoring of the translocation is essential and will be undertaken according to the timetable to be set out in the Translocation Proposal (Phillimore et al. 2001a).
Undertake weed control
The tolerance of associated native plant species to herbicides at the site of Laterite Petrophile is not known and weed control programs will be undertaken in conjunction with research. Weeds are a threat to subpopulations 1 and 3, in particular, and the following actions will be implemented (Phillimore et al. 2001a):
- Selection of appropriate herbicides after determining which weeds are present.
- Control of invasive weeds by hand removal or spot spraying around Laterite Petrophile plants when weeds first emerge.
- Scheduling weed control to include spraying at other threatened flora populations within the district.
Develop and implement a fire management strategy
Fire appears to kill adult plants of the species and regeneration appears to be largely from seed. Frequent fire may prevent the accumulation of sufficient soil stored seed to allow regeneration of the populations. Fire should therefore be prevented from occurring in the areas that contain the populations at least in the short term. A fire management strategy will be developed that prescribes fire control measures, timing and fire frequency (Phillimore et al. 2001a).
Annual monitoring of factors such as habitat degradation, population stability, weed invasion, regeneration, competition, pollination activity, seed production, recruitment, longevity and predation is essential (Phillimore et al. 2001a). Salinity and groundwater levels, and depth and timing of inundation in the habitat will be monitored as part of the implementation of the recovery actions outlined in the Interim Recovery Plan for the ecological community Shrublands on Southern Swan Coastal Plain Ironstones (English 1999c).
Preservation of germplasm is essential to guard against extinction if wild populations are lost. Seed collections are also needed to propagate plants for translocations. A small quantity of seed has been collected from subpopulation 2 but additional seed is required, particularly as that collected appears to have low germination levels. Cuttings have been collected to establish a living collection of genetic material at the BGPA (Phillimore et al. 2001a).
Notify and liaise with relevant land managers
Managers of land adjacent to all populations, including the Shire and Water Corporation, will be officially notified of the presence of Laterite Petrophile. Staff from the WA DEC Blackwood District will continue to liaise with managers of land on which the populations occur, and managers of adjacent lands, to ensure the subpopulations are not damaged or accidentally destroyed. Due to the potential susceptibility of the habitat of this species to dieback caused by Phytophthora spp., the need for the application of dieback hygiene procedures will be included in information provided to land managers. This will highlight the need to restrict the movement of soil into the habitat of the subpopulations (Phillimore et al. 2001a).
Obtain biological and ecological information
Increased knowledge of the biology and ecology of the species will provide a scientific basis for management of Laterite Petrophile in the wild. Investigations will include (Phillimore et al. 2001a):
- Investigation of the impacts of dieback disease and control techniques on Laterite Petrophile and its habitat.
- Study of the soil seed bank dynamics and the role of various factors including disturbance (such as fire), competition, rainfall, and grazing in recruitment and seedling survival.
- Determination of reproductive strategies, phenology and seasonal growth.
- Investigation of the mating system and pollination biology.
- Investigation of population genetic structure, levels of genetic diversity and minimum viable population size.
The importance of biodiversity conservation and the protection of Laterite Petrophile will be promoted to the public. Formal links with local naturalist groups and interested individuals will be encouraged. An information sheet that includes a description of the plant, its habitat type, threats, management actions and photos will be produced (Phillimore et al. 2001a).
Due to the potential susceptibility of the habitat of this species to dieback caused by Phytophthora spp., the need for the application of dieback hygiene procedures will be included in information provided to visitors to the habitat of the species. This will stress the need to restrict the movement of soil into the habitat of subpopulations (Phillimore et al. 2001a).
Management documents that provide useful management information for Laterite Petrophile include Ironstone Petrophile (Petrophile latericola ms) Interim Recovery Plan No. 93, 2001-2004 (Phillimore et al. 2001a), Declared rare and poorly known flora in the Central Forest Region (Williams et al. 2001) and Shrubland Association on Southern Swan Coastal Plain Ironstone (Busselton Area) (Southern Ironstone Association) Interim recovery Plan 1999 - 2002 (English 1999c).
The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.
|Threat Class||Threatening Species||References|
|Energy Production and Mining:Mining and Quarrying:Habitat destruction, disturbance and/or modification due to mining activities||
Petrophile sp. Whicher Range (G.J.Keighery 11790) WA Herbarium in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006qv) [Internet].
Declared Rare and Poorly Known Flora in the Central Forest Region. Part 2 (Williams, K., A. Horan, S. Wood & A. Webb, 2001) [State Species Management Plan].
|Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Recreational Activities:Disturbance, especially from human recreational activities and development||Declared Rare and Poorly Known Flora in the Central Forest Region. Part 2 (Williams, K., A. Horan, S. Wood & A. Webb, 2001) [State Species Management Plan].|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation by weeds||Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Petrophile sp. Whicher Range (G.J.Keighery 11790) WA Herbarium (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008si) [Conservation Advice].|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Vegetation and habitat loss caused by dieback||Phytophthora cinnamomi||
Threat abatement plan for disease in natural ecosystems caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2009w) [Threat Abatement Plan].
Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Petrophile sp. Whicher Range (G.J.Keighery 11790) WA Herbarium (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008si) [Conservation Advice].
Declared Rare and Poorly Known Flora in the Central Forest Region. Part 2 (Williams, K., A. Horan, S. Wood & A. Webb, 2001) [State Species Management Plan].
|Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Changes in hydrology including habitat drainage||Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Petrophile sp. Whicher Range (G.J.Keighery 11790) WA Herbarium (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008si) [Conservation Advice].|
|Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity)||Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Petrophile sp. Whicher Range (G.J.Keighery 11790) WA Herbarium (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008si) [Conservation Advice].|
|Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate prescribed regimes and/or vegetation management to control fire regimes||Declared Rare and Poorly Known Flora in the Central Forest Region. Part 2 (Williams, K., A. Horan, S. Wood & A. Webb, 2001) [State Species Management Plan].|
|Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Low numbers of individuals|
|Transportation and Service Corridors:Roads and Railroads:Development and/or maintenance of railway tracks|
|Transportation and Service Corridors:Roads and Railroads:Development and/or maintenance of roads|
Brown, A., C. Thomson-Dans & N. Marchant, eds. (1998). Western Australia's Threatened Flora. Como, Western Australia: Department of Conservation and Land Management.
English, V. (1999c). Shrubland Association on Southern Swan Coastal Plain Ironstone (Busselton Area) (Southern Ironstone Association) Interim recovery Plan 1999 - 2002. Shrublands on southern Swan Coastal Plain ironstones in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database. [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/cgi-bin/sprat/public/publicshowcommunity.pl?id=23.
Gibson, N., B.J. Keighery, G.J. Keighery, A.H. Burbidge & M.N. Lyons (1994). A floristic survey of the Southern Swan Coastal Plain. Unpublished report for the Australian Heritage Commission. Prepared by the Department of Conservation and Land Management and the Conservation Council of Western Australia (Inc.).
Phillimore, R., M. Soutar & V. English (2001a). Ironstone Petrophile (Petrophile latericola ms) Interim Recovery Plan No. 93, 2001-2004. [Online]. Perth: Western Australian Department of Conservation and Land Management. Available from: http://www.dec.wa.gov.au/pdf/plants_animals/threatened_species/irps/pet_lat_irp93.pdf.
Western Australia Department of Environment and Conservation (WA DEC) (2007). Records held in DEC's Declared Flora Database and rare flora files. Perth, Western Australia: Department of Environment and Conservation.
Western Australian Herbarium (2007). FloraBase: The Western Australian Flora. [Online]. Western Australia, Department of Conservation and Land Management. Available from: http://florabase.calm.wa.gov.au/. [Accessed: 05-Apr-2007].
Williams, K., A. Horan, S. Wood & A. Webb (2001). Declared Rare and Poorly Known Flora in the Central Forest Region. Part 2. [Online]. Western Australian Wildlife Management Program No. 33. Department of Conservation and Land Management. Available from: http://www.dpaw.wa.gov.au/plants-and-animals/threatened-species-and-communities/threatened-plants.
This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.
Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Petrophile latericola in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Fri, 18 Apr 2014 01:10:47 +1000.