Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Critically Endangered as Advena campbellii
Listing and Conservation Advices Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Advena campbellii campbellii (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008aeq) [Conservation Advice].
 
Commonwealth Listing Advice on Advena campbellii campbellii (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008aev) [Listing Advice].
 
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan not required, "a regional multi-species recovery plan incorporates this species and it occurs within areas currently managed as a National Park, Botanic garden and in reserve areas. Therefore the approved conservation advice for this species provides sufficient direction to implement priority actions and manage key threats (19/12/2008)".
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans
Other EPBC Act Plans Threat abatement plan to reduce the impacts of exotic rodents on biodiversity on Australian offshore islands of less than 100 000 hectares 2009 (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2009u) [Threat Abatement Plan].
 
Information Sheets What the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (EPBC Act) means for Norfolk Islanders (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2004i) [Information Sheet].
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Inclusion of species in the list of threatened species under section 178 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (64) (19/12/2008) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2008f) [Legislative Instrument] as Advena campbellii campbellii.
 
Amendment to the list of threatened species under section 178, 181 and 183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (Cth) (160) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2014h) [Legislative Instrument] as Advena campbellii.
 
Non-statutory Listing Status
IUCN: Listed as Extinct (Global Status: IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: 2013.1 list)
Scientific name Advena campbellii [81250]
Family Helicarionidae:Pulmonata:Gastropoda:Mollusca:Animalia
Species author Gray, 1834
Infraspecies author  
Reference D. Neuweger, P. White & W.F. Ponder (2001). Land Snails from Norfolk Island Sites in Records of the Australian Museum, Supplement 27: 115-122
Other names Advena campbellii campbellii [82807]
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images

International: Listed as Extinct under the name Advena campbelli under the IUCN Red List 2008. This status is incorrect and requires updating.

Campbell's Helicarionid Land Snail is conventionally accepted, however, it is yet to be formally published in a scientific journal. The species Advena campbelli was described by Gray in 1834 and subspecies were described by Hyman (2005) but have yet to be formally published.

Campbell's Helicarionid Land Snail is a small land snail which usually has an elevated, fawn spire and a black, round base. A typical specimen is about 17 mm in diameter and 11 mm high (TSSC 2008aev).

The subspecies Advena campbellii nepeanensis is only known from fossil material from Nepean Island (Hyman 2005).

Campbell's Helicarionid Land Snail was once widespread over Norfolk and Phillip Islands, but has been recorded in recent times only in Norfolk Island National Park, the eastern side of the Captain Cook Memorial and in the Norfolk Island Botanic Gardens. This subspecies may still occur on Phillip Island (TSSC 2008aev).

The Territory of Norfolk Island is 1700 km north-east of Sydney in the South Pacific Ocean. The Territory includes Norfolk Island, which is approximately 35 km², as well as Nepean and Phillip Islands, which are smaller, uninhabited islands to the south of Norfolk Island (DEH 2000). The islands are volcanic in origin, formed by masses of basalt which arose from the ocean floor, a process which began about 3 million years ago and extended over 700 000 years. Over time, the islands have been colonised by plants and animals (TSSC 2008aev). It is recognised that Norfolk Island has a high diversity of land snails relative to other similar sized islands (Iredale 1944).

Fossils of Campbell's Helicarionid Land Snail suggest that the subspecies' former distribution was more widespread than its current distribution. Fossils are known from the Cemetery Bay, Emily Bay and Point Hunter areas of Norfolk Island (Varman 1991), but the locations of specimens lodged at the Australian Museum collected from 1979 onwards suggest that the subspecies is now restricted to a few sites within Norfolk Island National Park and the eastern side of Captain Cook Memorial. A population of Campbell's Helicarionid Land Snail was identified in 1997 in the Norfolk Island Botanical Garden (TSSC 2008aev).

Campbell's Helicarionid Land Snail was also originally collected from Phillip Island prior to 1834, but has not been recorded there since. However, very little survey work has been undertaken on Phillip Island to confirm if the subspecies persists there (TSSC 2008aev).

An estimate of the subspecies' area of occurrence is not currently available. However, Norfolk Island and Phillip Island have a combined total of approximately 37 km². The historic trend for area of occurrence has been decline with a clear reduction of the subspecies' range within this small area (TSSC 2008aev).

Detailed population data is not available; however data from Australian Museum collections indicate higher abundance of individuals of Campbell's Helicarionid Land Snail prior to 1981 and particularly prior to 1945. A 2002 survey found only one specimen, and a 2004 survey found 4 old specimens, with both collections being found on Mount Pitt (TSSC 2008aev).

Campbell's Helicarionid Land Snail has experienced an obvious decline in terms of percentage of all native snails collected from the island. This subspecies was most abundant in the period 1885 to 1904, representing 7.14% of the total snail collection from the island, but in recent years has decreased to almost zero percent (TSSC 2008aev). Subfossil deposits studied by Varman (1991) and Neuweger and colleagues (2001) indicated the species was once abundant in the Emily Bay-Cemetery Bay area. Live specimens of the species in native forest regions however, were reported as 'very rare, almost extinct' (Varman 1991).

Subfossil deposits from Norfolk and Nepean Island show that Campbell's Helicarionid Land Snail was once common. These deposits date from prior to a brief period of Polynesian settlement to European settlement. These fossil deposits provide clear evidence that many land snail species from Norfolk Island, including tthis subspecies, have experienced considerable reduction in number and geographic distribution (Neuweger et al. 2001; Varman 1991).

Despite an increase in overall collecting activity of native land snails on Norfolk Island, relative numbers of "fresh" specimens of Campbell's Helicarionid Land Snail have markedly decreased and the majority of specimens added to the Australian Museum in recent years were subfossils (Australian Museum n.d.).

A total of 219 specimens of Campbell's Helicarionid Land Snail have been collected from Norfolk and Phillip Islands and lodged at the Australian Museum and the Natural History Museum of London. Based on examinations of fossil deposits, dating from prior to a brief period of Polynesian settlement until European settlement, Campbell's Helicarionid Land Snail was once commonly found in the Emily Bay and Cemetery Bay areas of Norfolk Island. A large number of specimens (91) of the subspecies were collected from Phillip Island prior to 1834 and lodged in the Natural History Museum in London. This would suggest that the subspecies was relatively common on Phillip Island at the time of its original collection (TSSC 2008aev).

In recent times, the number of specimens of Campbell's Helicarionid Land Snail collected has declined, despite an overall increase in collecting activity of native land snails on Norfolk Island. Although an estimate of the subspecies' numbers is not available, collection records (of predominantly dead specimens) suggest that there may have been a higher number of individuals of the subspecies between 1945 to 1980 (when 98 specimens were collected) than 1981 to the present time (during which 9 specimens have been collected) (TSSC 2008aev).

Campbell's Helicarionid Land Snail is common in fossil deposits compared to the number of specimens collected over more recent times, which suggests that the subspecies has undergone a reduction in numbers. The reduction in numbers of Campbell's Helicarionid Land Snail is likely to be due to land clearance and decline in habitat due to weed invasion, and the introduction of rats and poultry, which prey upon the subspecies (TSSC 2008aev).

Although there is likely to have been a decline in the subspecies' numbers in more recent times due to predation by rats and ongoing decline in habitat quality due to weed invasion, which may continue in the future, there are no quantitative data available to judge that the subspecies has undergone a recent reduction in numbers (TSSC 2008aev).

Campbell's Helicarionid Land Snail is known to live under rotting logs (TSSC 2008aev). A recent study (Neuweger et al. 2001) only collected this subspecies in beach and dune ecosystems.

Norfolk Island has been intermittently occupied by various settlers who have dramatically altered the environment, predominantly by land clearing for agriculture and housing (DEH 2000). Approximately 80% of the original vegetation has been cleared, and the invasion of remnants by weed species has been extensive. Much of the Norfolk Island landscape has been transformed from a densely vegetated sub-tropical island to a highly modified pastoral landscape characterised by grazed kikuyu pastures bordered by remnant woodland (DEH 2000, 2004i).

Phillip Island lies approximately 7 km south of Norfolk Island and is approximately 4 km². The vegetation on the island has been severely degraded by the grazing of pigs, goats and rabbits released there for food and sport during early colonisation of the islands by Europeans. Pigs and goats were removed in the early 20th century, but rabbits were not removed until 1988 (TSSC 2008aev).

Little is known about the biology and ecology of Campbell's Helicarionid Land Snail. The generation length of this subspecies is not known (TSSC 2008aev).

Campbell's Helicarionid Land Snail is known to live under rotting logs (TSSC 2008aev).

Habitat degradation and modification by the introduction of feral animals (notably Rattus spp.) to Norfolk Island has led to the extinction of several island fauna (Ponder 1997b). Land clearing and stock damage are also contributing to declines and are likely to have caused the extinction of Posticobia norfolkensis, the only freshwater mollusc recorded on the island (Ponder 1997b).

Habitat degradation and modification

Prior to European settlement, Norfolk Island was almost entirely covered by rainforest, dominated by Norfolk Island Pines (Araucaria heterophylla); however, only 20% of the native vegetation of Norfolk Island remains intact, while vegetation on Nepean and Phillip Islands has been almost completely lost (DEH 2000). Much of the remnant vegetation is degraded owing to weed infestation and stock accesibility. Even Mount Pitt Reserve was not fenced until recently, previously being grazed by livestock. Exotic weed growth has been a major problem on the island, spreading at a rate much faster than it can be controlled (DEH 2004i). Weeds displace the natural vegetation on the island and can dramatically transform the original landscape, particularly the leaf litter and fallen bark that the snails require for survival. In addition, some weed control measures may be detrimental to land snail survival (TSSC 2008aev).

A 2001 survey of the land snail fauna in Emily Bay region of Norfolk Island illustrates a grossly altered fauna in this area compared with archaeological samples from pre-European times (Neuweger et al. 2001). This is likely the result of habitat loss and the habitat being heavily vegetated prior to Polynesian and European settlement. Human activity on the island has led to the conversion of tracts of land to pasture and residential development, undoubtedly modifying habitat, introducing flora, reducing available moisture and possibly increasing fire frequency (TSSC 2008aev).

Feral animals

The key threat to Campbell's Helicarionid Land Snail is predation by introduced rats. The Polynesian Rat (Rattus exulans) is presumed to have been introduced thousands of years ago by Polynesian visitors to Norfolk Island. The Black Rat (Rattus rattus) was introduced later, possibly around 1943 (DEH 2000). Both species are likely to have caused a decline in the numbers of Campbell's Helicarionid Land Snail by direct predation. An extensive rat control program has been operating on Norfolk Island since 1992. This baiting program, however, is unlikely to completely mitigate the effect of predation by rats on Campbell's Helicarionid Land Snail as it is not undertaken across the subspecies' entire range (TSSC 2008aev).

An additional potential threat to Campbell's Helicarionid Land Snail is feral poultry, which have become common in Norfolk Island National Park. Anecdotal evidence suggests that feral poultry prey on snails and may reduce population numbers quickly. Other invasive species, such as ants and the African or Giant Land Snail, pose potential threats to Campbell's Helicarionid Land Snail should they be introduced and become established on Norfolk Island. The likelihood such species being introduced and becoming established is unknown but remains a potential threat (TSSC 2008aev).

Weeds

The subspecies' habitat is likely to be declining in quality due to the presence of weed species on Norfolk Island. Over 200 species of introduced vascular plants have been recorded on Norfolk Island, including Lantana (Lantana camara), 'William Taylor' weed (Ageratina riparia) and Wild Tobacco (Solanum mauritianum) (Hyman 2005). Parks Australia is currently implementing a weed control program involving the broad scale treatment and rehabilitation of weed infested areas, however it is likely that the habitat of Campbell's Helicarionid Land Snail remains threatened, as weed control is not undertaken across the entire range of the subspecies. Anecdotal evidence also suggests that populations of Campbell's Helicarionid Land Snail may have been affected by the construction of a stormwater drain leading off the Mount Pitt road. The construction process caused top soil to be washed away and encouraged weed growth by washing weed seeds into previously uninfested areas (TSSC 2008aev).

Other threats

Although part of the habitat of Campbell's Helicarionid Land Snail is protected in Norfolk Island National Park, the subspecies is also potentially threatened by wildfire and trampling, disturbance and collection by visitors (TSSC 2008aev).

A captive breeding program may be necessary to build up sufficient numbers to improve populations of Campbell's Helicarionid Land Snail. Predation by Black Rats and Polynesian Rats on Norfolk Island has been extensively controlled since 1992, but the threat still remains. The Threat Abatement Plan to reduce the impacts of exotic rodents on biodiversity on Australian offshore islands of less than 100 000 ha(DEWR 2008) is in preparation and should provide additional management recommendations for the rat threat. The following priority actions are highlighted by the Threatened Species Scientific committee (TSSC 2008aeq):

  • Identify and survey current locations.
  • Monitor existing locations and assess the efficiency of managment.
  • Eradicate rats on Norfolk Island and surrounding islands; investigate the impacts of eradication methods on non-target species.
  • Upon completion, implement the recovery plan for Norfolk Island.
  • Identify known sites of high conservation priority.
  • Further protect areas of native vegetation that contain populations of the species or which could support populations in the future.
  • Revegetate key areas.
  • Raise awareness of the species within the local community.
  • Investigate and, if appropriate, undertake a captive breeding program and establish additional populations.

Documents that may assist in the recovery of Campbell's Helicarionid Land Snail include the Norfolk Island Recovery Plan (in preparation), the Draft threat abatement plan to reduce the impacts of exotic rodents on biodiversity on Australian offshore islands of less than 100 000 hectares (DEWR 2008) and the Conservation Advice on Advena campbellii campbellii (TSSC 2008aeq).

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Grazing pressures and associated habitat changes Norfolk Island Region Threatened Species Recovery Plan (Director of National Parks (DNP), 2010a) [State Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Gathering Terrestrial Plants:Illegal collection Commonwealth Listing Advice on Advena campbellii campbellii (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008aev) [Listing Advice].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Habitat Shifting and Alteration:Habitat loss, modification and/or degradation Norfolk Island Region Threatened Species Recovery Plan (Director of National Parks (DNP), 2010a) [State Recovery Plan].
Commonwealth Listing Advice on Advena campbellii campbellii (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008aev) [Listing Advice].
Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Ecosystem Degradation:Decline in habitat quality Norfolk Island Region Threatened Species Recovery Plan (Director of National Parks (DNP), 2010a) [State Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Recreational Activities:Soil disturbance and/or trampling due to bushwalking Commonwealth Listing Advice on Advena campbellii campbellii (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008aev) [Listing Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Ageratina riparia (Mistflower, Mist Flower, Creeping Croftonweed, River Eupatorium, Spreading Mistflower) Commonwealth Listing Advice on Advena campbellii campbellii (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008aev) [Listing Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Solanum mauritianum (Wild Tobacco Tree, Wild Tobacco Bush, Tobacco Tree) Commonwealth Listing Advice on Advena campbellii campbellii (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008aev) [Listing Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation by weeds Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Advena campbellii campbellii (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008aeq) [Conservation Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Rattus exulans (Pacific Rat, Polynesian Rat) Commonwealth Listing Advice on Advena campbellii campbellii (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008aev) [Listing Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Rattus rattus (Black Rat, Ship Rat) Norfolk Island Region Threatened Species Recovery Plan (Director of National Parks (DNP), 2010a) [State Recovery Plan].
Commonwealth Listing Advice on Advena campbellii campbellii (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008aev) [Listing Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation by birds Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Advena campbellii campbellii (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008aeq) [Conservation Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation by rats Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Advena campbellii campbellii (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008aeq) [Conservation Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition, predation and/or habitat degradation Gallus gallus (Red Junglefowl, Domestic Fowl) Norfolk Island Region Threatened Species Recovery Plan (Director of National Parks (DNP), 2010a) [State Recovery Plan].
Commonwealth Listing Advice on Advena campbellii campbellii (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008aev) [Listing Advice].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity) Commonwealth Listing Advice on Advena campbellii campbellii (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008aev) [Listing Advice].
Pollution:Household Sewage and Urban Waste Water:Changes to water quality and quantity due to urban/agricultural runoff and stormwater Commonwealth Listing Advice on Advena campbellii campbellii (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008aev) [Listing Advice].

Australian Museum (n.d.). Australian Museum records.

Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH) (2000). Norfolk Island National Park and Norfolk Island Botanic Garden Plans of Management. Canberra, ACT: DEH.

Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH) (2004i). What the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (EPBC Act) means for Norfolk Islanders. [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/publications/norfolk-island/pubs/norfolk-island.pdf.

Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA) (2009u). Threat abatement plan to reduce the impacts of exotic rodents on biodiversity on Australian offshore islands of less than 100 000 hectares 2009. [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/tap/exotic-rodents.html.

Hyman, I. (2005). Taxonomy, systematics and evolutionary trends in Helicarionida (Mollusca, Pulmonata). Page(s) 1-583. Ph.D. Thesis. University of Sydney.

Iredale, T. (1944). The Land Mollusca of Lord Howe Island. Australian Zoologist. 10(3):299-330.

Neuweger, D., P. White & W.F. Ponder (2001). Land snails from Norfolk Island sites. Atholl Anderson and Peter White, eds. The Prehistoric Archaeology of Norfolk Island, Southwest Pacific. Records of the Australian Museum. 27:115-122. Sydney: Australian Museum.

Ponder, W.F. (1997b). Conservation status, threats and habitat requirements of Australian terrestrial and freshwater mollusca. Memoirs of the Museum of Victoria. 56:421-430.

Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC) (2008aeq). Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Advena campbellii campbellii. [Online]. Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/species/pubs/82807-conservation-advice.pdf.

Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC) (2008aev). Commonwealth Listing Advice on Advena campbellii campbellii. [Online]. Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/species/pubs/82807-listing-advice.pdf.

Varman, R.V.J.P. (1991). Conchological Survey 1983-90: Manuscript of Land Mollusca Fossiliferous and Present Day. Unpublished manuscript.

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This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Advena campbellii in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Wed, 1 Oct 2014 09:36:28 +1000.