Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Critically Endangered
Listing and Conservation Advices Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Thelymitra cyanapicata (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008aeu) [Conservation Advice].
 
Commonwealth Listing Advice on Thelymitra cyanapicata (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008afb) [Listing Advice].
 
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan not required, "the species is known from only three populations in close proximity on the Fleurieu Peninsula in South Australia, consisting of 129 mature flowering individuals, and is potentially threatened by forestry practices including aerial herbicide spraying, fertiliser use and pine plantation, as well as grazing by rabbits and hares, and weed invasion. Two populations occur on ForestrySA land and local actions are being undertaken to conserve the Dark-tipped Sun-orchid, therefore the approved Conservation Advice for the species provides sufficient direction to implement priority actions and manage key threats (19/12/2008)".
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans
Policy Statements and Guidelines Draft survey guidelines for Australia's threatened orchids (Department of the Environment, 2013b) [Admin Guideline].
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Inclusion of species in the list of threatened species under section 178 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (70) (19/12/2008) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2008i) [Legislative Instrument].
 
State Listing Status
SA: Listed as Endangered (National Parks and Wildlife Act 1972 (South Australia): June 2011 list)
Scientific name Thelymitra cyanapicata [81872]
Family Orchidaceae:Orchidales:Liliopsida:Magnoliophyta:Plantae
Species author Jeanes
Infraspecies author  
Reference J.A. Jeanes (2004), Muelleria 19: 40-43
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images

Scientific name: Thelymitra cyanapicata

Common name: Blue Top Sun-orchid

Other names: Dark-tipped Sun Orchid

The currently accepted scientific name for the species is Thelymitra cyanapicata (Jeanes 2004; State Herbarium of South Australia 2007). The type location for the species is "South Australia. Southern Lofty Region: Kuitpo, 23 x. 1988, R.J. Bates 15755" (Jeanes 2004).

The Blue Top Sun-orchid is a deciduous, terrestrial sun-orchid, which flowers in October and early November. It has a very narrow leaf with a purplish base, and produces one to three small blue flowers with wholly blue columns and small, dense hair tufts. The flowers are self-pollinating, opening only in warm humid weather, and are not fragrant (Bates 2007).

The Blue Top Sun-orchid has a single erect, filiform leaf 12–22 cm long, with a purple base. The flower stem is wiry, purplish, 15–30 cm tall, with a single sheathing bract. It produces one to three blue flowers, 12–18 mm across. The sepals and petals are about 7 mm long, ovate-lanceolate and concave. The column is blue, 4–5 mm high, with a deep blue post-anther lobe, 1.5–2 cm long, tubular, narrowly notched; column arms converging, sharply curved upwards, ending in dense globular, white or pale blue hair tufts (Bates 2007; Jeanes 2004; Jones 2006).

The Blue Top Sun-orchid is endemic to South Australia, where it is only known from one location on the Fleurieu Peninsula, near Kuipto. Herbarium collections of Blue Top Sun-orchids have been made from two sites within this location, which are 350 m apart; "Peters Creek" in 1988 and "Knott Hill" in 1991 (State Herbarium of South Australia 2007). The Blue Top Sun-orchid was also recorded from another site in October 2007 approximately 1.1 km north-west of the Knott Hill site (SA DEH 2007a). There are no other recorded sites of occurrence of the species (SA DEH 2007a; SA DEH 2007b; State Herbarium of South Australia 2007).

Possible Blue Top Sun-orchid hybrids have been collected from Myponga East in 1981 and from Glenshera in 1988 (State Herbarium of South Australia 2007). However, Blue Top Sun-orchids have not been recorded from either of these locations (SA DEH 2007b; State Herbarium of South Australia 2007).

The extent of occurrence of the Blue Top Sun-orchid is estimated to be 1 km² (SA DEH 2007a; State Herbarium of South Australia 2007).

The known area of occupancy of the Blue Top Sun-orchid is estimated to be 0.01 km² (SA DEH 2007a; State Herbarium of South Australia 2007).

There are limited data to indicate past declines in extent of occurrence and area of occupancy of Blue Top Sun-orchid. However, the Blue Top Sun-orchid has not been recorded within the Peters Creek site since 1988, and it is possible that the species has become extinct in this area (R. Bates 2007, pers comm; State Herbarium of South Australia 2007). This would result in a decline in the known extent of occurrence by an estimated 0.17 km². Herbarium specimens of possible Blue Top Sun-orchid hybrids were collected from Glenshera in 1988 and Myponga East in 1981 (State Herbarium of South Australia 2007), which indicate that the extent of occurrence may have declined by at least 68 km² since 1981 and that the area of occupancy may have declined prior to 1981 (State Herbarium of South Australia 2007). It is also possible that the Blue Top Sun-orchid occurred in other swamps on the Fleurieu Peninsula that have since been cleared or degraded (R. Bates 2007, pers comm.).

There is limited data to indicate future changes in the extent of occurrence and area of occupancy of the Blue Top Sun-orchid, however, all known subpopulations are subject to threats that could result in their extinction within the next 10 years. It is projected that the extent of occurrence and area of occupancy of the Blue Top Sun-orchid could decline as a result of habitat degradation (e.g. forestry practices, grazing and weed invasion) within the next 10 years if no immediate protective measures are implemented (J. Quarmby 2007, pers comm.).

The Blue Top Sun-orchid is known from a single location, near Kuipto (State Herbarium of South Australia 2007; SA DEH 2007a). The three known sites of occurrence are within 1.4 km of each other, and therefore could be affected by a single threatening event, for example, disease, drought, floods, or wild fire (J. Quarmby 2007, pers comm.).

There have been no attempts to propagate or translocate the Blue Top Sun-orchid (R. Bates 2007, pers. comm.).

The known distribution of the Blue Top Sun-orchid is considered to be severely fragmented. All known sites occur within very small fragments of remnant vegetation that are surrounded by large areas of pine plantation, vineyard, and cleared agricultural land. Therefore there is an increased risk of extinction due to habitat fragmentation, and a reduced probability of recolonization (J. Quarmby 2007, pers comm.).

The known location of the Blue Top Sun-orchid has been reasonably well surveyed. Targeted surveys for the Blue Top Sun-orchid were undertaken within Knott Hill Forestry Reserve in October 2006 and 2007 by the Department for Environment and Heritage (South Australia), ForestrySA, The Threatened Plant Action Group and the Native Orchid Society of South Australia (J. Quarmby 2007, pers. comm.). As a result of these surveys the Blue Top Sun-orchid was recorded within two sites in 2007. However, the Peters Creek site has not been thoroughly searched for Blue Top Sun-orchids in recent years. Prior to 2006, members of the Native Orchid Society of South Australia intermittently surveyed the known location of the Blue Top Sun-orchid covering most areas of suitable habitat (R. Bates 2007, pers. comm.).

It is possible that the Blue Top Sun-orchid occurs in other areas of Knott Hill Forestry Reserve, or in other swamps on the Fleurieu Peninsula, however most areas of suitable habitat have already been reasonably well surveyed by orchid experts. The Blue Top Sun-orchid is a relatively difficult species to detect because the flowers only open briefly on warm mornings in October, if at all, and are self-pollinating. Furthermore, the swampy habitat that it grows in is also relatively difficult to survey due to the density of vegetation (J. Quarmby 2007, pers. comm.).

There has been no ongoing monitoring program for the Blue Top Sun-orchid mainly due to its relatively recent description in 2004 and because it was not found between 1992 and 2006 (J. Quarmby 2007, pers. comm.).

The total known population size of the Blue Top Sun-orchid is approximately 130 mature individuals (SA DEH 2007a, 2007b). This was derived from precise counts of the number of flowering plants within Knott Hill Forestry Reserve in October 2007. It is likely that the total number of plants (including dormant individuals) is higher than 130, but this is difficult to determine with the available data (J. Quarmby 2007, pers. comm.).

The Blue Top Sun-orchid is known from three subpopulations, two of which are currently known to be extant, and the third, Peters Creek, may now be extinct.

  • The "Peters Creek" subpopulation is located on private land along Peters Creek Road, approximately 2.5 km north-west of Kuipto Forest Headquarters. It occurs within a small area of degraded native vegetation that is surrounded by cleared agricultural land. The Blue Top Sun-orchid has not been recorded here since 1988. It is estimated that there were more than one hundred flowering plants at this site in the 1980s, however there is a possibility this subpopulation may have become extinct in the last 15 years due to cattle grazing and habitat degradation (R. Bates 2007, pers. comm.).

  • The "Knott Hill 1" subpopulation is located within a Knott Hill Forestry Reserve, approximately 3 km north-west of Kuipto Forest Headquarters, and 350 m north-east of the Peters Creek subpopulation (SA DEH 2007a). This subpopulation is highly restricted and confined to a low-lying swampy area. This area was planted with pines in 2007, and is surrounded by large areas of pine plantation (J. Quarmby 2007, pers. comm.).

  • The "Knott Hill 2" subpopulation is located within Knott Hill Forestry Reserve, approximately 4 km north-west of Kuipto Forest Headquarters, and 1.1 km north-west of "Knott Hill 1" subpopulation. This subpopulation is very restricted and confined to a swampy seepage area. This area has recently been cleared and was being prepared for pine plantation in 2008, and is surrounded by pine plantation. There are areas of native vegetation in native forest reserves and conservation zones nearby, but very few of these areas contain suitable swampy habitat (J. Quarmby 2007, pers. comm.).

    There are limited data to indicate a population trend for the Blue Top Sun-orchid. However the Peters Creek subpopulation is estimated to have comprised of more than 100 mature individuals in the 1980s, but is currently thought to be extinct, having not been recorded since 1988 (R. Bates 2007, pers. comm.). The "Knott Hill 1" subpopulation was known from a single flowering plant in 1991, but no plants were recorded again until 2007 when 13 flowers were found. One hundred and sixteen flowering plants were recorded in the "Knott Hill 2" subpopulation in 2007, but it is not possible to infer population trends for this subpopulation with the available data (SA DEH 2007a).

    There are limited data to indicate future changes in population size of the Blue Top Sun-orchid. However, it is considered likely that the population size of the Blue Top Sun-orchid could decline, possibly to extinction, within the next 10 years if no immediate protective measures are implemented, especially for the Knott Hill subpopulations (J. Quarmby 2007, pers. comm.).

    There is insufficient data to determine whether the Blue Top Sun-orchid undergoes extreme fluctuation in population size because it has not been well studied (SA DEH 2007a).

    The generation length of the Blue Top Sun-orchid is unknown, although it is presumed to be more than 10 years based on studies of similar orchid species (SA DEH 2007a).

    All known subpopulations of the Blue Top Sun-orchid are considered to be important for the species' long-term survival and recovery due to the limited population size and number of subpopulations. However, the "Knott Hill 2" subpopulation is particularly important for the conservation of the species because it comprises 89% of the total known population size (J. Quarmby 2007, pers. comm.).

    While the Blue Top Sun-orchid is self-pollinating, cross-breeding is well known for species in the Thelymitra pauciflora complex (Bates 1999; Jeanes 2004). Possible hybrids between the Blue Top Sun-orchid and Thelymitra juncifolia have been collected from Myponga East in 1981 (State Herbarium of South Australia 2007). Also, possible hybrids between Blue Top Sun-orchid and Spotted Sun-orchid (Thelymitra ixioides) have been recorded from Glenshera in 1988 (State Herbarium of South Australia 2007). However, the Blue Top Sun-orchid has not been recorded from either of these locations. There are also reports of the Blue Top Sun-orchid cross-breeding with the Pink Sun-orchid (Thelymitra rubra) and Slender Sun-orchid (Thelymitra pauciflora) (Bates 1999; Bates 2007).

  • None of the known subpopulations are currently within the reserve system, or are being actively managed for the species. The Peters Creek subpopulation is located within unreserved private land that is currently being grazed by cattle. Both of the Knott Hill subpopulations occur within general forestry zones of Knott Hill Forestry Reserve that have been cleared, ripped, sprayed with herbicide and planted with pines. Attempts have been made to protect these subpopulations from forestry practices (J. Quarmby 2007, pers. comm.).

    The Blue Top Sun-orchid is known to occur in Manna Gum (Eucalyptus viminalis), Messmate (Eucalyptus obliqua) open swampy woodland with a dense understorey of tea-tree, sedges, rushes and ferns including Prickly Tea-tree (Leptospermum continentale), Totem-poles (Melaleuca decussata), Blackwood (Acacia melanoxylon), Golden Spray (Viminaria juncea), Sword Grass (Gahnia sieberiana), Black Bristle-sedge (Chorizandra enodis), Juncus sp. and Leafless Globe-pea (Sphaerolobium vimineum). It is known from low-lying seepages, creeks and swamps with wet sandy soils (J. Quarmby 2007, pers. comm.).

    The extent of suitable habitat for the Blue Top Sun-orchid is severely limited in the known area of occurrence. There has been extensive clearance of Manna Gum, Messmate woodland for agriculture and forestry in the surrounding areas that may have previously supported Blue Top Sun-orchid (R. Bates 2007, pers. comm.). The quality of Blue Top Sun-orchid habitat in the known location has been severely degraded within the last 15 years through forestry practices, grazing and weed invasion. There is a high risk that all known habitat for the species could be destroyed within the next 10 years unless protective measures are implemented (J. Quarmby 2007, pers. comm.).

    Sun-orchids are generally known to flower more profusely after disturbance (e.g. fire or vegetation clearance), and also colonise open or recently disturbed habitats (Bates 2007). Like most terrestrial orchids, sun-orchids are known to form symbiotic relationships with mycorrhizal soil fungi, which are necessary for successful seed germination and plant growth (Jones 2006). The Blue Top Sun-orchid is self-pollinating, but like other sun-orchids is probably also pollinated by native bees, which are attracted by floral mimicry (Bates 2007).

    The age at which the Blue Top Sun-orchid becomes sexually mature is unknown, however other similar species are known to take three to five years before flowering (Bates 2007). The life expectancy and natural mortality of the Blue Top Sun-orchid is also unknown, although a life span of more than 10 years is likely based on studies of other terrestrial orchids (SA DEH 2007a). Mature plants are also likely to have the ability to remain dormant underground for several consecutive years like most other terrestrial orchids (Jones 2006).

    The Blue Top Sun-orchid is similar to other species in the Thelymitra pauciflora complex, but distinguished by its tiny leaves and blue topped column (Bates 2007). The species is difficult to detect because the flowers only open on warm humid days, and are self-pollinating. Also, mature plants may not flower each year, and may remain dormant for several consecutive years. The Blue Top Sun-orchid occurs in swampy habitat with dense heath understorey, which is difficult habitat to survey for sun-orchids (J. Quarmby 2007, pers comm.).

    Searches for the Blue Top Sun-orchid should be made during October, but only on warm humid days preferably in the late morning. There is no preferred method of survey, but ramble survey would suffice (J. Quarmby 2007, pers. comm.).

    Forestry

    Forestry is currently a very high threat to both of the Knott Hill subpopulations of Blue Top Sun-orchid (J. Quarmby 2007, pers. comm.). The Knott Hill subpopulations are both under immediate threat from forestry practices such as vegetation clearance, soil ripping and mounding, aerial herbicide spraying, fertiliser use and pine plantation. Both subpopulations occur in pine plantations with diverse native understorey vegetation, however, both sites have recently been cleared and prepared for re-planting with pines.

    The "Knott Hill 1" subpopulation occurs in an area where Maritime Pine (Pinus pinaster) was previously planted in the 1950s, but the pines largely failed in the swamp (R. Bates 2007, pers. comm.). The "Knott Hill 2" subpopulation occurs in an area that was previously planted with Radiata Pine (Pinus radiata) in the 1950s. While relatively diverse native vegetation occurs in both sites it is unlikely that it will persist under current forestry practices such as ripping and herbicide spraying. Both sites were excluded from aerial spraying in October 2007 but only a small buffer was afforded. Aerial herbicide spraying of these sites would certainly kill Blue Top Sun-orchid during its active growth period (May to December). The "Knott Hill 1" subpopulation has also been deeply ripped and furrowed, and planted with pines, but the pines were subsequently removed around the orchids. The furrowing of the soil is likely to have altered the hydrology of the site, which was much drier than usual in 2007 (J. Quarmby 2007, pers. comm.). The continued use of heavy machinery within these sites would also be likely to damage Blue Top Sun-orchid plants and associated habitat. It is also possible that the pine plantations will alter the hydrology of the wet seepage areas that the Blue Top Sun-orchid grows in. The pine plantations may also limit flowering of Blue Top Sun-orchids due their dense canopy cover (J. Quarmby 2007, pers. comm.).

    Forestry practices have severely degraded Blue Top Sun-orchid habitat. Vegetation clearance, herbicide spraying, and ripping in particular have already caused severe damage to known habitat (J. Quarmby 2007, pers. comm.). It is possible that herbicide spraying may have already killed Blue Top Sun-orchid plants recorded outside of the two areas that were excluded in the October 2007 spray (R. Bates 2007, pers. comm.). It is also possible that the ripping and furrowing of soil may have damaged or killed plants in the "Knott Hill 1" subpopulation (J. Quarmby 2007, pers. comm.).

    It is suspected that the planting and management of a pine plantation in the Knott Hill subpopulations will further degrade habitat and directly damage and kill Blue Top Sun-orchid plants. Continued herbicide spray drift is likely to impact on Blue Top Sun-orchids unless a suitable buffer is provided. The proposed ripping and mounding of soil in the "Knott Hill 2" subpopulation is also likely to cause severe damage to Blue Top Sun-orchids. The planting of pines would be likely to have an impact on the hydrology of the swampy habitat and thus reduce the suitability for Blue Top Sun-orchids. The pine plantations may also limit flowering of the Blue Top Sun-orchid due to their dense canopy cover. The potential use of fertilizers in both subpopulations is also a concern (J. Quarmby 2007, pers. comm.).

    Grazing

    The Peters Creek subpopulation has been grazed by cattle since at least the late 1970s and grazing is likely to be the main cause of decline in that subpopulation (R. Bates 2007, pers comm.). It is suspected that this has largely prevented any flowering, seed set or recruitment of Blue Top Sun-orchids within this subpopulation. It has also significantly altered the understorey vegetation, caused soil erosion and increased weed incursion (J. Quarmby 2007, pers comm.). It is projected that continued grazing by cattle in the Peters Creek site could cause the extinction of this subpopulation within the next 10 years (J. Quarmby 2007, pers comm.). No Blue Top Sun-orchids have been located at this site since 1998.

    Weed Invasion

    Weed invasion is a threat to all subpopulations of the Blue Top Sun-orchid and associated critical habitat, especially the Peters Creek subpopulation. Blackberry (Rubus spp.), Gorse (Ulex europaeus) and Monadenia (Disa bracteata) in particular are likely to proliferate if no control measures are undertaken. The Peters Creek site is also infested with pastoral weeds (e.g. Holcus lanatus) due to cattle grazing (J. Quarmby 2007, pers. comm.).

    Weed invasion has degraded areas of known Blue Top Sun-orchid habitat, and is suspected to have contributed to the possible extinction of the Peters Creek subpopulation through competition for light, nutrients, and moisture (R. Bates 2007, pers comm.).

    It is likely that weed invasion will increase in severity in the future due to disturbance from forestry and cattle grazing, and will further degrade the condition of Blue Top Sun-orchid habitat and compete for light, nutrients, and moisture (J. Quarmby 2007, pers. comm.).

    Minister's reason for Recovery Plan decision:

    The Blue Top Sun-orchid is known from only three populations in close proximity on the Fleurieu Peninsula in South Australia, consisting of 129 mature flowering individuals, and is potentially threatened by forestry practices including aerial herbicide spraying, fertiliser use and pine plantation, as well as grazing by rabbits and hares, and weed invasion. Two populations occur on ForestrySA land and local actions are being undertaken to conserve the Blue Top Sun-orchid, therefore the approved Conservation Advice for the species provides sufficient direction to implement priority actions and manage key threats. A recovery plan is not considered to be necessary at this time.

    The South Australian Department for Environment and Heritage (SA DEH) and the Threatened Plant Action Group (TPAG) have been liaising with ForestrySA regarding the protection and management of Blue Top Sun-orchid habitat within Knott Hill Forestry Reserve since 2006. As a result, ForestrySA excluded the two subpopulations from aerial herbicide spraying in October 2007 and covered all plants with tree guards. Pine seedlings were also removed from around the "Knott Hill 1" subpopulation in 2007. However, there is currently no agreement with ForestrySA regarding the long-term protection and management of either site. SA DEH, TPAG and the Native Orchid Society of South Australia (NOSSA) have offered to assist with weed control within both sites using 'minimal disturbance' methods. Channels may need to be dug across furrows to allow water to flow across the "Knott Hill 1" subpopulation. Slashing of regenerating vegetation may be required in the future to maintain open habitat for the Blue Top Sun-orchid (J. Quarmby 2007, pers comm.).

    Negotiations for protection of the Peters Creek subpopulation are being managed by SA DEH and may include exclusion of grazing by cattle and weed control (J. Quarmby 2007, pers. comm.).

    SA DEH, TPAG, NOSSA and ForestrySA will undertake targeted surveys and monitoring of the Blue Top Sun-orchid over the next five years. Further surveys are also needed in areas of suitable swamp habitat within the Kuipto area and the Fleurieu Peninsula. GIS modelling may be required to map areas of potential habitat (J. Quarmby 2007, pers. comm.).

    Seed and mycorrhizal fungi will be collected and preserved at the Seed Conservation Centre at Adelaide Botanic Gardens. Ex situ propagation and translocation may need to be considered in the future.

    There have been no major studies on Blue Top Sun-orchids, however the taxonomy, distribution, habitat, ecology and conservation status of the species are described in Jeanes (2004), Bates (2007), and Jones (2006).

    The approved Conservation Advice outlines the threats to the Blue Top Sun-orchid and provides priority recovery and threat abatement actions that would support the recovery of Blue Top Sun-orchid (Threatened Species Scientific Committee 2008aeu).

    The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

    Threat Class Threatening Species References
    Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Grazing pressures and associated habitat changes Commonwealth Listing Advice on Thelymitra cyanapicata (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008afb) [Listing Advice].
    Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].
    Agriculture and Aquaculture:Wood and Pulp Plantations:Habitat destruction due to forestry activities Commonwealth Listing Advice on Thelymitra cyanapicata (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008afb) [Listing Advice].
    Biological Resource Use:Gathering Terrestrial Plants:Recreational harvest Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].
    Climate Change and Severe Weather:Climate Change and Severe Weather:Climate change altering atmosphere/hydrosphere temperatures, rainfall patterns and/or frequency of severe weather events Commonwealth Listing Advice on Thelymitra cyanapicata (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008afb) [Listing Advice].
    Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].
    Climate Change and Severe Weather:Habitat Shifting and Alteration:Habitat modification with associated erosion Commonwealth Listing Advice on Thelymitra cyanapicata (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008afb) [Listing Advice].
    Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Lepus capensis (Brown Hare) Commonwealth Listing Advice on Thelymitra cyanapicata (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008afb) [Listing Advice].
    Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Oryctolagus cuniculus (Rabbit, European Rabbit) Commonwealth Listing Advice on Thelymitra cyanapicata (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008afb) [Listing Advice].
    Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Caladenia sp. Brentwood (R.J.Bates 53510) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008afh) [Conservation Advice].
    Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].
    Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Ulex europaeus (Gorse, Furze) Commonwealth Listing Advice on Thelymitra cyanapicata (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008afb) [Listing Advice].
    Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Holcus lanatus (Yorkshire Fog) Commonwealth Listing Advice on Thelymitra cyanapicata (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008afb) [Listing Advice].
    Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Rubus fruticosus aggregate (Blackberry, European Blackberry) Commonwealth Listing Advice on Thelymitra cyanapicata (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008afb) [Listing Advice].
    Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Disa bracteata (African Weed Orchid) Commonwealth Listing Advice on Thelymitra cyanapicata (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008afb) [Listing Advice].
    Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation by weeds Commonwealth Listing Advice on Thelymitra cyanapicata (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008afb) [Listing Advice].
    Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].
    Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation caused by exotic pasture species Commonwealth Listing Advice on Thelymitra cyanapicata (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008afb) [Listing Advice].
    Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Problematic Native Species:Competition, predation and/or habitat degradation by kangaroos and wallabies Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].
    Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Activities that lead to swamp degradation Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].
    Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:drawdown caused by pine plantations Commonwealth Listing Advice on Thelymitra cyanapicata (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008afb) [Listing Advice].
    Natural System Modifications:Other Ecosystem Modifications:Increased shading Commonwealth Listing Advice on Thelymitra cyanapicata (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008afb) [Listing Advice].
    Pollution:Airborne Agricultural pollutants:Herbicide drift Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].
    Pollution:Forestry Effluents:Fertiliser application Commonwealth Listing Advice on Thelymitra cyanapicata (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008afb) [Listing Advice].
    Pollution:Forestry Effluents:Herbicide application Commonwealth Listing Advice on Thelymitra cyanapicata (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008afb) [Listing Advice].
    Pollution:Pollution:Habitat degradation and loss of water quality due to salinity, siltaton, nutrification and/or pollution Commonwealth Listing Advice on Thelymitra cyanapicata (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008afb) [Listing Advice].

    Bates, R. (2007). Personal communication April and October 2007.

    Bates, R.J. (1999). Self-pollinated sun orchids of the Thelymitra pauciflora - T. longifolia alliance in Australia. The Orchadian. 13(2):65-72.

    Bates, R.J., ed. (2007). South Australian native orchids. Electronic version, October 2007. Native Orchid Society of South Australia.

    Jeanes, J.A. (2004). A revision of the Thelymitra pauciflora R. Br. (Orchidaceae) complex in Australia. Muelleria. 19:19-79.

    Jones, D.L. (2006). A complete guide to Native Orchids of Australia, including the island Territories. Sydney, NSW: New Holland Publishers (Australia) Pty Ltd.

    Quarmby, J. (2007). Personal communication Nov 2007. South Australian Department of Environment and Heritage.

    South Australian Department of Environment and Heritage (SA DEH) (2007a). Lofty Block Threatened Orchid Recovery Project database. Unpublished. Viewed November 2007.

    South Australian Department of Environment and Heritage (SA DEH) (2007b). Biological Databases of South Australia. Extracted Feb 2007.

    State Herbarium of South Australia (2007). Adelaide Herbarium (ADHERB) database. Extracted Feb 2007.

    State Herbarium of South Australia (2007a). Census of South Australian vascular plants, algae and fungi. [Online]. Available from: http://www.flora.sa.gov.au/census.html.

    Threatened Species Scientific Committee (2008aeu). Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Thelymitra cyanapicata. [Online]. Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/species/pubs/81872-conservation-advice.pdf.

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    This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

    Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Thelymitra cyanapicata in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Wed, 17 Sep 2014 17:53:20 +1000.