In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.
|EPBC Act Listing Status||
as Sterna caspia
Listed migratory - CAMBA as Hydroprogne caspia, JAMBA as Hydroprogne caspia
|Adopted/Made Recovery Plans|
|Policy Statements and Guidelines||
Marine bioregional plan for the North Marine Region (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2012x) [Admin Guideline].
Marine bioregional plan for the South-west Marine Region (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2012z) [Admin Guideline].
Inshore and coastal foraging seabirds - A Vulnerability Assessment for the Great Barrier Reef (Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority (GBRMPA), 2011g) [Admin Guideline].
Seagrass - A Vulnerability Assessment for the Great Barrier Reef (Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority (GBRMPA), 2011k) [Admin Guideline].
Federal Register of
List of Migratory Species (13/07/2000) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000b) [Legislative Instrument] as Hydroprogne caspia.
Declaration under section 248 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of Marine Species (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000c) [Legislative Instrument] as Sterna caspia.
Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - Update of the List of Migratory Species (12/03/2009) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2009q) [Legislative Instrument] as Hydroprogne caspia.
|State Listing Status||
|Scientific name||Hydroprogne caspia |
|Species author||(Pallas, 1770)|
Sterna caspia 
Hydroprogne tschegrava 
This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.
The current conservation status of the Caspian Tern, Hydroprogne caspia, under Australian and State Government legislation and under international conventions, is as follows:
National: Listed as Migratory and Marine under the name Sterna caspia under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999.
Victoria: Listed as Threatened under the name Sterna caspia under the Flora and Fauna Guarantee Act 1988.
International: Listed as Least Concern under the name Sterna caspia on the 2011 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
Listed under the Japan-Australia Migratory Bird Agreement (JAMBA).
Listed under the China-Australia Migratory Bird Agreement (CAMBA).
Scientific name: Hydroprogne caspia
Common name: Caspian Tern
Conventionally accepted as Hydroprogne caspia (Pallas, 1770) (AFD 2010; Christidis & Boles 2008). Previously Sterna caspia.
The largest tern in Australia, the Caspian Tern has long, slender backswept wings and a slightly forked tail. The heavy bill is red with a dusky tip. The sexes are similar, with a body length between 53 and 60 centimetres long, and an average weight of 680 grams (Higgins & Davis 1996).
The Caspian Tern has a white body, with a black and white streaked crown from bill to nape and a short shaggy crest. The mantle and upperwings are grey and the flight feathers are darker. The eye is dark brown and legs are black (Higgins & Davis 1996). When breeding, the crown is black. Immature birds are similar to non-breeding adults. Younger birds are mottled grey and brown (Birds Australia 2010a).
This species is gregarious when breeding, though single nesting does occur. Outside of breeding, the Caspian Tern occurs mostly singly or in small groups. Occasional larger groups of 30 or more birds are seen, often at rich fishing areas or at nightly roost sites, where they may roost with other terns. The species may also aggregate into flocks on passage (migration) (Higgins & Davies 1996).
Within Australia, the Caspian Tern has a widespread occurrence and can be found in both coastal and inland habitat (Higgins & Davies 1996). The following table presents the distribution and breeding sites of the Caspian Tern in Australia:
|Queensland||Widespread in coastal regions from the southern Gulf of Carpentaria to the Torres Strait, and along the eastern coast. Recorded in the western districts, especially the Lake Eyre Drainage Basin, north-west to the Gulf Country north of Mt Isa and Cloncurry, there are also scattered records for central Queensland (Higgins & Davies 1996).||Breeding occurs on the Wellesley Islands, south-east Gulf of Carpentaria; islands off the far north coast, from Bird Island, south to Three Isles; and from islands around Shoalwater Bay, including Pelican Rock, south to Fairfax Island. Inland breeding records occur at Lake Bindegolly and Lake Moondarra (Chatto 2001; Higgins & Davies 1996).|
|New South Wales (NSW)||Widespread east of the Great Divide, mainly in coastal regions, and also in the Riverina and Lower and Upper Western Regions, with occasional records elsewhere (Higgins & Davis 1996).||Breeding is recorded from the Menindee Lakes (Higgins & Davies 1996).|
|Victoria||Occur in most coastal regions, with scattered records throughout the western half of the state, including the Murray Valley (Higgins & Davies 1996).||Only three significant regular breeding colonies are known in Victoria: Corner Inlet, Mud Island in Port Philip Bay and Mallacoota (Minton & Deleyev 2001).|
|Tasmania||Occur on King Island and the Furneaux Group, and the entire mainland Tasmanian coast (Higgins & Davies 1996).||Breeding occurs in Furneaux Group and widespread at scattered sites on the entire coast (Higgins & Davies 1996).|
|South Australia||Occur from Carpenters Rocks to Nuyts Archipelago and Ceduna. They are found inland along the Murray River, with many records in north-eastern South Australia (Higgins & Davies 1996).||Breeding has been recorded along the coast from the Coorong, north-west to Ceduna, and inland at Lake Eyre and Lake Goyder (Higgins & Davies 1996).|
|Western Australia (WA)||Widespread in coastal regions, from the Great Australian Bight to the Dampier Peninsula. There are sparse records on the coasts east of King Sound and in eastern regions (Higgins & Davies 1996).||Breeding occurs from the Recherche Archipelago to Dirk Hartog Island and Faure Island in Shark Bay, and also in the Pilbara region from around Point Cloates to North Turtle Island, and more rarely, in the Kimberley (Chatto 2001; Higgins & Davies 1996).|
|Northern Territory||Scattered records occur around much of the coast, with sparse inland records, but more common on the eastern and western coasts in the non-breeding season (Higgins & Davies 1996).||Breeding has been recorded on Sandy Island off Cobourg Peninsula, Willy's Rocks, an island off Cape Grey, Cool Yal You Ma Island (found off Nicol Island), Amamarrity Island (near Numbulwar) and on the Sir Edward Pellew Group (Chatto 2001; Higgins & Davies 1996).|
The Caspian Tern is found in North America, Europe, Africa, Asia, Australia and New Zealand (Higgins & Davies 1996) and it is generally found most often at large lakes and ocean coasts (Birdlife International 2010a). Its global extent of occurrence is estimated at 6 290 000 km2 (Birdlife International 2010a). Breeding occurs throughout the range, but at widely scattered points. The following table presents known Caspian Tern breeding areas (Higgins & Davis 1996):
|North America||From Washington south to western Mexico and inland in north-west Wyoming and northern Utah, from south Mackenzie and north-east Alberta to southern Ontario and Michigan, in Newfoundland and southern Quebec, and on the Atlantic coast, from Virginia to South Carolina. They also breed in the Gulf of Mexico.|
|Africa||Madagascar, Mozambique, South Africa, Namibia, between Guinea-Bissau and Mauretania, Tunisia, and Egypt.|
|Eurasia||The shores of the Baltic Sea and the northern Gulf of Bothnia, central Turkey, the northern Black Sea, shores of the Caspian Sea, and in the belt from the Aral Sea east through Lake Balkhash to Lake Baikal. Elsewhere in Asia, the species breeds around the Red Sea, Persian Gulf, western India, and northern Sri Lanka, and also in China, from Hainan north to the northern coast of the Yellow Sea, and near Vladivostok.|
Outside of Australia, North American birds are known to migrate to southern coasts of the United States, the West Indies and northernmost South America. European and Asian birds winter in the Asian tropics, and African birds, like Australasian birds, are resident or disperse over short distances (Birdlife International 2010a).
The total global population of the Caspian Tern is estimated to be 240 000–420 000 birds (Birdlife International 2010a).
The Caspian Tern is mostly found in sheltered coastal embayments (harbours, lagoons, inlets, bays, estuaries and river deltas) and those with sandy or muddy margins are preferred. They also occur on near-coastal or inland terrestrial wetlands that are either fresh or saline, especially lakes (including ephemeral lakes), waterholes, reservoirs, rivers and creeks. They also use artificial wetlands, including reservoirs, sewage ponds and saltworks. In offshore areas the species prefers sheltered situations, particularly near islands, and is rarely seen beyond reefs (Higgins & Davis 1996).
Large numbers may shelter along the coast, behind coastal sand-dunes or coastal lakes during rough weather, and have been recorded inland after storms (Higgins & Davies 1996).
The Caspian Tern usually forages in open wetlands, including lakes and rivers. They often prefer sheltered shallow water near the margins, but can also be found in open coastal waters. In coastal inlets they may prefer to forage in tidal channels, or over submerged mudbanks (Higgins & Davis 1996).
The Caspian Tern breeds on variable types of sites including low islands, cays, spits, banks, ridges, beaches of sand or shell, terrestrial wetlands and stony or rocky islets or banks. Nests may be in the open, or among low or sparse vegetation, including herbfield, tussocks, samphire or other prostrate sand-binding plants. They sometimes nest near bushes or other shelter such as large sticks, driftwood, piles of beachcast seagrass. Nests usually consist of a slight hollow scraped in the ground, and is left bare or is lined with grass, a few twigs, seaweed, feathers, small stones and shells. Generally roosting occurs on bare exposed sand or shell spits, banks or shores of coasts, lakes, estuaries, coastal lagoons and inlets. Occasionally they nest among beachcast debris above the high-water mark or at artificial sites, including islands in reservoirs, or on dredge-spoil (Higgins & Davis 1996).
The Caspian Tern is a relatively long-lived bird, with one bird recaptured 14 years and 1 month after banding as a chick (Minton & Deleyev 2001) and a nestling banded at Mt Isa was found dead 16 years after banding close to the original nesting site (Anon. 1990a).
The age of first breeding is four years old, or occasionally three years old (Barlow 1991). Caspian Terns return to their natal areas to breed (Birds Australia 2010a). The species breeds between April–June in the northern Hemisphere with the main breeding period of September–December in the southern Hemisphere, though timing varies in different areas (Higgins & Davis 1996). In southern Australia, breeding has been recorded during July to late February in various years. In northern Australia, there is no apparent fixed breeding season, with eggs recorded in March and May to November (Chatto 2001; Higgins & Davies 1996). On Montebello Island, in the Pilbara Region of WA, breeding is protracted with eggs recorded between late April and August (Burbidge & Fuller 1998).
The nest is a deep scrape on the ground, usually unlined, but occasionally sparsely ringed with debris or scraps of local vegetation such as saltbush or Pigface (Carpobrotus rossii). Both sexes share nest-building, incubation and care of the young (Higgins & Davies 1996). Laying is asynchronous within colonies, with eggs and young at all stages being present in a colony at the one time (Higgins & Davies 1996). Colonies of Caspian Terns can be large dense and monospecific (Caspian Terns only), or single pairs or small groups (2–3 pairs) in large colonies of other bird species (Birdlife International 2010a; Chatto 2001; Fuller et al. 1994).
The clutch size is one–three eggs, usually two, incubation takes 22 days, and chicks fledge in approximately 35 days (Birds Australia 2010a). Clutches in WA are apparently larger on average than those in Victoria and Tasmania, and the Caspian Tern will re-lay after the failure of a nest, at least twice, at the same site or nearby (Higgins & Davies 1996). Breeding success appears to be highly variable, but on average is thought to be moderate (Higgins & Davies 1996; Minton & Deleyev 2001). Chick survival is suggested to favour first hatched chicks, though under good conditions both chicks will fledge successfully (Pierce 1984b; Quinn 1980; Surman 1994). The young grow relatively quickly, fledging within days of achieving 95% of its asymptotic weight, as the wings grow quickly once they erupt from the shafts, whereas the young of other species such as the Sooty Tern (Onychoprion fuscatus) fledge later, as their wings take longer to develop (Hulsman 2002 pers. comm.).
The Caspian Tern's diet consists predominantly of fish (5–25 cm in length) as well as the eggs and young of other birds, carrion, aquatic invertebrates (e.g. crayfish), flying insects and earthworms (Birdlife International 2010a). They forage diurnally, mostly early to mid-morning, patrolling in slow lazy flight, 3–15 m above the water. They usually forage by shallow plunging, hovering up to 15 m above the water, with their bill pointing down, they flex their wings, then dive, fully submerging, and quickly re-emerge. They usually swallow fish in flight, head first. They show some opportunistic behaviour. For example, they have been recorded following cormorants cooperatively hunting Herring (Nematalosa erebi), diving to take fish forced to the surface (Higgins & Davies 1996). The species may forage up to 60 km from their nesting site (Birdlife International 2010a).
In Australia, the Caspian Tern is a resident and present throughout the year at sites where breeding occurs year round and also at some sites where breeding is protracted (e.g. Darwin and WA). At some sites where breeding does not occur, seasonal patterns that are consistent with passage (migration) occurring. For example, numbers at Tuggerah Lakes, NSW, are highest in spring and autumn and lowest during winter. Some dispersion occurs in response to rainfall (Higgins & Davies 1996).
Some birds may move from coastal breeding colonies to inland non-breeding areas. They apparently follow watercourses inland, though their occurrence at small lakes indicates that at least some movement occurs overland (Higgins & Davies 1996).
In some areas, birds breeding on islands apparently move to nearby mainland coasts when they are not breeding or they move between islands (Higgins & Davies 1996). During the non-breeding season, birds are often reported at coastal and some non-coastal areas where they are not recorded breeding e.g. Tinaroo Dam, Atherton Shire, Queensland in March to December (Bravery 1970). When migrating, birds move in family groups suggesting some level of parental investment in young after fledging (Jozefik 1969 cited in Quinn 1980).
Maximum recorded movements
Records of banded birds in eastern Australia show that young and adult birds (past breeding), can disperse widely. From a large breeding colony at Lake Moondarra, near Mt Isa, Queensland, banded birds have been recorded moving east and south as far as Murray Bridge, South Australia - a direct flight of about 1500 km (Birds Australia 2010a). Young birds from Victorian coastal areas have been recorded moving to the coast of southern Queensland, the coast of northern NSW, with the furthest north sighting on the northern end of Fraser Island, 1700 km north-north-east of the banding location at Corner Inlet (Minton & Deleyev 2001; Minton et al. 2002). The maximum distance recorded between natal site and recovery site was about 1900 km from Green Island, Tasmania, to Deception Bay, Queensland (Anon. 1984b).
A nestling banded at Lake Barun, Torei Island, Hu-Han, Russia was recovered dead at Xuan Thuy Reserve, Vietnam, 3432 km south-south-east, being the longest movement for the species (Anon. 2001a). Records from Timor, and regularly, from southern New Guinea during August–April are possibly of birds from Australia (Higgins & Davies 1996).
There are no similar species to the Caspian Tern (Higgins & Davies 1996), and as such indentification guidelines should not be required.
The Caspian Tern is more vulnerable to threats when it is younger. Once it reaches adulthood, birds may live for a considerable time (Minton & Deleyev 2001). The species is at risk from a range of threats including:
- Habitat loss or degradation through the introduction of exotic plant species (Shuford & Craig 2002 cited in Birdlife International 2010a).
- Predation of chicks by Silver Gulls (Larus novaehollandiae), feral Cats (Felis catus) and Dingoes (Canis familiaris) during the breeding period (Minton & Deleyev 2001). Gull predation has been observed at Mud Island, Victoria (Minton & Deleyev 2001).
- Human disturbance and trampling by cattle at breeding sites (Blokpoel & Scharf 1991 cited in Birdlife International 2010a; Shuford & Craig 2002 cited in Birdlife International 2010a). This disturbance causes terns to rise from their nest, leaving eggs and small chicks exposed to predation by gulls (O'Neill & Channells 1997). Human visitation has been observed to have a negative impact on a breeding population in the Great Barrier Reef, Queensland. An increase in human visitation saw Caspian Tern numbers decline in the mid 1980s (O'Neill & Channells 1997).
- Entanglement of young birds with fishing line and nets (Minton & Deleyev 2001).
- Exposure to and bioaccumulation of contaminants (e.g. organochlorines or methylmercury) in fish could be lowering the species' reproductive success (del Hoyo et al 1996; Grasman & Fox 2001).
- Newcastle disease and avian botulism, especially at local high density populations, although these diseases are unlikely to threaten the global population as a whole (Kuiken et al. 2006 cited in Birdlife International 2010a; Shuford & Craig 2002 cited in Birdlife International 2010a).
- Weather events that damage breeding sites, including gusty weather that deposits sand on nests and nest flooding by high tides or storms (Minton 1995; Minton & Deleyev 2001; Minton et al. 2002).
- Sea level rises may also affect the species' breeding habitat (Shuford and Craig 2002, cited in Birdlife International 2010a).
At Hamilton Harbour, at the western end of Lake Ontario, Canada, nesting rafts and artificial islands with sand beaches were created to encourage Caspian Terns and other waterbirds away from an area marked for development. The Caspian Tern successfully colonised and bred on the artificial island (Lampman et al. 1996; Quinn & Sirdivan 1998).
Marine bioregional plans have been developed for four of Australia's marine regions - South-west, North-west, North and Temperate East. Marine Bioregional Plans will help improve the way decisions are made under the EPBC Act, particularly in relation to the protection of marine biodiversity and the sustainable use of our oceans and their resources by our marine-based industries. Marine Bioregional Plans improve our understanding of Australia's oceans by presenting a consolidated picture of the biophysical characteristics and diversity of marine life. They describe the marine environment and conservation values of each marine region, set out broad biodiversity objectives, identify regional priorities and outline strategies and actions to address these priorities. Click here for more information about marine bioregional plans.
The Caspian Tern has been identified as a conservation value in the South-west (DSEWPaC 2012z) and North (DSEWPaC 2012x) marine regions. The "species group report card - seabirds" for the South-west (DSEWPaC 2012z) and North (DSEWPaC 2012x) marine regions provide additional information.
Management documents relevant to the Caspian Tern include:
- The South-West Marine Bioregional Plan (DEWHA 2008a).
The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.
|Threat Class||Threatening Species||References|
|Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Habitat alteration (vegetation, soil, hydrology) due to trampling and grazing by livestock||Sterna caspia in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006xy) [Internet].|
|Biological Resource Use:Fishing and Harvesting Aquatic Resources:Mortality due to capture, entanglement/drowning in nets and fishing lines||Sterna caspia in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006xy) [Internet].|
|Climate Change and Severe Weather:Storms and Flooding:flooding||Sterna caspia in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006xy) [Internet].|
|Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Ecosystem Degradation:Wind damage|
|Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human induced disturbance due to unspecified activities|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation||Felis catus (Cat, House Cat, Domestic Cat)|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Predation, competition, habitat degradation and/or spread of pathogens by introduced species|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Problematic Native Species:Competition and/or predation||Canis lupus dingo (Dingo, Warrigal, New Guinea Singing Dog)|
Anonymous (Anon.) (1984b). Recovery round-up. Corella. 8:25-27.
Anonymous (Anon.) (1990a). Recovery round-up. Corella. 14:139-140.
Anonymous (Anon.) (2001a). Recovery round-up. Corella. 25:39-40.
Australian Faunal Directory (AFD) (2010). Australian Faunal Directory. [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/abrs/online-resources/fauna/afd/home. [Accessed: 30-May-2010].
Barlow, M. (1991). Caspian Tern study - sightings needed. OSNZ News. 59:8.
Birdlife International (2010a). Species Factsheet: Sterna caspia. [Online]. Available from: http://www.birdlife.org.au.
Birds Australia (2010a). Birds in Backyards-Caspian Tern factsheet. [Online]. Available from: http://birdsinbackyards.net/species/Sterna-caspia.
Bravery, J.A. (1970). The birds of Atherton Shire, Queensland. Emu. 70:49-63.
Burbidge, A.A. & P.J. Fuller (1998). Montebello Islands, Pilbara Region, Western Australia. Corella. 22:118--122.
Chatto, R. (2001). The distribution and status of colonial breeding seabirds in the Northern Territory. Parks & Wildlife Commission of the NT Technical Report. 70.
Christidis, L. & W.E. Boles (2008). Systematics and Taxonomy of Australian Birds. Collingwood, Victoria: CSIRO Publishing.
del Hoyo, J., A. Elliott, D.A. Christie & J. Sargatal (1996). Handbook of the Birds of the World: Hoatzin to Auks. Barcelona: Lynx Edicions.
Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA) (2008a). The South-West Marine Bioregional Plan: Bioregional Profile: A Description of the Ecosystems, Conservation Values and Uses of the South-West Marine Region. [Online]. Canberra: DEWHA. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/resource/south-west-marine-bioregional-plan-bioregional-profile-description-ecosystems-conservation.
Fuller, P.J., A.A. Burbidge & R. Owens (1994). Breeding seabirds of the Houtman Abrolhos, Western Australia: 1991-1993. Corella. 18:97-113.
Grasman, K.A. & G.A. Fox (2001). Associations between Altered Immune Function and Organochlorine Contamination in Young Caspian Terns (Sterna caspia) from Lake Huron, 1997-1999. Ecotoxicology. 10 (2):101-114.
Higgins, P.J. & S.J.J.F. Davies, eds (1996). Handbook of Australian, New Zealand and Antarctic Birds. Volume Three - Snipe to Pigeons. Melbourne, Victoria: Oxford University Press.
Hulsman, K. (2002). Personal communication.
Lampman, K.P., M.E. Taylor & H. Blokpoel (1996). Caspian Terns (Sterna caspia) Breed Successfully on a Nesting Raft. Colonial waterbirds. 19 (1):135-138.
Minton, C., & J. Deleyev (2001). Analysis of recoveries of VWSG banded Caspian Terns. Victorian Wader Study Group Bulletin. 24:71-75.
Minton, C., R. Jessop & P. Collins (2002). Tern breeding and banding 2001/2002. Victorian Wader Study Group Bulletin. 25:58-60.
Minton, C.D.T. (1995). Tern banding. Victorian Wader Study Group Bulletin. 19:18-19.
O'Neill, P., & R. Channells (1997). Creek Rock, Great Barrier Reef, Queensland. Corella. 21:90-91.
Pierce, R.J. (1984b). Breeding success of isolated pairs of Caspian Terns in Canterbury. Nortornis. 31:185-190.
Quinn, J.S. (1980). Feeding rates, parental investment, and brood reduction in Caspian terns (Sterna caspia). M.Sc. Thesis. St Catherines, Ontario: Brock University.
Surman, C.A. (1994). Some observations on the timing of breeding of seabirds on Pelsaert Island, Western Australia. Corella. 18:41-43.
This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.
Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Hydroprogne caspia in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Thu, 24 Apr 2014 03:57:11 +1000.