In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.
|EPBC Act Listing Status||Listed as Vulnerable as Solanum karsense|
|Listing and Conservation Advices||
Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Solanum karsense (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008ut) [Conservation Advice].
Commonwealth Listing Advice on Solanum karsense (Menindee Nightshade) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2012aj) [Listing Advice].
|Recovery Plan Decision||
Recovery Plan not required, included on the Not Commenced List (1/11/2009).
|Adopted/Made Recovery Plans|
Federal Register of
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument] as Solanum karsense.
Documents and Websites
|State Listing Status||
|Scientific name||Solanum karsense |
|Reference||Flora of Australia 29 (1982) 148|
|Other names||Solanum karsensis |
This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.
Solanum karsense (Menindee Nightshade) is a perennial, grey-green, hairy herb or sub-shrub that grows to 300 cm high and is densely covered with pale, star-shaped hairs. It has firm, pale spines that grow to 15 mm in length and are scattered along the stems. The leaves are rounded, 1.5-3 cm long, 1-2 cm wide, shallowly lobed along the edges and densely hairy. The flowers are purple, shallowly bell-shaped and 20-35 mm in diameter. The fruit are berries, about 7 mm in diameter (Ayers et al. 1996; Purdie et al. 1982; Symon 1981).
The Menindee Nightshade occurs on the New South Wales south-western plains and just over the South Australian border, 100 km north of the Murray River (NSW OEH 2012q). Most known occurrences are within an area of Broken Hill, Wilcannia and Ivanhoe in the north, and Wentworth and Balranald in the south (NSW SC 2000a).
Areas in which this species occurs can be generally defined as habitat connected to the Darling and Lachlan Rivers and their tributaries (NSW SC 2000a). It is known to occur in Kinchega National Park and another 10 locations outside of this area. Individuals that have been recorded outside of river systems, are likely to be as a result of good rainfall, livestock introduction or disturbance (NSW SC 2000a).
It is known to be reserved in Kinchega National Park (Auld & Denham 2001) and Nearie Lake Nature Reserve (NSW OEH 2012q).
The Menindee Nightshade is considered common to locally abundant in most populations, ranging from several hundred plants in small colonies to large spreading colonies found over areas of up to 120 km2 (NSW OEH 2012q).
The Menindee Nightshade exhibits extreme natural fluctuations in response to wet-dry cycles. During dry periods, this species dies back and is only present in the soil seed bank (Auld & Denham 2001). During wet periods, seed germinantes and large spreading colonies may establish where the species is 'common' to 'locally abundant' (NSW OEH 2012q).
The Menindee Nightshade is largely confined to floodplain lakes, depressions and Black Box (Eucalyptus largiflorens) swamps (Auld & Denham 2001). This species is found in heavy grey clays with a highly self-mulching surface and also on sandy floodplains and ridges and in calcareous soild, red sands, red-brown earths and loamy soils. The vegetation associated with this species includes Saltbush and Bluebush plains and Mallee associations (NSW OEH 2012q)
The soil stored seed of the Menindee Nightshade germinates after flood waters recede or following local rain events (Auld & Denham 2001). Juvenile plants require 3-6 months to mature, flower and set seed, after which the population declines with only the soil seedbank remaining (Auld & Denham 2001). During dry periods, this species dies back and persists in the soil seed bank (Auld & Denham 2001).
This species tolerates disturbance and will often appear after such activities as grading, ploughing and flooding for irrigation (NSW OEH 2012q).
The Menindee Nightshade may be clonal (Purdie et al. 1982) and has spreading lateral roots which can produce new shoots (Monaghan & Brownlee 1979 cited in Auld & Denham 2001).
The main threat to the Menindee Nightshade is that much of the original dry lake habitat has been converted to lake bed cropping. However, the margins of original suitable habitat (eg. outside of cropped areas) are still occupied by this species (NSW OEH 2012q).
River flow regulation (prolonged flooding, loss of water flows) and alienation of floodplains are significant threats to this species as it relies on variable flow regimes (Ayers et al. 1996).
Potential threats to this species include grazing, salinity and ephemeral weeds (Auld & Denham 2001).
Activities that can be carried out to assist this species include (NSW OEH 2012q):
- Undertaking studies to determine the disturbance tolerance of this species and, once this is known, assess conservation requirements.
- Undertaking surveys following appropriate conditions to determine extent of distribution and total populations size.
The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.
|Threat Class||Threatening Species||References|
|Agriculture and Aquaculture:Agriculture and Aquaculture:Land clearing, habitat fragmentation and/or habitat degradation||Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Solanum karsense (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008ut) [Conservation Advice].|
|Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Grazing pressures and associated habitat changes||Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Solanum karsense (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008ut) [Conservation Advice].|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation||Oryctolagus cuniculus (Rabbit, European Rabbit)||Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Solanum karsense (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008ut) [Conservation Advice].|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation by weeds||Solanum karsense in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006up) [Internet].|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, tramping, competition and/or habitat degradation||Capra hircus (Goat)|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Problematic Native Species:Competition, predation and/or habitat degradation by kangaroos and wallabies|
|Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Alteration of hydrological regimes and water quality||Solanum karsense in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006up) [Internet].|
|Transportation and Service Corridors:Transportation and Service Corridors:Road and rail maintenance works||Solanum karsense in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006up) [Internet].|
Auld, T.D. & A.J. Denham (2001). Flora conservation issues at Kinchega National Park, western NSW. Cunninghamia. 7:27-41. Royal Botanic Gardens Sydney.
Ayers, D., S. Nash & K. Baggett (Eds) (1996). Threatened Species of Western New South Wales. Hurstville: NSW NPWS.
Environment Australia (EA) (1999c). Threat Abatement Plan for Competition and Land Degradation by Feral Rabbits. [Online]. Biodiversity Group, Environment Australia. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/tap/rabbits08.html.
Environment Australia (EA) (1999d). Threat Abatement Plan for Competition and Land Degradation by Feral Goats. [Online]. Biodiversity Group, Environment Australia. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/tap/goats08.html.
NSW Office of Environment and Heritage (NSW OEH) (2012q). Menindee Nightshade - profile. [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/threatenedspeciesapp/profile.aspx?id=10762.
NSW Scientific Committee (NSW SC) (2000a). Information to the TSC listed Vulnerable species Solanum Karsense. Unpublished report.
Purdie, R.W., D.E. Symon & L. Haegi (1982). Flora of Australia vol. 29- Solanaceae. Australian Government Printer, Canberra.
Symon, D.E. (1981). A Revision of the genus Solanum in Australia. Journal of the Adelaide Botanic Gardens. 4:1-367.
Threatened Species Scientific Committee (2008ut). Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Solanum karsense. [Online]. Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/species/pubs/7776-conservation-advice.pdf.
This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.
Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Solanum karsense in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Mon, 22 Sep 2014 03:40:26 +1000.