Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Critically Endangered
Listing and Conservation Advices Commonwealth Listing Advice on Cassinia tegulata (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008aez) [Listing Advice].
 
Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Cassinia tegulata (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008aff) [Conservation Advice].
 
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan not required, "the Avenue Cassinia is known from two populations near Lucindale and Blackford in south-eastern South Australia, with both populations occurring in roadside and rail corridor vegetation. The Avenue Cassinia is currently threatened by land clearing and unknown processes inhibiting recruitment. Potential threats include inappropriate fire regimes, susceptibility to stochastic events and high edge to area ratios, effects on groundwater hydrology, and grazing. The relevant state and local government authorities are aware of their conservation responsibilities under state legislation. The approved Conservation Advice for the species provides sufficient direction to implement priority actions and manage key threats, with the state government currently undertaking recovery actions (19/12/2008)".
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Inclusion of species in the list of threatened species under section 178 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (70) (19/12/2008) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2008i) [Legislative Instrument].
 
State Listing Status
SA: Listed as Endangered (National Parks and Wildlife Act 1972 (South Australia): June 2011 list)
Scientific name Cassinia tegulata [81640]
Family Asteraceae:Asterales:Magnoliopsida:Magnoliophyta:Plantae
Species author Orchard
Infraspecies author  
Reference A.E. Orchard (2004) Australian Systematic Botany 17(6), 505-533
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images

Scientific Name: Cassinia tegulata (Cassinia complanata sensu lato)

Cassinia tegulata is listed on the census of South Australian vascular plants (Barker et al. 2005), and a revision of Cassinia has been published in a peer-reviewed journal (Orchard 2004). Orchard (2004) postulates that Cassinia tegulata in the Encounter Bay region has now been genetically swamped by C. complanata, indicating that some cross-breeding with other species may be occurring at this location. The remaining Cassinia tegulata populations are separated from the nearest C. complanata populations by considerable distance and further cross-breeding is not anticipated.

Cassinia tegulata is a small to medium-sized (0.5–1.6 m tall) shrub with hairy leaves and off-white to cream flowers. The species typically has an upright habit with fissured brown bark. Leaves are narrow and linear, 15–35 mm long and 1–1.5 mm wide. The upper surface of the leaves is grey-green to yellowish green with loose cottony hairs, smooth or sometimes with sparse hairs 0.05–0.07 mm long. The lower surface of the leaves is obscured by inwardly curved margins. Flowers are terminal (on the tops of branches), cluster-shaped and are off-white to cream in colour. Flowers are honey scented, but leaves and stems are odourless and not viscid (sticky) (Orchard 2004).

Cassinia tegulata is endemic to South Australia (Orchard 2004). The species is confined to the areas around Lucindale and Blackford in south-eastern South Australia. Cassinia tegulata occurs within the South East South Australia Natural Resource Management Region (TSSC 2008aff).

Following the senescence and death of a population consisting of two plants in roadside vegetation between Naracoorte and Lucindale, only two confirmed extant populations of Cassinia tegulata are currently known. One population located near Lucindale inhabits an area of roadside and adjacent rail corridor vegetation and occurs over an area of approximately 600 m x 80 m (48 000 m²) and the other recently discovered (in 2007) population also occurs in roadside vegetation and is located near Blackford. The area of occupancy of these two populations is 0.05 km² and they are separated by approximately 37 km (Herpich & Hinchliffe 2007; TSSC 2008aez).

Older collections of Cassinia tegulata suggest that the species previously had a more extensive range (Orchard 2004). The failure to locate the species at a number of historic collection sites despite considerable search effort provides an indication of a decline in extent of occurrence within recent decades. The senescence and death of a population (in 2004) of Cassinia tegulata comprising only two plants indicates very recent and demonstratable decline in extent of occurrence. The decline of the species may also be inferred by widespread clearance of vegetation and modification of habitat through drainage (TSSC 2008aez).

Given that Cassinia tegulata is known from only two populations, the extent of occurrence is unlikely to experience a dramatic decline in the short-term. Nevertheless, if lack of recruitment is not addressed in coming decades a minor reduction in extent of occurrence may be expected to occur in the longer term as deaths are not replaced.

A reduction in the extent of occupancy for Cassinia tegulata is demonstrated by the senescence and death of the population at the type locality in roadside vegetation between the townships of Naracoorte and Lucindale. At this location the species occupied an area of less than 200 mē. A decline in area of occupancy may also be inferred from the failure to re-locate the species at a number of historic collection sites. Given the lack of information regarding the former area of occupancy, precise details regarding the reduction in area of occupancy may never be known. The lack of recruitment at the remaining site may result in further reduction in area of occupancy if not addressed (R. Johnson 2006, pers. comm.; Orchard 2004; TSSC 2008aez).

As Cassinia tegulata is known from two locations, the species is highly susceptible to a single threatening event that could affect all known individuals of the species.

Seed has been collected from Cassinia tegulata for storage, seed treatment and propagation trials. Any sites supporting similar landforms, plant communities and/or topography are considered to be potential sites for the translocation of propagates; however it would be desirable to plant the species in sites under secure conservation management, such as a State Government Reserve or private land under conservation covenant.

The species' distribution is severely fragmented with all known plants now restricted to two populations. Given that all other known populations are presumed extinct, the probability of recolonisation following a threatening event is extremely remote, if the species fails to regenerate from soil-stored seed following such an event.

Orchard (2004) attempted to relocate Cassinia tegulata historic collection sites. This was followed by further efforts targeting roadsides and reserves supporting similar habitat in the vicinity of historic collection sites. Approximately 20 person hours have been spent surveying for Cassinia tegulata over the period between May 2004 and June 2005.

The species is highly conspicuous during flowering and for up to two months following flowering (R. Johnson 2006, pers. comm.). This is reflected in the number of independent collections (five) from the type locality since the early 1960s (records of the Adelaide Herbarium cited in Orchard 2004). Orchard (2004) considers it 'possible, even probable, that it still survives in other dense shrubberies in the Naracoorte/Lucindale area, and perhaps north of Kingston and along the Coorong'.

It would be difficult to determine how likely it is that further populations remain to be discovered and/or re-discovered through further search effort. However, its associated habitat has been extensively cleared and modified through drainage with 20% of Melaleuca brevifolia Shrubland and 8.2% of Gahnia filum Sedgeland remaining (Croft et al. 1999). No figures are available for the mixed M. brevifolia/G. filum community occurring at the known site, however it is likely to be rarer. Targeted searching within suitable habitat during the peak flowering period is certainly warranted and may yield further populations.

From GIS modelling 14 potential habitat sites were identified, most of which were roadsides but also included a Heritage Agreement property and a disused railway corridor. These sites were surveyed during March-April in 2007, however, no Cassinia tegulata plants were found (Herpich & Hinchliffe 2007).

Currently around 900 (±10%) plants occur at the population near Lucindale (R. Johnson 2006, pers. comm.). This figure is based on a population count in which 425 individuals were tagged and counted. The estimate for the total number of plants at this population is based on an extrapolation of the number of plants in the area occupied by the counted sample multiplied by the remaining area occupied by Cassinia tegulata (the 'uncounted' sample). All plants are considered to be mature flowering individuals with no seedlings or juveniles observed. The population near Blackford has a estimated population of approximately 28 plants (TSSC 2008aez).

Only two extant populations of Cassinia tegulata are known. At the largest site C. tegulata occupies roadside shrubbery and adjacent rail corridor vegetation approximately 17 km west of the township of Lucindale. Tenure of land for this population is roadside reserve under the care and control of Naracoorte/Lucindale District Council (DC). The Lucindale - Kingston Rd itself is managed by the State Transport Agency, however the State Agency manages only to the shoulder with the road reserves under the management of the relevant local government. The recently extinct Naracoorte - Lucindale Rd site is also under the care and control of the Naracoorte/Lucindale DC. This population consisted of two plants. The smaller of the two extant populations occurs in roadside vegetation and is located 30 km from Blackford (Herpich & Hinchliffe 2007; Orchard 2004; TSSC 2008aez).

The population trend for Cassinia tegulata is declining due to recent deaths, senescence of mature plants and the apparent lack of recruitment over the corresponding period. Raw data to indicate past decline includes the recent death of both plants associated with the Naracoorte - Lucindale Road population and death of mature plants observed at a known extant population site (R. Johnson 2006, pers. comm.; Orchard 2004).

Of a sample of 425 plants in late May 2005, 19 plants (4.5%) were recorded as recently dead or very near death, and 93 plants (21.9%, N = 425) appeared to be at various stages of senescence (i.e. yellowing of leaves, gradual reduction in the quantity of leaves below the inflorescence and death of entire branches). No recent recruitment has been observed. This indicates a decline in the species over the next decade if the lack of recruitment is not addressed. Past decline in population size may also be inferred by the failure to re-locate Cassinia tegulata at a number of former collection sites despite extensive search effort (R. Johnson 2006, pers. comm.; T. Orchard 2006, pers. comm.; TSSC 2008aez). Cassinia tegulata does not appear to inhabit dense stands of Melaleuca brevifolia Shrubland. The loss of one of the remaining sites may be related to competition with the dominant vegetation, hydrological change and/or inappropriate disturbance regimes resulting in a lack of recruitment.

No extant populations are known from the reserve system. There is a historic collection from 'Fairview WildLife Reserve' (possibly Fairview Conservation Park, South Australian National Parks and Wildlife Reserve), although recent search efforts have failed to re-locate this population (Orchard 2004). Further effort is required to manage a population within a secure conservation area and to therefore improve the status of the species.

Cassinia tegulata is known from Melaleuca brevifolia/Gahnia filum Shrubland. This plant community is associated with interdune flats with shallow grey or yellowish sandy clay soils over limestone which are seasonally inundated.

Known historic and current sites have little or no incline. Associated soils are grey clay-loams (rendzinas) of high pH which may exhibit cracking in summer (R. Johnson 2006, pers. comm.). These soils are shallow (30–60 cm deep) and are underlain by limestone, however no outcropping rock is present. Melaleuca brevifolia/Gahnia filum Shrubland is an atypical plant community of the interdune flats usually dominated by purer stands of the codominants. Associated species include: Mealy Wattle (Acacia farinosa), Lawrencia spicata, Kangaroo Grass (Themeda triandra), Olearia floribunda, Swamp Weed (Selliera radicans), Lemon Beauty-heads (Calocephalus citreus), Hakea sp. and Blueberry Lily (Dianella revoluta).

Orchard (2004) describes Cassinia tegulata flowering between February and April. In 2005 the species was observed flowering through April to mid-late May. This may reflect the unusually late 'break' to the season, with higher than normal autumn temperatures and well below average rainfall. Alternatively, it may reflect a lack of available information concerning the phenology of the species. Mature fruits were observed May 26th, 2005 (D. Duval 2006, pers. comm.) when they were collected for storage, treatment and germination trials. The ecology of the species is little known and the conditions required for flowering and fruiting are not clearly understood. Research and collection/germination trials are required.

In autumn 2005 the Common Grass-blue Butterfly (Zizina labradus) was observed in large numbers exclusively visiting the flowers of Cassinia tegulata (R. Johnson 2006, pers. comm.). It is not known whether this species achieved effective pollination or whether it is important in the pollination of Cassinia tegulata.

It is not known whether the species is capable of vegetative reproduction, and whether the species requires a disturbance regime such as fire or cleared ground in order to reproduce. However, recent observations on one extant population indicate that a lack of recruitment may be affecting the population. Only 0.03% of plants sampled were considered to be of a younger age than the remaining sample (N=425), i.e. these plants appeared to be of a younger age than the remaining mature plants. No seedlings of the species have been observed in the wild (TSSC 2008aez).

Cassinia tegulata is very distinctive, with perhaps the exception of closely-related Cassinia species and similar Compositae; few of which occur in the general area known to be historically or currently inhabited by Cassinia tegulata (Orchard 2006, pers. comm.). Owing to the species' terminal cream flowers and generally upright habit, Cassinia tegulata is highly detectable within its associated habitat of Melaleuca brevifolia/Gahnia filum Shrubland. Indeed, the multiple collections (five) of Cassinia tegulata from the type locality over an extended period provide some indication of how detectable the species is at certain times of year.

Land clearance

Minor clearance associated with service maintenance (such as power lines), fire break creation/maintenance, incidental roadworks and associated activities pose a significant threat to Cassinia tegulata.

Clearance is suspected to have been a factor in the apparent decline of Cassinia tegulata in recent decades (inferred by older collections of the subject material residing with the Adelaide Herbarium and other institutions). Given that Cassinia tegulata is currently known from two unconserved populations, minor vegetation clearance poses a real and significant threat to the known populations. Its expected future effect is the reduction in the number of Cassinia tegulata plants through physical removal, further reducing the size of the only known extant populations (TSSC 2008aff; TSSC 2008aez).

Drainage

Ongoing drainage associated with the Upper South East Flood Management and Dryland Salinity Program is occurring within the former distribution of the species (Blackford, Fairview), and may pose a future threat to undiscovered populations and/or populations yet to be re-located. Drainage works continue to occur in proximity to a remaining extant population (R. Johnson 2006, pers. comm.). The effect of altered drainage on Cassinia tegulata is unknown. Further study is required in order to quantify the likely effects of past and present drainage on Cassinia tegulata.

Inappropriate disturbance regimes

Based on limited field observations it is suspected that Cassinia tegulata may be fire and/or disturbance responsive. Inappropriate disturbance regimes and/or fire suppression may therefore be a significant factor limiting recruitment at the known extant sites.

Inappropriate disturbance regimes may have caused the lack of recruitment observed at the known extant sites. The burning of the roadside and rail corridor was routinely undertaken when the train line was in service to prevent fires ignited by the trains from escaping. Following retirement of the train service around 1980, this practice ceased (C. Gilkes 2006, pers. comm.). The expected effect is a continuing lack of recruitment and an overall decline in the population. Further study is required to ascertain whether Cassinia tegulata is fire and/or disturbance responsive, involving both ex situ and in situ trials.

Lack of recruitment

Lack of recruitment poses a considerable threat to Cassinia tegulata at the known extant sites through loss of mature plants to natural death and a reduction in population size due to dead plants not being replaced by juveniles.

A survey of the population in May 2005 found only only 0.03% of plants sampled to be of an apparently younger age than the remaining sample (N=425). These younger plants are still mature flowering individuals and no seedlings of the species have been observed. The effect of lack of recruitment has been the senescence and death of the population at the type locality (Naracoorte - Lucindale Road) and a decline in one of the remaining extant populations (TSSC 2008aez). If not addressed, the lack of recruitment and replacement of mature plants with juveniles may result in the total extinction of the species within two or three decades.

Small area of occupancy/occurrence

Cassinia tegulata may be affected by a single catastrophic event resulting in the total extinction of the species. Given that Cassinia tegulata is currently known from only two sites and is distributed over an area of only 0.05 km², the risk of one-off events such as wildfire or disease resulting in the extinction of the species is considerable. In addition, roadside populations are characterised by high edge to core ratios and frequently suffer from the impacts of disturbance and associated weed invasion, posing further risk to the Cassinia tegulata populations. The proximity to agricultural land may also mean that disturbance associated with fertiliser/chemical drift could impact on the species' survival and recruitment potential (TSSC 2008aff; TSSC 2008aez).

Lack of formally conserved populations

As Cassinia tegulata is not currently known to be extant in any areas under secure conservation management, the risk of extinction as a result of inappropriate land management is high and poses a significant threat to the species.

Native, domestic and introduced herbivores

Seedlings/juveniles may be palatable and possibly browsed before reaching a size where browsing is no longer a significant threat. Herbivores may impact on the recruitment of Cassinia tegulata, which in turn may lead to a senescing population and the eventual extinction of the species as deaths are not replaced.

The effects of grazing are unknown. However, the presence of kangaroos (Macropus fuliginosus) and rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) at the site near Lucindale has been inferred from scats, skeletal material, warrens and wallows. Occasional stock escapees may have an impact, particularly during recruitment events, should these occur. Road reserves are occassionally used for the movement and/or agistment of domestic stock and this may have significant impacts on the known Cassinia tegulata populations (TSSC 2008aff).

Catastrophic Event

Wildfire/accidental fire is considered to be the most probable catastrophic event likely to severely affect the species. Given the available fuel loads and period since the last fire (>25 years), an uncontrolled fire is likely to decimate the population. If Cassinia tegulata is not fire responsive, the species may be entirely lost during such an event.

Minister's Reasons for Recovery Plan decision:

Cassinia tegulata is known from two populations near Lucindale and Blackford in south-eastern South Australia, with both populations occurring in roadside and rail corridor vegetation. Cassinia tegulata is currently threatened by land clearing and unknown processes inhibiting recruitment. Potential threats include inappropriate fire regimes, susceptibility to stochastic events and high edge to area ratios, effects on groundwater hydrology, and grazing. The relevant state and local government authorities are aware of their conservation responsibilities under state legislation. The approved Conservation Advice for the species provides sufficient direction to implement priority actions and manage key threats, with the state government currently undertaking recovery actions. A recovery plan is not considered to be necessary at this time.

There are planned investigations (via seed treatment) to determine whether Cassinia tegulata is fire responsive (at the SA DEH Seed Conservation Centre). If so, inappropriate disturbance regimes (i.e. inadequate fire intervals/fire suppression) could be among the key threats to the species and may be addressed through prescribed and controlled fire within both current and historic habitat sites (SA DEH 2006a; TSSC 2008aff).

Proposed recovery actions include (SA DEH 2006a; TSSC 2008aff):

  • further effort to relocate previous collection sites
  • further survey effort to identify new populations
  • further consultation with stakeholders (such as utility service providers)
  • fence populations to exclude vehicles and stock
  • investigate translocation into secure conservation areas
  • research whether germination is stimulated by disturbance and conduct germination trials
  • monitoring of known population, including population monitoring and monitoring of individual plants through time.

  • No major studies have been conducted on the species. Orchard (2004) undertook an extensive review of collection material prior to the species' description and also made some effort to re-locate historical collection sites of the species. Subsequent surveys have been undertaken to document the distribution and abundance of the species at verified sites.

    An action plan for the conservation and recovery of Cassinia tegulata in the South East of South Australia has been prepared (Johnson 2005).

    The approved Conservation Advice out-lines the threats to Cassinia tegulata and provides priority recovery and threat abatement actions that would support the recovery of Cassinia tegulata (TSSC 2008aff).

    The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

    Threat Class Threatening Species References
    Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Grazing pressures and associated habitat changes Commonwealth Listing Advice on Cassinia tegulata (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008aez) [Listing Advice].
    Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Cassinia tegulata (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008aff) [Conservation Advice].
    Climate Change and Severe Weather:Droughts:Drought Commonwealth Listing Advice on Cassinia tegulata (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008aez) [Listing Advice].
    Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Cassinia tegulata (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008aff) [Conservation Advice].
    Climate Change and Severe Weather:Habitat Shifting and Alteration:Habitat loss, modification and/or degradation Commonwealth Listing Advice on Cassinia tegulata (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008aez) [Listing Advice].
    Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Indirect Ecosystem Effects:Loss and/or fragmentation of habitat and/or subpopulations Commonwealth Listing Advice on Cassinia tegulata (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008aez) [Listing Advice].
    Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Indirect Ecosystem Effects:Restricted geographical distribution (area of occupancy and extent of occurrence) Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Cassinia tegulata (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008aff) [Conservation Advice].
    Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Oryctolagus cuniculus (Rabbit, European Rabbit) Commonwealth Listing Advice on Cassinia tegulata (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008aez) [Listing Advice].
    Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Cassinia tegulata (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008aff) [Conservation Advice].
    Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Problematic Native Species:Competition, predation and/or habitat degradation by kangaroos and wallabies Commonwealth Listing Advice on Cassinia tegulata (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008aez) [Listing Advice].
    Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Cassinia tegulata (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008aff) [Conservation Advice].
    Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Alteration of hydrological regimes and water quality Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Cassinia tegulata (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008aff) [Conservation Advice].
    Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Changes in hydrology including habitat drainage Commonwealth Listing Advice on Cassinia tegulata (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008aez) [Listing Advice].
    Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Extraction of ground water Commonwealth Listing Advice on Cassinia tegulata (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008aez) [Listing Advice].
    Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:drawdown caused by pine plantations Commonwealth Listing Advice on Cassinia tegulata (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008aez) [Listing Advice].
    Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Habitat degradation caused by firebreak construction and/or maintenance Commonwealth Listing Advice on Cassinia tegulata (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008aez) [Listing Advice].
    Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity) Commonwealth Listing Advice on Cassinia tegulata (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008aez) [Listing Advice].
    Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Cassinia tegulata (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008aff) [Conservation Advice].
    Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Low numbers of individuals Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Cassinia tegulata (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008aff) [Conservation Advice].
    Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Poor recruitment (regeneration) and declining population numbers Commonwealth Listing Advice on Cassinia tegulata (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008aez) [Listing Advice].
    Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Cassinia tegulata (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008aff) [Conservation Advice].
    Species Stresses (suggest Reproductive Resilience?):Indirect Species Effects:Reduction of genetic intergrity of a species due to hybridisation Commonwealth Listing Advice on Cassinia tegulata (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008aez) [Listing Advice].
    Transportation and Service Corridors:Roads and Railroads:Development and/or maintenance of roads Commonwealth Listing Advice on Cassinia tegulata (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008aez) [Listing Advice].
    Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Cassinia tegulata (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008aff) [Conservation Advice].
    Transportation and Service Corridors:Transportation and Service Corridors:Road and rail maintenance works Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Cassinia tegulata (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008aff) [Conservation Advice].
    Transportation and Service Corridors:Utility and Service Lines:Powerline easement maintenance and construction; mortality due to collision with powerlines Commonwealth Listing Advice on Cassinia tegulata (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008aez) [Listing Advice].

    Barker, W.R., R.M. Barker, J.P. Jessop & H.P. Vonow, eds. (2005). Census of South Australian Vascular Plants, 5th edition. In: Journal of the Adelaide Botanical Gardens Supplement 1. [Online]. Adelaide: Botanic Gardens of Adelaide & State Herbarium. Available from: http://www.flora.sa.gov.au/pdfs/Census_5.0_web.pdf.

    Croft, T., S. Carruthers., H. Possingham & B. Inns (1999). Biodiversity Plan for the South East of South Australia. Adelaide: Department of Environment, Heritage and Aboriginal Affairs.

    Duval, D. (2006). Personal Communication, June 2006.

    Gilkes, C. (2006). Personal Communication, June 2006.

    Herpich, D. & Hinchliffe, D. (2007). Cassinia tegulata - predictive habitat analysis and on ground searching. SA Veg on the Edge. 7, No 1:7-8. Adelaide.

    Johnson, R. (2005). Regional Action Plans for the Recovery of Threatened Flora and Ecological Communities in the South East of South Australia. Mount Gambier: South Australian Department for Environment and Heritage.

    Johnson, R. (2006). Personal Communication, May 2006.

    Orchard, A.E. (2004). A revision of Cassinia (Asteraceae: Gnaphalieae) in Australia. 2. Sections Complanatae and Venustae. Australian Systematic Botany. 17:505-533. [Online]. Available from: http://www.publish.csiro.au/nid/151/issue/840.htm.

    Orchard, T. (2006). Personal Communication, June 2006.

    South Australia Department for Environment and Heritage (SA DEH) (2006a). Threatened Flora of the South East, Avenue Cassinia Cassinia tegulata Fact Sheet. Mount Gambier, South Australian Department for Environment and Heritage.

    Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC) (2008aez). Commonwealth Listing Advice on Cassinia tegulata. [Online]. Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/species/pubs/81640-listing-advice.pdf.

    Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC) (2008aff). Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Cassinia tegulata. [Online]. Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/species/pubs/81640-conservation-advice.pdf.

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    This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

    Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Cassinia tegulata in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Fri, 1 Aug 2014 09:42:02 +1000.