Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Endangered as Caladenia gladiolata
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan required, included on the Commenced List (1/11/2009).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan] as Caladenia gladiolata.
 
Other EPBC Act Plans Threat Abatement Plan for Competition and Land Degradation by Feral Rabbits (Environment Australia (EA), 1999c) [Threat Abatement Plan].
 
Policy Statements and Guidelines Draft survey guidelines for Australia's threatened orchids (Department of the Environment, 2013b) [Admin Guideline].
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument] as Caladenia gladiolata.
 
State Government
    Documents and Websites
SA:Threatened Flora of South Australia Fact Sheet - Bayonet Spider-orchid Caladenia gladiolata. Endangered (South Australian Department for Environment and Heritage (SA DEH), 2010) [Information Sheet].
State Listing Status
SA: Listed as Endangered (National Parks and Wildlife Act 1972 (South Australia): June 2011 list) as Caladenia gladiolata
Scientific name Caladenia gladiolata [8079]
Family Orchidaceae:Orchidales:Liliopsida:Magnoliophyta:Plantae
Species author R.S.Rogers
Infraspecies author  
Reference Transactions and Proceedings of the Royal Society of South Australia 31: 210, P. 26 (1907).
Other names Arachnorchis gladiolata [76236]
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images

Scientific name: Caladenia gladiolata

Common name: Bayonet Spider-orchid

Other common names: Clubbed Spider-orchid

The Bayonet Spider-orchid is conventionally accepted as Caladenia gladiolata (CHAH 2005). The species has previously been referred to as Arachnorchis gladiolata, Calonema gladiolata and Calonemorchis gladiolata. Sometimes genus Caladenia is referred to as Arachnorchis.

The Bayonet Spider-orchid is a terrestrial orchid with a flowering stem 8–20 cm in height, which is green with reddish markings, and strongly scented flowers (smelling spicy or musk-like) (Bates 2011; Bates & Weber 1990). The leaves of the species are more ground-hugging than other species, grow to 6 cm in length and 1 cm in width and are shortly hairy and green. Flowers are usually single, grow to 3–4 cm in width and are in tones of green and red with brown bayonet-shaped clubs on sepals and petals. Segments are 2–4 cm long, green with a red longitudinal stripe, loosely spreading (drooping in larger flowers) and over half of the segments are made up of large, flattened, brown, glandular clubs which emit the fragrance. The labellum (lip) is small, ovate, yellow-green and red in colour and has minutely denticulate margins that have four rows of dark red clubbed calli (Bates 2011; Quarmby 2010).

Herbarium records indicated that this species is endemic to South Australia (SA), where it is now confined to the Mount Lofty and Southern Flinders Ranges in a distribution that extends as far north as Arden Vale via Quorn (Bates 2011).

In 2006, the Bayonet Spider-orchid was thought to consist of an estimated total population of approximately 780 plants occurring in 4 viable subpopulations; three populations in the Mount Remarkable National Park (NP) (including the two largest subpopulations) and the fourth in Scott Creek Conservation Park (CP). The two largest populations increased dramatically in the 1960's following disturbance of their surrounds by bulldozer which effectively reduced competition from native shrubs, however numbers have dropped since management (by thinning out shrub re-growth) ceased in 1980 (Bates 1994; Quarmby 2010).

Historically, a population that was previously observed in the Tothill Range is now presumed extinct since surveying in the 1980s failed to locate individuals (Davies 1986). Stock grazing was reported as the process leading to the extinction of this population (Davies 1995b).

In 1992, the Bayonet Spider-orchid was located in two small subpopulations in Scott Creek CP, totaling 30 and 15 plants (Davies 1992). By 1993, these populations had become very localised, reduced to a total of 15 plants, and were threatened by weed invasion, Rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) browsing, and trampling by orchid enthusiasts (Davies 1995b). Two small populations were also recorded from near Telowie Gorge CP (one consisting of 30–50 plants and the other consisting of 10–20 plants) and one was found at Alligator Gorge, in the lower Flinders Ranges (Bates 2000 pers. comm.; Bates & Bates 2001). The extent of occurrence of the species has declined by at least 69% over the last 50 to 100 years. This is thought to be attributable to habitat clearance, loss, fragmentation and degradation in conjunction with successive drought years (Quarmby 2010).

The Bayonet Spider-orchid is known to grow in South Australian Blue Gum (Eucalyptus leucoxylon)/Sugar Gum (E. cladocalyx) Woodland in the Mount Remarkable NP, and South Australian Blue Gum/Pink Gum (E. fasciculosa) Woodland in Scott Creek CP. Understorey vegetation includes Golden Wattle (Acacia pycnantha), Graceful Wattle (A. gracilifolia), Cough Bush (Cassinia laevis), Scented Bush-pea (Pultenaea graveolens), Dusty Miller (Spyridium parvifolium), Cranberry Heath (Astroloma humifusum) and Common Raspwort (Gonocarpus tetragynus). All extant subpopulations grow on slopes (moderate to steep) in sandy loam soils with scattered shale and quartzite (Quarmby 2010).

The Bayonet Spider-orchid produces a leaf in May or June, a bud is produced from July to September and flowering occurs from September to October. By mid-October the leaf shrivels and pollinated flowers develop into seed capsules that dry and dehisce in November. Tubers are replaced annually (and are dormant over hot summer months), but the species does not always produce flowers every year and has the ability to remain dormant for several consecutive years (especially during drought periods) (Quarmby 2010). The Bayonet Spider-orchid is unable to self pollinate or reproduce vegetatively and therefore relies on insect pollination (Davies 1986). The species is pollinated by a sexually attracted male thynnid wasp (Zaspilothynnus sp.), due to pseudo-pheromones produced by trichomes on the tips of the perianth segments of the flower (Quarmby 2010).

The Bayonet Spider-orchid grows in association with mycorrhizal fungi, which is thought to be integral for seed germination and nutrient absorption (Quarmby 2010).

The Bayonet Spider-orchid is known to form hybrids with the Star Spider-orchid (Caladenia saxatilis), the Sand Spider-orchid (C. flindersica), the Greencomb Spider-orchid (C. tensa), and the Mount Remarkable Spider-orchid (C. woolcockiorum). This occurs particularly following disturbance (Quarmby 2010).

The Bayonet Spider-orchid has flowers with large brown bayonet clubs to the segments and the musky odor that can be recognised by humans from up to 100 metres away. There is, however, known variability of both segment length and club morphology. For example, plants from Scott Creek CP have shorter, lighter coloured clubs than plants from Mount Remarkable NP and plants in the Adelaide Hills tend to have shorter segments (Bates 2011; Quarmby 2010).

The Bayonet Spider-orchid is similar to the Bow-lip Spider-orchid (Caladenia toxochila) in size and colour but the latter has only small glandular clubs on sepals and petals, a broader labellum and the flowers are not scented. It is also similar to the Clubbed Spider-orchid (C. longiclavata) from Western Australia which also has bayonet-shaped clubs but the flowers are not scented (Bates & Weber 1990).

Invasive Weeds

One of the major threats affecting all known subpopulations of Bayonet Spider-orchid, is weed invasion. Weeds threatening sites in Mount Remarkable NP include Salvation Jane (Echium plantagineum), Thread Iris (Gynandriris setifolia), Capeweed (Arctotheca calendula) and Scarlet Pimpernel (Anagallis arvensis). These weeds are believed to be currently localised and in low abundance, but may be spreading from turnout drains and other areas of disturbed soil (such as on road and track verges) (Quarmby 2010).

Threatening weeds in the Scott Park CP include Tree Heath (Erica lusitanica), Olive (Olea europaea), and Boneseed (Chrysanthemoides monilifera ssp. monilifera). These weeds are in low abundance in the area due to ongoing weed control by the Friends of Scott Creek CP (Quarmby 2010).

Herbivory

Historically, herbivory was considered a threat to all subpopulations of Bayonet Spider-orchid, however monitoring of the four sites indicated that herbivory has decreased significantly since 1999. From 26% of plants being grazed at the Mount Remarkable NP in 1999, herbivory was found to be less than 3% from 2000 to 2003. This decrease is suspected to be due to a reduction in Rabbit numbers. Continuing herbivory at the site is also attributable to kangaroos (Macropodidae sp.). In addition, the subpopulation at Scott Creek CP had 46% of plants being grazed in 2000, but was down to less than 4% in 2001 to 2004. This decrease is attributed to caging of all plants carried out in 2001, and any continuing herbivory is said to be caused by insect damage (Quarmby 2010).

Potential Threats

Low levels of pollination are considered a potential threat to the species, as annual monitoring indicates pollination does not exceed 8% a year at Scott Creek CP. Subpopulations at Mount Remarkable NP have higher rates (less than 20% per year) but are still considered low (Quarmby 2010).

Road and track management activities that could threaten plants at Mount Remarkable NP sites include grading, constructing turnout drains and vegetation pruning. This threat is due to both direct disturbance that could be caused to the plants, and due to the increased risk of weed invasion associated with such activities (Quarmby 2010).

Incorrect fire regimes are also a potential threat to the species. Burning and slashing activities undertaken as part of fire management during the non-tuber life cycle stages of the species could destroy or damage plants. Subpopulations occurring in Mount Remarkable NP are known to be near fire access tracks and water filling points and are therefore also potentially threatened by direct implementation of the management procedures (such as vehicular damage) (Quarmby 2010).

The small size and fragmented, isolated nature of the Scott Creek CP population makes it far more vulnerable to loss of genetic diversity due to inbreeding (Quarmby 2010).

The Bayonet Spider-orchid is thought to be potentially under high threat from Phytophthora (water moulds) infection (Velzeboer et al. 2005 cited in Quarmby 2010), with 18% of subpopulations occurring within a Moderate Risk Zone and 78% occurring within a Low Risk Zone for Phytophthora (Quarmby 2010).

Finally, the species is potentially threatened by illegal collection by enthusiasts, particularly the subpopulation at Scott Creek CP (Quarmby 2010).

The previous recovery actions implemented for the Bayonet Spider-orchid have been successful in increasing knowledge of the species (especially in relation to its current distribution and population size) and reducing herbivory at Scott Creek CP (due to caging of plants). Hand pollination, seed redispersal and translocation efforts have had only limited success, and all populations are believed to have undergone a decline over the last 20 years. Prevailing drought conditions may have caused some of the reduction in flowering plants and have made it difficult to assess effectiveness of recovery actions (Quarmby 2010).

The following is a summary of recovery actions that were implemented for the Bayonet Spider-orchid prior to 2007 (Quarmby 2010).

  • Members of the Native Orchid Society of South Australia (NOSSA) artificially pollinated flowers at Scott Park CP from 1988 to 1994, and a proportion of flowers have been hand-pollinated each year since 2000.
  • A permanent quadrant was established at one of the subpopulations at Mount Remarkable NP in 1992 which has been monitored in subsequent years (Davies 1992 cited in Quarmby 2010).
  • Collection of seed from Scott Creek CP and re-dispersal around parent plants occurred from 1993 to 1996.
  • Hand pollination of a proportion of flowers in a subpopulation at Mount Remarkable NP occurred from 1993 to 1995.
  • In vitro cultivation of Bayonet Spider-orchid seedlings (with seed from Scott Creek CP) was carried out. The seedlings were then translocated into Onkaparinga NP in 1994 (none of which have survived).
  • Biannual recovery team meetings have been held since 2000.
  • A search for the species in Mount Brown CP was undertaken in 1994.
  • Searches of five historic locations were undertaken between 2000 and 2002.
  • Annual population monitoring and surveys of all sub-populations have been undertaken since 2000. Genetic analysis of plants from Mount Remarkable NP and Scott Creek CP, using allozyme electrophoresis, was undertaken in 2000 to determine whether subpopulations are taxonomically similar. The results were positive (Bickerton & Adams 2001 cited in Quarmby 2010).
  • A fact sheet was prepared for the species in 2001 (DEH 2001[c] cited in Quarmby 2010), and has been publicly disseminated.
  • Rabbit-proof cages were erected around all known plants in Scott Creek CP in 2001. All of these cages have been repaired or replaced since 2001.
  • A trial was established in 2001 to investigate the response of the species to various types of disturbance, including soil disturbance, fire, and vegetation clearance in situ. This site has since been monitored on an annual basis.
  • A translocation proposal was written for the species (Bickerton 2002[d] cited in Quarmby 2010) and an attempt has been made to re-introduce seedlings cultivated symbiotically in vitro into the subpopulation at Scott Creek CP. Approximately 20 seedlings were successfully raised symbiotically, but were never transferred to the site.
  • A draft recovery plan was prepared for the species in 2002 (Bickerton 2002[a] cited in Quarmby 2010), but was not endorsed under the EPBC Act.

Management documents for the Bayonet Spider-orchid can be found at the start of this profile. Other documents relavent to the species include:

  • Threat abatement plan for disease in natural ecosystems caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi (DEWHA 2009w).

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Agriculture and Aquaculture:Habitat degradation caused by intensive grazing/feedlots Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Grazing pressures and associated habitat changes Caladenia gladiolata in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006dc) [Internet].
Biological Resource Use:Gathering Terrestrial Plants:Illegal collection Caladenia gladiolata in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006dc) [Internet].
Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Gathering Terrestrial Plants:Recreational harvest Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Climate Change and Severe Weather:Climate change altering atmosphere/hydrosphere temperatures, rainfall patterns and/or frequency of severe weather events Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].
Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Indirect Ecosystem Effects:Restricted geographical distribution (area of occupancy and extent of occurrence) Caladenia gladiolata in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006dc) [Internet].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:inappropriate conservation measures Caladenia gladiolata in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006dc) [Internet].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Lepus capensis (Brown Hare) Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Oryctolagus cuniculus (Rabbit, European Rabbit) Recovery Plan for Caladenia gladiolata the Bayonet spider orchid (Bates, R.J., 1994) [Cwlth Action Plan].
Caladenia gladiolata in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006dc) [Internet].
Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Gynandriris setifolia (Thread Iris) Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Echium plantagineum (Paterson's Curse, Salvation Jane, Purple Bugloss, Blue Echium, Blueweed, Blue Weed, Lady Campbell Weed, Plantain-leaf Viper's Bugloss, Purple Echium, Riverina Bluebell) Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Anagallis arvensis (Scarlet Pimpernel, Blue Pimpernel, Pimpernel) Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Erica arborea (Tree Heath) Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Chrysanthemoides monilifera (Bitou Bush, Boneseed) Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Arctotheca calendula (Capeweed, Cape Dandelion) Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Olea europaea subsp. cuspidata (Olive, African Olive, Wild Olive) Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation by weeds Caladenia gladiolata in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006dc) [Internet].
Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Vegetation and habitat loss caused by dieback Phytophthora cinnamomi Threat abatement plan for disease in natural ecosystems caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2009w) [Threat Abatement Plan].
Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Problematic Native Species:Competition, predation and/or habitat degradation by kangaroos and wallabies Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity) Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate prescribed regimes and/or vegetation management to control fire regimes Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].
Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Declining genetic diversity Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Lack of pollination Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Low numbers of individuals Species threats data recorded on the SPRAT database between 1999-2002 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2012i) [Database].
Caladenia gladiolata in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006dc) [Internet].
Transportation and Service Corridors:Roads and Railroads:Development and/or maintenance of roads Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].

Bates, R.J (2011). South Australia's Native Orchids. Compact disc. Native Orchid Society of South Australia.

Bates, R.J. (1994). Recovery Plan for Caladenia gladiolata the Bayonet spider orchid. Adelaide: SA DELM.

Bates, R.J. (2000). Personal Communication.

Bates, R.J. & J.Z. Weber (1990). Orchids of South Australia. Adelaide: Flora and Fauna of South Australia Handbooks Committee.

Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria (CHAH) (2005). Australian Plant Census. [Online]. Australian National Herbarium, Australian National Botanic Gardens and Australian Biological Resources Study . Available from: http://www.anbg.gov.au/chah/apc/.

Davies, R.J.P. (1986). Threatened Plant Species of the Mt Lofty Ranges and Kangaroo Island Regions of South Australia. Conservation Council of South Australia.

Davies, R.J.P. (1992). Threatened Plants of the Murray Mallee, Mt Lofty Range and Kangaroo Island Region of South Australia. Conservation Council of South Australia.

Davies, R.J.P. (1995b). Threatened Plant Species Management in National Parks and Wildlife Act Reserves in South Australia. Athelstone, South Australia: Black Hill Flora Centre, Botanic Gardens of Adelaide.

Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA) (2009w). Threat abatement plan for disease in natural ecosystems caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi. [Online]. Canberra; ACT: Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/tap/phytophthora.html.

Environment Australia (EA) (1999c). Threat Abatement Plan for Competition and Land Degradation by Feral Rabbits. [Online]. Biodiversity Group, Environment Australia. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/tap/rabbits08.html.

Quarmby, J.P. (2010). Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia. [Online]. Adelaide, South Australia: Department of Environment and Natural Resources. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/recovery/lofty-block-orchids.html.

South Australian Department for Environment and Heritage (SA DEH) (2010). Threatened Flora of South Australia Fact Sheet - Bayonet Spider-orchid Caladenia gladiolata. Endangered. [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.sa.gov.au/biodiversity/pdfs/bayonet.pdf.

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This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Caladenia gladiolata in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Fri, 29 Aug 2014 17:29:38 +1000.