Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Critically Endangered
Listing and Conservation Advices Commonwealth Listing Advice on Notelaea ipsviciensis (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009a) [Listing Advice].
 
Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Notelaea ipsviciensis (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009g) [Conservation Advice].
 
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan not required, "the Cooneana Olive is known from three closely-clustered populations, which consisted of only 17 mature individuals in 2007. The species is subject to a number of land-use threats. Local actions are being undertaken to assist the Cooneana Olive, therefore the approved Conservation Advice for the species provides sufficient direction to implement priority actions and manage key threats (19/12/2008)".
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Inclusion of species in the list of threatened species under section 178 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (66) (19/12/2008) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2008a) [Legislative Instrument].
 
State Listing Status
QLD: Listed as Endangered (Nature Conservation Act 1992 (Queensland): July 2012)
Scientific name Notelaea ipsviciensis [81858]
Family Oleaceae:Scrophulariales:Magnoliopsida:Magnoliophyta:Plantae
Species author W.K..Harris
Infraspecies author  
Reference Harris, W.K. (2004) Austrobaileya 6(4): 973-976, Figs 1, 2
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images

Scientific name: Notelaea ipsviciensis

Common name: Cooneana Olive

Although this species is conventionally accepted, the Cooneana Olive is closely related to Lloyd's Olive (Notelaea lloydii) and the Nettled Mock-olive (Notelaea ovata) and it has been suggested that natural hybridisation between the three species is possible (Beyleveld 2006).

The Cooneana Olive is a small multi-stemmed evergreen shrub growing up to 1–2 m in height. It is slow-growing, forming large underground lignotubers. It produces very small cream-yellow flowers and its fruit is small (up to 10 mm wide), purple and fleshy, surrounding one seed (TSSC 2009a).

The Cooneana Olive is known from three closely clustered sub-populations in the Ipswich area (Dinmore) of southern Queensland (TSSC 2009a). The three locations are Murphy's Gully, a site adjacent to Cunningham Highway and Bergin's Hill (Beyleveld 2006). The subpopulations are surrounded by housing and industrial/mining land (Bird 2004).

The current extent of occurrence is less than 2 km² (TSSC 2009a).

The current area of occupancy is less than 2 km² (TSSC 2009a).

The region in which the species survives has a history of mining, land clearing and land degradation since European settlement, which suggests that both the species' numbers and distribution have reduced. Weeds, pests and inappropriate fire regimes are halting regeneration of seedlings, fruiting and flowering. As there is no natural seedling regeneration due to wildfire frequency it is likely that distibution will decline. In some instances, woodland succession may inhibit recruitment as greater canopy cover and fire suppression restricts seed germination (TSSC 2009a).

Thorough surveys have been undertaken by the Society for Growing Australian Plants in the Ipswich area to find further populations but without success. The University of Queensland, Greening Australia and the Society for Growing Australian Plants has exhaustively surveyed the species known location (UQ News Online 2005).

There were 17 Cooneana Olive plants in late 2008, down from 19 plants in March 2007 (TSSC 2009a). The decline has been the result of fire (1 plant) and levelling by earth moving machinery during road construction (1 plant) (Bird 2007, pers. comm. cited in TSSC 2009a).

There is little historical information on the species. The first two specimens, discovered in 1976 in the grounds of the Cooneana Homestead, were destroyed by dumping of mining debris before they could be studied/described further, and the species was subsequently presumed extinct until rediscovery in the 1980s (TSSC 2009a).

No seedling regeneration has been observed. This indicates that natural populations will decline due to age mortality over time unless preventative measures are taken (TSSC 2009a).

The generation length of this species is unknown.

The Cooneana Olive survives as an understorey plant in degraded, eucalypt dominated dry sclerophyll vegetation communities. Soils in the area are of low fertility, depauperate and sandstone-based (Beyleveld 2006, 2007; Lock et al. 2004). This species prefers open woodland communities with open canopies. The known population is adjacent to subdivided, modified and developed land (TSSC 2009a).

Very little is known about the overall ecology of the Cooneana Olive. It is a very slow growing, lignotuberous plant, presumably long-lived, with resilience to occasional burning and canopy loss. Generation length is not known. No recruitment has been recorded since the species' rediscovery, and all specimens are mature. Seed recruitment appears to be low, although it is not known if this is due to sporadic flowering which may limit pollinators or seed dispersers. Native bees are suspected to be the pollinator species. No fauna have been observed eating/dispersing fruits. A germination rate of 60–80% has been recorded with propagation trials. Cuttings do not take, so this is not a viable propagation technique (Beyleveld 2007; Lock et al. 2004). Issues such as pollination biology, predators/pathogens, niche requirements and population genetics require further study. A University of Queensland student has undertaken some ecological studies (UQ News Online 2005).

Records suggest that the Cooneana Olive flowers in July and fruits in October, however, recent studies suggest that flowering can occur at other times of the year in response to fire and weather conditions. It is also suggested that flowering may be dependant on high rainfall and/or fire events. Similarly, fruiting may be sporadic which may be the result of environmental stress or the result of poor environmental conditions in which the species grows. Vegetative reproduction is not possible for this species and it is suggested that seedlings cannot survive fire (Beyleveld 2006).

As leaf venation of sterile material distinguishes it from a similar species, the Cooneana Olive is easily distinguished at any time of year (Harris 2004).

As the Cooneana Olive was only recently discovered, the historical decline of this species is not fully understood. Land disturbance, inappropriate fire and weeds are considered potential threats to the species.

Land disturbance
Land disturbance in the form of land clearing, substrate disturbance and soil dumping are major drivers in the decline of this species. Gross land disturbance associated with open cut coal mining and clay extraction, particularly the dumping of the rock and soil overlying coal seams ("overburden dumping") is a particular historic problem as the species is reported to be associated with coal geology (Beyleveld 2006, 2007; Lock et al. 2004; TSSC 2009a).

As the known population occurs adjacent to a road, road maintenance activities are a threat. Land clearing and urbanisation are a particular threat in south-east Queensland, especially as this species occurs in close vicinity to Ipswich (Beyleveld 2006).

Weed invasion
Invasion by exotic weed species, particularly Green Panic (Panicum maximum), Corky Passion Vine (Passiflora suberosa) and Creeping Lantana (Lantana montevidensis) are a significant problem. These weeds compete for moisture and light, inhibit seedling regeneration and increase localised fuel load (Beyleveld 2006).

Inappropriate fire regimes
Too frequent fire is problematic as it inhibits seedling recruitment. This is a critical threat that affects its entire range. Too frequent fire will lead to extinction (Beyleveld 2006). Although this species survives low-medium intensity fire, high intensity fire can kill individuals (Beyleveld 2006).

Other threats
Pathogens including Phytophthora cinnamomi are a potential threat (TSSC 2009a). With a low number of individuals, the Cooneana Olive may suffer from inbreeding depression (Beyleveld 2006, 2007; Lock et al. 2004). The species co-occurs with Lloyd's Olive (Notelaea lloydii) and Netted Mock-Olive (Notelaea ovata). The risk of hybridisation between the three species is unclear (TSSC 2009a). This species may be at risk from theft and vandalism (TSSC 2009g). Insect pests (presumed to be Leaf Miner) affect all plants and outbreaks can destroy 20–80% of leaf material, destroy fruit and flowers and reduce seed availability (Beyleveld 2006).

Recovery plan decision
Local enthusiasts, Greening Australia, the Queensland Department of Main Roads and the Queensland Herbarium are undertaking activities to conserve the Cooneana Olive. The species appears to have a biology that makes it amenable to propagation from seeding fruit, including a high viability rate for propagated seeds, and there are no cross-jurisdictional or cross-border issues which a recovery plan could assist with. The Conservation Advice for this species should be an appropriate tool for the management of this species (TSSC 2009a).

Recovery Actions
Actions aimed at recovering this species and funding have been sourced from local landholders, the Department of Main Roads (Queensland), Claypave Incorporated, the Society for Growing Australian Plants, Powerlink Queensland, the University of Queensland, Greening Australia (Greening Main Roads Corridors program) and the Queensland Herbarium (Beyleveld 2006). Actions undertaken include erosion control, weed control and fuel load reductions. Translocations are proposed for this species (Beyleveld 2006).

Priority actions
The Conservation advice for Cooneana Olive (TSSC 2009g) outlines a number of priority actions for this species, including:

  • Research the reproductive biology of the species, including pollination, dispersal and recruitment.
  • Determine the taxonomic relationship between the co-occurring Notelaeas in close vicinity to the species.
  • Manage mining and clay extraction activities (including overburden dumping) and road construction activities to prevent loss of further habitat/individuals/populations.
  • Protect populations through the development of conservation agreements and/or covenants.
  • Manage public access to known sites on public land.
  • Undertake appropriate seed collection and storage.
  • Investigate options for linking, enhancing or establishing additional populations.
  • Implement national translocation protocols (Vallee et al. 2004) if establishing additional populations is considered necessary and feasible.
  • Identify and remove weeds in the local area, which are a threat to the Cooneana Olive, using appropriate methods.
  • Develop and implement a suitable fire management strategy for the Cooneana Olive.
  • Identify appropriate intensity and interval of fire to promote seed germination.
  • Provide maps of known occurrences to local and state rural fire services and seek inclusion of mitigative measures in bush fire risk management plan(s), risk register/s and/or operation maps.
  • Implement suitable hygiene protocols to protect known populations from outbreaks of dieback caused by the exotic pathogen Phytophthora cinnamomi.

Major studies undertaken into this species include Beyleveld (2007) and Harris (2004).

Lock and colleagues (2004) and the Conservation advice for Cooneana Olive (TSSC 2009g) provide recovery actions for this species. If this species is found susceptible, the Threat Abatement Plan for Dieback Caused by the Root-rot Fungus Phytophthora cinnamomi (EA 2001l) may assist in the management of this species.

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Grazing pressures and associated habitat changes Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Notelaea ipsviciensis (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009g) [Conservation Advice].
Biological Resource Use:Gathering Terrestrial Plants:Illegal collection Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Notelaea ipsviciensis (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009g) [Conservation Advice].
Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Indirect Ecosystem Effects:Restricted geographical distribution (area of occupancy and extent of occurrence) Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Notelaea ipsviciensis (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009g) [Conservation Advice].
Energy Production and Mining:Mining and Quarrying:Habitat modification through open cut mining/quarrying activities Commonwealth Listing Advice on Notelaea ipsviciensis (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009a) [Listing Advice].
Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Notelaea ipsviciensis (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009g) [Conservation Advice].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human induced disturbance due to unspecified activities Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Notelaea ipsviciensis (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009g) [Conservation Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation by weeds Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Notelaea ipsviciensis (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009g) [Conservation Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Vegetation and habitat loss caused by dieback Phytophthora cinnamomi Commonwealth Listing Advice on Notelaea ipsviciensis (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009a) [Listing Advice].
Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Notelaea ipsviciensis (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009g) [Conservation Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Predation, competition, habitat degradation and/or spread of pathogens by introduced species Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Notelaea ipsviciensis (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009g) [Conservation Advice].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity) Commonwealth Listing Advice on Notelaea ipsviciensis (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009a) [Listing Advice].
Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Notelaea ipsviciensis (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009g) [Conservation Advice].
Pollution:Garbage and Solid Waste:Dumping of household and industrial waste Commonwealth Listing Advice on Notelaea ipsviciensis (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009a) [Listing Advice].
Residential and Commercial Development:Housing and Urban Areas:Habitat loss, modification and fragmentation due to urban development Commonwealth Listing Advice on Notelaea ipsviciensis (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009a) [Listing Advice].
Residential and Commercial Development:Residential and Commercial Development:Habitat modification (clearance and degradation) due to urban development Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Notelaea ipsviciensis (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009g) [Conservation Advice].
Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Low numbers of individuals Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Notelaea ipsviciensis (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009g) [Conservation Advice].
Species Stresses (suggest Reproductive Resilience?):Indirect Species Effects:Reduction of genetic intergrity of a species due to hybridisation Commonwealth Listing Advice on Notelaea ipsviciensis (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009a) [Listing Advice].
Transportation and Service Corridors:Roads and Railroads:Development and/or maintenance of roads Commonwealth Listing Advice on Notelaea ipsviciensis (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009a) [Listing Advice].
Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Notelaea ipsviciensis (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009g) [Conservation Advice].

Beyleveld, L. (2006). The Cooneana Olive: an Australian plant on the brink of extinction. Presented paper. In: Veg Futures: the conference in the field, March 2006. [Online]. Available from: http://ga.yourasp.com.au/vegfutures/pages/images/Colloquium%20A2_Beyleveld.pdf.

Beyleveld, L. (2007). Cooneana Olive (Notelaea ipsviciensis) - An independent conservation project for one of Australia's most endangered plants. Queensland: Greening Australia and the Department of Main Roads.

Bird, L. (2004). SGAP(Qld) Article - Notelaea ipviciensis. [Online]. Queensland: Society of Growing Australian Plants. Available from: http://www.sgapqld.org.au/article43.html.

Environment Australia (EA) (2001m). Threat Abatement Plan for Dieback Caused by the Root-rot Fungus Phytophthora cinnamomi. [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/tap/phytophthora.html.

Harris, W. (2004). Notelaea ipsviciensis (Oleaceae), a new species from south-east Queensland. Austrobaileya. 6:973-976.

Lock, K., J. Stibbard, A. Cheney, G. Benson & B. Forsyth (2004). Recovery Plan for Notelaea ipsviciensis (Cooneana Olive). St Lucia: University of Queensland.

Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC) (2009a). Commonwealth Listing Advice on Notelaea ipsviciensis. [Online]. Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/species/pubs/81858-listing-advice.pdf.

Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC) (2009g). Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Notelaea ipsviciensis. [Online]. Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/species/pubs/81858-conservation-advice.pdf.

UQ News Online (2005). Fightback plan for one of Australia's rarest plants - UQ News Online - The University of Queensland Australia. [Online]. St Lucia: University of Queensland. Available from: http://www.uq.edu.au/news/?article=6888.

Vallee, L., T. Hogbin, L. Monks, B. Makinson, M. Matthes & M. Rossetto (2004). Guidelines for the translocation of threatened plants in Australia - Second Edition. Canberra, ACT: Australian Network for Plant Conservation.

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This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Notelaea ipsviciensis in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Fri, 18 Apr 2014 17:23:36 +1000.