Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Critically Endangered
Listing and Conservation Advices Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Gastrolobium diabolophyllum (Bodallin Poison) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009ac) [Conservation Advice].
 
Commonwealth Listing Advice on Gastrolobium diabolophyllum (Bodallin Poison) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009ad) [Listing Advice].
 
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan not required, the conservation advice for the species provides sufficient direction to implement priority actions and mitigate against threats at this time (26/05/2009).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Inclusion of species in the list of threatened species under section 178 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (77) (26/05/2009) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2009k) [Legislative Instrument].
 
State Listing Status
WA: Listed as Critically Endangered (Wildlife Conservation Act 1950 (Western Australia): September 2013 list)
Scientific name Gastrolobium diabolophyllum [78384]
Family Fabaceae:Fabales:Magnoliopsida:Magnoliophyta:Plantae
Species author G.Chandler, Crisp & R.J.Bayer
Infraspecies author  
Reference Chandler, G.R., Crisp, M.D., Cayzer, L.W. & Bayer, R.J. (2002) Australian Systematic Botany 15(5): 653, figs 15, 62 (map)
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images
http://florabase.calm.wa.gov.au/browse/profile/19113

Scientific name: Gastrolobium diabolophyllum

Common name: Bodallin Poison


The species is conventionally accepted as Gastrolobium diabolophyllum (Bodallin Poison) (Chandler et al. 2002).

The Bodallin Poison is an erect, open shrub that can grow to 1.5 m in height (Western Australian Herbarium 2005). The leaves have a small stalk and are a triangular shape with concave edges that end in distinctly sharp points. The flowers are a typical pea-flower shape, with a yellowish standard petal and orange-reddish wings and keel (Chandler et al. 2002).

Like a number of other species of Gastrolobium, this species accumulates monofluoracetic acid, the key ingredient of the poison known commonly as 1080, which makes it highly toxic to introduced animals. Because of this, the species has been given the common name Bodallin Poison (TSSC 2009ad).

The Bodallin Poison is endemic to Western Australia, and is known from two subpopulations near the town of Bodallin, approximately 290 km east-northeast of Perth (TSSC 2009ad).

The species' extent of occurrence is calculated to be approximately 10 kmē (WA DEC 2008). There is no data to indicate a decline in extent of occurrence of this very restricted species (WA CALM 2005b).

The area of occupancy is unknown but is thought to be less than the extent of occurrence (ie., <10 kmē) (WA DEC 2008).

The Bodallin Poison is considered to be severely fragmented because the two known supbopulations are isolated and separated by a distance of approximately 10 km with cleared agricultural land between them (WA CALM 2005b).

There are no translocated populations for this species, however, a limited amount of seed material has been collected and is stored at the Western Australian Threatened Flora Seed Centre (TFSC). This seed may, at some time in the future, be used for ex situ plant propagation (TFSC 2005).

The Bodallin Poison has been well surveyed, by Western Australia Department of Conservation and Land Management (WA CALM), between 1982 and 2008.

Surveys of known subpopulations (WA DEC 2008):


Sub-population Tenure Date Surveyed Adults Number of Seedlings Condition Survey type
1 Shire Road Reserve & private property 12/09/2007 236 1   Field Survey
1 Shire Road Reserve & private property 10/10/2006 238     Field Survey
1 Shire Road Reserve 20/12/2001       Seed Collection & Herbarium Record
1 Shire Road Reserve 29/10/2001 130   Healthy Field Survey
1 Shire Road Reserve 4/10/2000 158 34 Healthy Field Survey
1 Shire Road Reserve 23/09/1999 158 34 Healthy Field survey & Herbarium collection
1 Shire Road Reserve 12/09/1999       Herbarium Collection
Unknown Shire Road Reserve 23/02/1998       DNA voucher & Herbarium collection
2 Nature Reserve & private Property 12/09/2008 2855     Field Survey
2 Nature Reserve & private Property 13/10/2006 66     Field Survey
2 Nature Reserve 15/09/1982       Herbarium Specimen



The total population size of the Bodallin Poison is approximately 3000 mature plants (WA DEC 2008).

The species is known from two subpopulations. One subpopulation, of about 2880 adult plants, occurs partly on a Shire road reserve and partly on private property. The other subpopulation, of about 230 adult plants, occurs partly within a Western Australian Department of Environment and Conservation (WA DEC) managed nature reserve and partly on private property (TSSC 2009ad).

There is no quantitative data available to assess the past rate of decline in population numbers (WA CALM 2005b). In 2006, the total population size of the species was estimated to be approximately 300 mature plants. However, the discovery of additional plants, due to greater survey effort in 2008, has increased the number to approximately 3000 mature plants (TSSC 2009ad).

The species is known from approximately 3000 mature plants across two subpopulations and both subpopulations would be considered important for the species recovery and long term survival (WA DEC 2008).

One subpopulation of the Bodallin Poison occurs partly on a Shire Road Reserve and the other subpopulation occurs partly within a WA DEC managed (un-named) nature reserve. The species is located within the Avon Natural Resource Management Region (TSSC 2009ad).

The Bodallin Poison grows in yellow-brown sand over laterite on broadly undulating dunes in open mallee shrublands amongst Eucalyptus salmonophloia (Salmon Gum), Acacia, Allocasuarina, Gastrolobium, and Banksia species (Chandler et al. 2002; Western Australian Herbarium 2005).

The Bodallin Poison's ages of sexual maturity, life expectancy and natural mortality are unknown.

The Bodallin Poison flowers in September (WA Herbarium 2005) and the fruiting period is in October (Chandler et al. 2002). Little is known about the levels of flower and fruit production of this species, although surveys of subpopulation 1 (Shire Road Reserve) indicate that it flowers well and sets fruit. Very limited germination trials of seeds collected by the TFSC indicate that the seed is viable and germinates well (TFSC 2005). Insects have been observed visiting the flowers of the species and its floral structure suggests that it is insect pollinated (WA CALM 2005b). All species of Gastrolobium produce dry, dehiscent legumes, mostly with two or more seeds (Chandler et al. 2002).

The Bodallin Poison is almost impossible to confuse with any other species of Gastrolobium. Superficially it resembles some juvenile forms of G. polystachyum, but Bodallin Poison is distinguished by the more robust leaves that are strongly recurved and have three pungent points, whereas the juvenile form of G. polystachyum has weak leaves that are not recurved and are unarmed (Chandler et al. 2002).

Due to the species' small flower size and growth habit, detectability would be optimised by surveying during the flowering period (September) (WA CALM 2005b).

The main threats to the Bodallin Poison are road and firebreak maintenance works, such as vegetation slashing, grading, clearing, widening, and soil compaction by vehicle movement. Several of these actions also encourage weed invasion which is considered a potential threat to the species (WA CALM 2005b). However, the Bodallin Poison may be a disturbance opportunist and require a degree of disturbance to regenerate from soil stored seed (TSSC 2009ac).

Minister's Reasons for Recovery Plan Decision
A recovery plan for this species is not considered to be necessary as the conservation advice for the species provides sufficient direction to implement priority actions and mitigate against threats at this time (2009).

Recovery Actions
The Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Gastrolobium diabolophyllum (Bodallin Poison) (TSSC 2009ac) outlines the following research priorities:

  • Design and implement a monitoring program for the species.
  • More precisely assess population size, geographic distribution and ecological requirements, including:
    • factors that trigger or influence germination and recruitment;
    • factors that influence the levels of flower and fruit production for the species;
    • the species' response to disturbance; and
    • other relevant mortality and morphological data for the species.
  • Undertake survey work in suitable habitat and potential habitat to locate any additional subpopulations of the Bodallin Poison (particularly during the September to October flowering and fruiting period).
  • Undertake seed germination and/or vegetative propagation trials to determine the requirement for successful establishment.

In addition, The Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Gastrolobium diabolophyllum (Bodallin Poison) (TSSC 2009ac) outlines the following priority actions:

  • Ensure road widening and maintenance activities, in areas where the Bodallin Poison occurs, do not adversely impact on the known subpopulations.
  • Ensure chemicals or other mechanisms used to eradicate weeds do not have a significant adverse impact on the species.
  • Monitor the progress of recovery, including the effectiveness of management actions and the need to adapt them if necessary.
  • Investigate formal conservation arrangements such as the use of covenants, conservation agreements or inclusion in reserve tenure.
  • Identify and remove weeds in the local area, which could become a threat to the Bodallin Poison, using appropriate methods.
  • Manage sites to prevent introduction of invasive weeds, which could become a threat to the Bodallin Poison, using appropriate methods.
  • Raise awareness of the Bodallin Poison within the local community through site visits, signage (eg. Declared Rare Flora markers), and fact sheets/information brochures.
  • Maintain liaison with private landholders and land managers of land on which populations occur.
  • Undertake appropriate seed or germplasm collection and storage.
  • Investigate options for linking, enhancing or establishing additional populations.
  • Implement national translocation protocols (Vallee et al. 2004) if establishing additional populations is considered necessary and feasible.

Chandler and colleagues (2002) published a taxonomic review of Gastrolobium.

The Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Gastrolobium diabolophyllum (Bodallin Poison) (TSSC 2009ac) provides a brief biological overview and management recommendations.

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Agriculture and Aquaculture:Land clearing, habitat fragmentation and/or habitat degradation Commonwealth Listing Advice on Gastrolobium diabolophyllum (Bodallin Poison) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009ad) [Listing Advice].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Habitat Shifting and Alteration:Habitat loss, modification and/or degradation Commonwealth Listing Advice on Gastrolobium diabolophyllum (Bodallin Poison) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009ad) [Listing Advice].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:inappropriate conservation measures Commonwealth Listing Advice on Gastrolobium diabolophyllum (Bodallin Poison) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009ad) [Listing Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation by weeds Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Gastrolobium diabolophyllum (Bodallin Poison) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009ac) [Conservation Advice].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Habitat degradation caused by firebreak construction and/or maintenance Commonwealth Listing Advice on Gastrolobium diabolophyllum (Bodallin Poison) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009ad) [Listing Advice].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity) Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Gastrolobium diabolophyllum (Bodallin Poison) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009ac) [Conservation Advice].
Transportation and Service Corridors:Roads and Railroads:Development and/or maintenance of roads Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Gastrolobium diabolophyllum (Bodallin Poison) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009ac) [Conservation Advice].
Commonwealth Listing Advice on Gastrolobium diabolophyllum (Bodallin Poison) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009ad) [Listing Advice].

Chandler, G.T., M.D. Crisp, L.W. Cayzer & R.J. Bayer (2002). Monograph of Gastrolobium (Fabaceae: Mirbelieae). Australian Systematic Botany. 15(5):619-739. Collingwood, Victoria: CSIRO Publishing.

Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC) (2009ac). Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Gastrolobium diabolophyllum (Bodallin Poison). [Online]. Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/species/pubs/78384-conservation-advice.pdf.

Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC) (2009ad). Commonwealth Listing Advice on Gastrolobium diabolophyllum (Bodallin Poison). [Online]. Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/species/pubs/78384-listing-advice.pdf.

Vallee, L., T. Hogbin, L. Monks, B. Makinson, M. Matthes & M. Rossetto (2004). Guidelines for the translocation of threatened plants in Australia - Second Edition. Canberra, ACT: Australian Network for Plant Conservation.

Western Australia Department of Conservation and Land Management (WA CALM) (2005b). Records held in the CALM's Declared Flora Database and rare flora files. Perth, Western Australia: WA CALM.

Western Australia Department of Environment and Conservation (WA DEC) (2008). Records held in DEC's Declared Flora Database and rare flora files. Perth, Western Australia: WA DEC.

Western Australian Herbarium (2005). FloraBase - The Western Australian Flora. [Online]. Perth, Western Australia: Department of Conservation and Land Management. Available from: http://florabase.calm.wa.gov.au/.

Western Australian Threatened Flora Seed Centre (TFSC) (2005). Records held in CALM's Threatened Flora Seed Centre database. Western Australia, Department of Conservation and Land Management.

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This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Gastrolobium diabolophyllum in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Fri, 19 Sep 2014 04:30:04 +1000.