Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Critically Endangered as Grevillea brachystylis subsp. grandis
Listing and Conservation Advices Commonwealth Listing Advice on Grevillea brachystylis subsp. Busselton (G.J.Keighery s.n. 28/6/1985) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008aeq) [Listing Advice].
 
Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Grevillea brachystylis subsp. Busselton (G.J.Keighery s.n. 28/6/1985) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008afp) [Conservation Advice].
 
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan required, only known from six populations and is subject to a number of land use threats, which can be better managed with a recovery plan in place (19/12/2008).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans Large-flowered short-styled grevillea (Grevillea brachystylis subsp. grandis) Interim Recovery Plan 2011 - 2016 (Western Australia Department of Environment and Conservation (WA DEC), 2011b) [Recovery Plan] as Grevillea brachystylis subsp. grandis.
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Inclusion of species in the list of threatened species under section 178 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (69) (19/12/2008) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2008d) [Legislative Instrument] as Grevillea brachystylis subsp. Busselton (G.J.Keighery s.n. 28/8/1985).
 
Amendment to the list of threatened species under section 178, 181 and 183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (Cth) (160) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2014h) [Legislative Instrument] as Grevillea brachystylis subsp. grandis.
 
State Listing Status
WA: Listed as Critically Endangered (Wildlife Conservation Act 1950 (Western Australia): September 2013 list) as Grevillea brachystylis subsp. grandis
Scientific name Grevillea brachystylis subsp. grandis [85001]
Family Proteaceae:Proteales:Magnoliopsida:Magnoliophyta:Plantae
Species author Keighery
Infraspecies author  
Reference Keighery, G.J. (2009) A new subspecies of Grevillea brachystylis (Proteaceae) from the Whicher Range. The Western Australian Naturalist 27(1): 12-16, Figs. 1, 2 [tax. nov.]
Other names Grevillea brachystylis subsp. grandis Keighery ms [81444]
Grevillea brachystylis subsp. Busselton (G.J.Keighery s.n. 28/8/1985) [81629]
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images

The Large-flowered Short-styled Grevillea is an erect shrub growing to 2 m high, with leaves that are entire and red flowers that occur from August to December (WA CALM 2006)

The Large-flowered Short-styled Grevillea is endemic to Western Australia and is known from six populations in the Blackwood area, approximately 200 km south-south-west of Perth and 15 km south-south-west of Busselton, within the South West Natural Resource Management Region (WA CALM 2006). The distribution of this species is considered severely fragmented as known populations are small, isolated and occur within an area that is largely cleared for agriculture (WA CALM 2006). Five of the six known populations occur on road reserves with the sixth occurring on both a road reserve and adjacent private property (Stack & English 2002).

In a translocation program for the Large-flowered Short-styled Grevillea, the Western Australian Government planted 92 seedlings and 2012 and 172 seedlings in 2013. Survival, flowering and fruit production rates of over 80% were recorded, and the program has doubled the subspecies abundance and used genetic material of seven of the eight known populations (DPaW 2014).

The maximum distance between the six known populations of the Large-flowered Short-styled Grevillea is approximately 10 km. The extent of occurrence for this species is estimated to be 14 km² (WA CALM 2006). There is insufficient data to indicate past trends in extent of occurrence of the Large-flowered Short-styled Grevillea (WA CALM 2006). However, given that five of the six known locations occur entirely on road reserves, and the sixth partly, the future extent of occurrence is threatened and may decline (Stack & English 2002).

Officers of the Western Australian Department of Environment and Conservation (WA DEC, previously known as the Department of Conservation and Land Management) are aware of the Large-flowered Short-styled Grevillea and have tried to locate it during routine, ongoing flora surveys. In addition, WA DEC staff and volunteers undertook targeted surveys for the species during August–October 2000 (WA CALM 2006).

The total population size for the Large-flowered Short-styled Grevillea is estimated to be at least 176 mature plants. Two populations can be separated according to land tenure type (i.e. populations 3a and 3b) or short distances between patches of plants (6a, 6b and 6c). The following table presents population information for this species (Stack & English 2002):

Population Tenure Year Size
Condition Survey type
1 Shire road verge 1985
2002
Not recorded
14
Disturbed Herbarium collection
Field Survey
2 Shire road verge 2000 64 (90) Healthy but disturbed Field Survey
3a Shire road verge 2001
2002
70+
50+ (includes 3b)
Healthy but disturbed Field Survey
Field Survey
3b Private Property 2001
2002
25
Included with 3a
Healthy but disturbed Field Survey
Field Survey
4 Shire road verge 2002
2005
10
30
Healthy but disturbed Field Survey
Field Survey
5 Shire road verge 2002 3 Healthy Field Survey
6a Shire road verge 2004 1 Healthy Field Survey
6b Shire road verge 2004 10 Moderate Field Survey
6c Shire road verge 2004 4 Moderate Field Survey

There is little data to indicate trends in the Large-flowered Short-styled Grevillea. However, surveys have indicated a specific decline in populations 3a and 3b; from 95 plants in 2001 to 50 plants in 2005 (Stack & English 2002; WA CALM 2006). The general population trend of this species has been decline and the most recent surveys showed five populations as disturbed or healthy but disturbed (TSSC 2008aeq).

No Large-flowered Short-styled Grevillea populations occur within the conservation estate. Populations 1, 2, 3a, 4, 5, 6a, 6b and 6c occur on shire road reserves (WA CALM 2006).

The Large-flowered Short-styled Grevillea occurs in a narrow band, 10 km long, of degraded habitat at the base of Whicher Scarp. It grows on brown lateritic clay loam soils in Marri (Corymbia calophylla) woodland, in an area infested with the weeds Bugle Lily (Watsonia bulillifera) and Rush (Juncus microcephalus) (Stack & English 2002).

The Large-flowered Short-styled Grevillea is not known to occur in association with any species or ecological communities listed under the EPBC Act.

Age of sexual maturity and life expectancy are unknown for the Large-flowered Short-styled Grevillea. This species appears to regenerate from seed following fire. At population 2 the species survived after regenerating from seed or rootstock following roadside grading (Stack & English 2002).

Little is known about this species flower and fruit production although its floral structure suggests it is likely to employ a bird pollinating mechanism (Stack & English 2002). It flowers from August to December (WA CALM 2006).

Large-fruited Short-styled Grevillea differs from Grevillea brachystylis subsp. brachystylis in being erect to 2 m tall (whereas G. b. subsp. brachystylis is normally smaller) with one to three robust stems per plant. Flowers, pedicels and leaves are much larger in all measurements: for example, leaves of Large-fruited Short-styled Grevillea are up to 102 mm long and 12 mm wide, compared to those of G. b. subsp. brachystylis which are up to 52 mm long and 5 mm wide (Stack & English 2002).

Survey work should be conducted on similar soil and vegetation types during June to December when the species is in flower (Stack & English 2002).

Large-flowered Short-styled Grevillea populations are severely fragmented and suffer from an ongoing decline in the quality of habitat. The main threats to this species are invasive weeds; road, drain and firebreak maintenance; and inappropriate fire regimes (Stack & English 2002).

Weed competition is a major threat to all populations, particularly Bugle Lily (Watsonia bulbillifera), Rush (Juncus microcephalus), African Lovegrass (Eragrostis curvula) and Kikuyu (Pennisetum clandestinum). Weeds suppress early plant growth by competing for soil moisture, nutrients and light. They also exacerbate grazing pressure and increase the fire hazard due to the easy ignition of higher fuel loads, which are produced annually by many weed species (Stack & English 2002).

Road, drain and firebreak maintenance threatens all populations. Threats include grading, chemical spraying, construction of drainage channels and the mowing of roadside vegetation. Several of these actions also encourage weed invasion (Stack & English 2002).

Inappropriate fire regimes may affect the viability of populations as Large-flowered Short-styled Grevillea appears to regenerate from seed after fire. Occasional fires are needed to initiate germination events. If too frequent fire occurs than the soil seedbank would deplete before cohorts reached sexual maturity, resulting in localised extinction (Stack & English 2002).

Recovery actions

The Large-flowered Short-styled Grevillea Interim Recovery Plan (Stack & English 2002) outlines a number of recovery actions that have been undertaken, including:

  • On land where this species occurs, land managers have been notified of the location, threatened status and legal responsibilities associated with the Large-flowered Short-styled Grevillea.
  • Declared Rare Flora (DRF) markers have been installed at roadside populations. These markers alert people working in the vicinity of the DRF, and the need to avoid damage to vegetation occurring between the markers.
  • Staff from WA DEC monitor populations of this species.
  • A small amount of seed material was collected during 2002 and this is stored at the Western Australian Threatened Flora Seed Centre.
  • Where Large-flowered Short-styled Grevillea populations occur on lands other than those managed by the WA DEC, permission has been sought from appropriate land managers prior to recovery actions being undertaken (Stack & English 2002; WA CALM 2006).

Future recovery actions may include (Stack & English 2002; TSSC 2008afp; WA CALM 2006):

  • The coordination, monitoring and reporting of this species recovery.
  • Weed control with the use of hand weeding or limited application of herbicide.
  • Reporting of the method, timing and success of treatment against the impact on this species and other native vegetation
  • Preservation of germplasm material for use in propagation and translocation programs.
  • Collection and storage of seed from all populations.
  • Community involvement in surveys and recovery actions.
  • Development and implementation of a suitable fire management strategy that encourages germination, reduces the likelihood of localised extinction and incorporates appropriate fire control measures.
  • Liaison with land managers and landowners to ensure that populations are not accidentally damaged or destroyed.
  • Management of threats associated with road maintenance.
  • Investigation of a conservation covenant for the population that occurs on private property.
  • Investigation of an artificial germination stimulation program.
  • Investigation of the biology and ecology of this species, including soil seed bank dynamics, the role of disturbance, vegetative competition, weather and grazing impacts on recruitment, pollinator dynamics, phenology and seasonal growth patterns, and the levels of population genetic diversity.
  • Promotion of community awareness.
  • Investigation into the appropriateness and feasibility of a translocation program.

Recovery actions for Large-flowered Short-styled Grevillea are described in the Interim Recovery Plan No. 120-Large flowered short-styled Grevillea (Stack & English 2002) and the Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Grevillea brachystylis subsp. Busselton (G.J.Keighery s.n. 28/6/1985) (TSSC 2008afp).

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Agriculture and Aquaculture:Land clearing, habitat fragmentation and/or habitat degradation Commonwealth Listing Advice on Grevillea brachystylis subsp. Busselton (G.J.Keighery s.n. 28/6/1985) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008aeq) [Listing Advice].
Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Indirect Ecosystem Effects:Loss and/or fragmentation of habitat and/or subpopulations Commonwealth Listing Advice on Grevillea brachystylis subsp. Busselton (G.J.Keighery s.n. 28/6/1985) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008aeq) [Listing Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Eragrostis curvula (African Lovegrass, Weeping Lovegrass, Weeping Love Grass, Boer Lovegrass, Weeping Grass) Commonwealth Listing Advice on Grevillea brachystylis subsp. Busselton (G.J.Keighery s.n. 28/6/1985) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008aeq) [Listing Advice].
Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Grevillea brachystylis subsp. Busselton (G.J.Keighery s.n. 28/6/1985) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008afp) [Conservation Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Pennisetum clandestinum (Kikuyu) Commonwealth Listing Advice on Grevillea brachystylis subsp. Busselton (G.J.Keighery s.n. 28/6/1985) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008aeq) [Listing Advice].
Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Grevillea brachystylis subsp. Busselton (G.J.Keighery s.n. 28/6/1985) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008afp) [Conservation Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Watsonia spp. (Watsonia, Bulbil Watsonia, Wild Watsonia, Bugle Lily) Commonwealth Listing Advice on Grevillea brachystylis subsp. Busselton (G.J.Keighery s.n. 28/6/1985) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008aeq) [Listing Advice].
Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Grevillea brachystylis subsp. Busselton (G.J.Keighery s.n. 28/6/1985) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008afp) [Conservation Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation by weeds Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Grevillea brachystylis subsp. Busselton (G.J.Keighery s.n. 28/6/1985) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008afp) [Conservation Advice].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity) Commonwealth Listing Advice on Grevillea brachystylis subsp. Busselton (G.J.Keighery s.n. 28/6/1985) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008aeq) [Listing Advice].
Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Grevillea brachystylis subsp. Busselton (G.J.Keighery s.n. 28/6/1985) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008afp) [Conservation Advice].
Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Low numbers of individuals Commonwealth Listing Advice on Grevillea brachystylis subsp. Busselton (G.J.Keighery s.n. 28/6/1985) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008aeq) [Listing Advice].
Transportation and Service Corridors:Roads and Railroads:Development and/or maintenance of roads Commonwealth Listing Advice on Grevillea brachystylis subsp. Busselton (G.J.Keighery s.n. 28/6/1985) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008aeq) [Listing Advice].
Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Grevillea brachystylis subsp. Busselton (G.J.Keighery s.n. 28/6/1985) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008afp) [Conservation Advice].

Department of Parks and Wildlife (DPaW) (2014). Grevillea project doubles plant numbers. Parks and Wildlife News. [Online]. Available from: http://www.dpaw.wa.gov.au/images/documents/news/newsletters/pwn/2014/201404293_PWN_Jan_2014_.pdf.

Stack, G. & V. English (2002). Grevillea brachystylis subsp. grandis ms. Interim Recovery Plan No. 120. [Online]. Perth: Department of Conservation and Land Management. Available from: http://www.dec.wa.gov.au/pdf/plants_animals/threatened_species/irps/gre_bra_gra_irp120.pdf.

Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC) (2008aeq). Commonwealth Listing Advice on Grevillea brachystylis subsp. Busselton (G.J.Keighery s.n. 28/6/1985). [Online]. Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/species/pubs/81629-listing-advice.pdf.

Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC) (2008afp). Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Grevillea brachystylis subsp. Busselton (G.J.Keighery s.n. 28/6/1985). [Online]. Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/species/pubs/81629-conservation-advice.pdf.

Western Australia Department of Conservation and Land Management (WA CALM) (2006). Records held in CALM's Declared Flora Database and rare flora files. Perth, Western Australia: WA CALM.

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This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Grevillea brachystylis subsp. grandis in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Wed, 30 Jul 2014 00:56:26 +1000.