Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Vulnerable as Drakaea concolor
Listing and Conservation Advices Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Drakaea concolor Hopper & A.P.Brown nom.inval. (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008mr) [Conservation Advice].
 
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan not required, included on the Not Commenced List (1/11/2009).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans
Policy Statements and Guidelines Draft survey guidelines for Australia's threatened orchids (Department of the Environment, 2013b) [Admin Guideline].
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument] as Drakaea concolor.
 
Amendment to the list of threatened species under section 178 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (11/04/2007) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2007f) [Legislative Instrument] as Drakaea concolor Hopper & A.P.Brown nom.inval..
 
Amendment to the list of threatened species under section 178 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (101) (12/04/2010) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2010j) [Legislative Instrument] as Drakaea concolor.
 
State Government
    Documents and Websites
WA:Declared Rare or Poorly Known Flora in the Geraldton District (Patrick, S.J., 2001) [State Species Management Plan].
State Listing Status
WA: Listed as Endangered (Wildlife Conservation Act 1950 (Western Australia): September 2013 list) as Drakaea concolor
Scientific name Drakaea concolor [56777]
Family Orchidaceae:Orchidales:Liliopsida:Magnoliophyta:Plantae
Species author Hopper & A.P.Br..
Infraspecies author  
Reference Hopper, S.D. & Brown, A.P. (2007) A revision of Australia's hammer orchids (Drakaea: Orchidaceae), with some field data on species-specific sexually deceived wasp pollinators. Australian Systematic Botany 20: 262-264, Figs 3, 9, 10 [tax. nov.]
Other names Drakaea concolor Hopper & A.P.Brown nom.inval. [82035]
Drakaea sp. concolor Hopper & Brown ms. [67286]
Drakaea concolor Hopper & A.P.Brown ms. [67373]
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images

Scientific name: Drakaea concolor

Common name: Kneeling Hammer-orchid

The Kneeling Hammer-orchid is an erect, tuberous herb that grows to 30 cm high. It has a single, small, heart-shaped leaf to 3 cm wide. The plant has a single flower to 4 cm long, with a hammer-like labellum on a hinged claw (Brown et al. 1998; Patrick 2001).

The Kneeling Hammer-orchid is known from four areas (Western Australian Herbarium 2013):

  1. along Murchison River and Bungabandi Creek in Kalbarri National Park (NP)
  2. along Hutt River and tributaries, north-west of Northampton
  3. near Greenough River, east of Geraldton
  4. Pinjarrega Nature Reserve, south-west of Coorow.

The Kneeling Hammer-orchid is estimated to have a population size of a "few thousand plants" (Hopper & Brown 2007). In 2001, the species' total population was estimated at 300 mature plants and over 2000 seedlings at four sites in Kalbarri NP (Patrick 2001).

In the north of its range (Kalbarri NP), the Kneeling Hammer-orchid is found in moist, sandy sites, in heath or scrub containing Calothamnus homalophyllus, Melaleuca megacephala, Broom Honey-myrtle (M. uncinata) and Acacia spp. (Hopper & Brown 2007).

Further south, populations grow on deep pale yellow sand or sand over sandstone, in association with Ecdeiocolea spp. sedges prominent in the understorey beneath open shrubland or woodland of Acacia spp., Banksia spp. and Old Socks (Grevillea leucopteris) (Hopper & Brown 2007).

Glands on the labellum give off a scent which attracts male flower wasps which then try to mate with the labellum and, in the process, pick up or deposit pollen. Flowering occurs from August to September (Brown et al., 1998; Hopper & Brown 2007; Patrick 2001).

The Kneeling Hammer-orchid is related to the Glossy-leaved Hammer-orchid (Drakaea elastica), but the former is found 500 km further north and has a dull, dark-green leaf rather than a shiny, light-green leaf (Brown et al. 1998; Hoffman & Brown 1998). In the southern part of the Kneeling Hammer-orchid's range, the species is distinctive from other species in the area (Drakaea glytodon and D. livida) (Hopper & Brown 2007).

The Kneeling Hammer-orchid is vulnerable to fire during its vegetative and flowering phase (Brown et al.1998). Grazing and trampling by the Pig (Sus scrofa) and the Goat (Capra hircus) pose a significant threat in the Murchison River gorge area (Hopper & Brown 2007).

Management documents relevant to the Kneeling Hammer-orchid are at the start of the profile.

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Oryctolagus cuniculus (Rabbit, European Rabbit) Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Drakaea concolor Hopper & A.P.Brown nom.inval. (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008mr) [Conservation Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation by weeds Drakaea concolor Hopper & A.P.Brown nom.inval in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006hs) [Internet].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, tramping, competition and/or habitat degradation Capra hircus (Goat) Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Drakaea concolor Hopper & A.P.Brown nom.inval. (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008mr) [Conservation Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, tramping, competition and/or habitat degradation Sus scrofa (Pig) Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Drakaea concolor Hopper & A.P.Brown nom.inval. (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008mr) [Conservation Advice].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity) Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Drakaea concolor Hopper & A.P.Brown nom.inval. (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008mr) [Conservation Advice].
Transportation and Service Corridors:Roads and Railroads:Development and/or maintenance of roads Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Drakaea concolor Hopper & A.P.Brown nom.inval. (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008mr) [Conservation Advice].

Brown, A., C. Thomson-Dans & N. Marchant, eds. (1998). Western Australia's Threatened Flora. Como, Western Australia: Department of Conservation and Land Management.

Hoffman, N. & A. Brown (1998). Orchids of South-west Australia Rev. 2nd edn. Nedlands, Western Australia: University of Western Australia Press.

Hopper, S.D. & A.P. Brown (2007). A revision of Australia's hammer orchids (Drakaea: Orchidaceae), with some field data on species-specific sexually deceived wasp pollinators. Australian Systematic Botany. 20:252-85.

Patrick, S.J. (2001). Declared Rare or Poorly Known Flora in the Geraldton District. [Online]. Wildlife Management Program No 26. Perth, Western Australia: Department of Conservation and Land Management. Available from: http://www.dpaw.wa.gov.au/plants-and-animals/threatened-species-and-communities/threatened-plants.

Western Australian Herbarium (2013). FloraBase: The Western Australian Flora. [Online]. Available from: http://florabase.dec.wa.gov.au/.

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This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Drakaea concolor in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Fri, 11 Jul 2014 14:47:07 +1000.