Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Critically Endangered
Listing and Conservation Advices Commonwealth Listing Advice on Calectasia cyanea (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2006ci) [Listing Advice].
 
Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Calectasia cyanea (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008zh) [Conservation Advice].
 
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan required, included on the Commenced List (1/11/2009).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans National recovery plan for the Blue Tinsel Lily (Calectasia cyanea) (Department of Environment and Conservation, 2009h) [Recovery Plan].
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Inclusion of species in the list of threatened species under section 178 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (45) (14/08/2006) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2006j) [Legislative Instrument].
 
State Listing Status
WA: Listed as Critically Endangered (Wildlife Conservation Act 1950 (Western Australia): September 2013 list)
Scientific name Calectasia cyanea [7669]
Family Xanthorrhoeaceae:Liliales:Liliopsida:Magnoliophyta:Plantae
Species author R.Br.
Infraspecies author  
Reference Prodromus Florae Novae Hollandiae (27 Mar. 1810) 264.
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images

Scientific name: Calectasia cyanea (Brown 1810).
Common name: Blue Tinsel Lily (Seaton 1965; WA Herbarium 2005).

The Blue Tinsel Lily is a rhizomatous, clump forming, woody perennial herb growing between 0.1 m and 0.6 m high to 0.3 m wide. Blue Tinsel Lily flowers are vivid blue/purple, anthers are red and yellow (WA Herbarium 2005).

The Blue Tinsel Lily is endemic to Western Australia and is known from a single population approximately 10 km south of Albany (CALM 2005).

The species was incorrectly recorded in the past as being widespread throughout south-west Western Australia. However, this was due to misidentification (the species was previously mistaken for C. narragara) and it is now known that true Blue Tinsel Lily (Calectasia cyanea) is confined to a small area south of Albany (CALM 2005).

The current extent of occurrence of the Blue Tinsel Lily is 0.02 km² (CALM 2005).

There is little data to indicate current decline in the extent of occurrence of this very restricted species. The original extent of occurrence is unknown, but several collections made by early botanists were unlikely to have been collected at the same place as the current population (S.Barrett 2005, pers. comm.). Earlier specimens are believed to have been found in the vicinity of Albany, although no exact details on these locations are available (CALM 2005).

The area of occupancy of the Blue Tinsel Lily is 0.02 km². There is little data to indicate decline in area of occupancy of this restricted species (CALM 2005).

As the species is only currently known from a single population within the Torndirrup National Park, it cannot be considered to have a fragmented distribution (CALM 2005).

There are no translocated populations of this species. A limited amount of seed material has been collected and is currently stored at the West Australian Threatened Flora Seed Centre (TFSC 2005).

The following table outlines the survey records of the single known population of the Blue Tinsel Lily (CALM 2005):

Survey date No. mature plants No. juvenile plants Condition
28/8/04 50+ 20+ Healthy, plants in flower or buds
4/12/03 60+ - -
17/9/03 56+ 13 3 dead plants, otherwise moderate

Surveys have been conducted in an attempt to locate additional populations. Details are as follows(CALM 2005):

  • A CALM flora conservation officer at Albany, undertook surveys in the area of the known population, at Sharp Point (Eclipse Island Road), and towards the coast on 3/1/02. Only two adult plants could be located, plus ten juveniles had recruited after a fire in 1997 were found at the known population.
  • Surveys were also conducted further west of the known population site on laterite ridges, plus West Cape Howe (except Lake William). In addition, the Mutton Bird area was also surveyed. Surveys were carried out on the 3/1/02. These sites are beyond Torndirrup National Park, further west along the coast from Albany.
  • The CALM Officer also located only C. grandiflora in Gull Rock during surveys undertaken in December 2001. (Gull Rock is north east of Torndirrup approximately 20km across King George Sound)
  • A CALM officer also undertook additional surveys of other suitable habitat areas, within Torndirrup National Park, on the 25/1/02, but without success. Further surveys were conducted in 2003 and to a lesser extent in 2004 (Barrett 2005 pers. comm.).
  • Additional extensive surveys at Torndirrup National Park, Sandpatch, West Cape Howe, Two Peoples Bay and Gull Rock in October / November 2002 and Torndirrup National Park and Gull Rock in September 2003 have again failed to locate any additional populations. These sites are within the Albany region.

The total population of the Blue Tinsel Lily is estimated to be 70 individuals. Of these, 20 are juveniles (CALM 2005).

The Blue Tinsel Lily was recorded in January 2002 as having a substantially smaller population. Actual numbers of known individuals were two mature plants and 10 seedlings that were observed to be in a healthy condition and believed to have been recruited after a fire in 1997 (CALM 2005).

In September 2003, population size was estimated as 56+ adults and in December 2003 60+ adults (CALM 2005).

In August 2004, the population was recorded to have declined to 50+ mature plants and 20 juveniles all of which were assessed to be in a healthy condition. This variation in population numbers may to be due to slight discrepancies in recording rather than changes in population size, although district staff have indicated that there has been some decline in the number of mature individuals (CALM 2005).

The Blue Tinsel Lily is a fire sensitive obligate seeder and therefore the population structure will change after fire. Plant numbers have been observed to decrease with time after fire. Knowledge of past fire regimes is very limited as per most locations in the south-west of Western Australia. Approximately 50% of juveniles flowered in 2004 and were last burnt in 1997, thus implying a juvenile period of approximately seven years. It is generally thought that a time period at least twice the length of the juvenile period (age of first flowering) would be required to develop an adequate seed bank. This would infer that at least a 14 year fire interval would be required for this species (CALM 2005).

The generation length of this species is largely unknown, although it has been noted that this species is very slow growing with three year old seedlings only being 3 to 6 cm tall (Barrett & Dixon 2001). The closely related species C. gracilis and C. pignattiana are thought to take three to five years to flower and presumably a substantially longer period to attain maximum reproductive potential (Barrett & Dixon 2001).

The single known population of the Blue Tinsel Lily occurs in the Torndirrup National Park and is comprehensively managed by CALM (CALM 2005).

The Blue Tinsel Lily occurs in heathland on flat to gentle slope growing in white sand or laterite gravel with the parent soil material being laterite (CALM 2005).
Species associated with the Blue Tinsel Lily include: Allocasuarina humilis, Banksia grandis, Adenanthos cuneatus, Hakea ruscifolia and Melaleuca thymoides (S.Barrett 2005, pers. comm.; Brown et al. 1998).

The known population of the Blue Tinsel Lily occurs in the Torrndirup National Park in an area that contains populations of a number of other rare and priority flora. Populations of the priority species Adenanthos cunninghamii are found close to the Blue Tinsel Lily population (CALM 2005).

Details of the ages of sexual maturity, life expectancy and natural mortality of this species are unknown. However, the species is known to be slow growing. The flowering period occurs from June to October (WA Herbarium 2005). The species is believed to flower between three and five years, and presumably has a substantially longer period to attain maximum reproductive potential (Barrett & Dixon 2001). A portion of the adult population was killed by fire in 1997 and several juveniles still had not flowered by 2004 suggesting a long juvenile period (S.Barrett 2005, pers. comm.).

Little is known about the levels of flower and fruit production of the Blue Tinsel Lily. However, it is speculated that because of the species' floral architecture, it is pollinated by wasps and is therefore indicative of floral mimicry (Barrett & Dickson 2001; CALM 2005).

The Blue Tinsel Lily is closely related to C. gracilis and C. pignattiana but differs from these species in its clumping habit (due to vigorous basal sprouting). It also differs from C. pignattiana in its non-reflexed mature leaves (Barrett & Dixon 2001). These two closely related species occur further inland than the Blue Tinsel Lily (WA Herbarium 2005).

Blue Tinsel Lily flowers are prominent, and the species has been observed flowering at its known location during 2001-2002. However, the species grows in and among other plants, and would be very difficult to see if not flowering. Like other herbaceous/sub-shrub species they can be overlooked compared to a larger plant such as Banksia unless specifically targeted. Hence surveys should be conducted during the flowering period from June to December (CALM 2005).

In the past land clearing may have been one of the main threats to this species. However there is little data available to show that the species occurred elsewhere (CALM 2005).

The main current threat to this species is fire. Given the Blue Tinsel Lily only occurs in a single known population and is a fire sensitive obligate seeder, too frequent fire has the potential to eliminate this species within two years (CALM 2005).

In the absence of adequate protection measures against consecutive frequent fire, it is highly likely that the known population could be lost. This population was successfully excluded from a wildfire in November 2003 (Barrett 2005 pers. comm.).

Mature plants close to roads are at increased risk resulting from roadwork activities (CALM 2005).

Current recovery actions for the Blue Tinsel Lily population include (CALM 2005);

  • A small sample of seed has been collected from this species and is stored at the Threatened Flora Seed Centre (TFSC 2005),
  • The known population has been monitored regularly to determine the levels of seedling survival following a wildfire at the site in 1997. Additional surveys have also been carried out to try and locate additional populations but these have been unsuccessful.

Additional proposed recovery actions for the Blue Tinsel population include;

  • Mature plants should be protected from wildfire and inappropriate fire management regimes,
  • Mature plants close to the road should be protected from road maintenance activities (markers are currently in place),
  • Additional germplasm material should be collected (CALM 2005; Barrett 2005 pers. comm.).

The Blue Tinsel Lily was originally described by Robert Brown (1810). A revision of the genus Calectasia was carried out by Barrett and Dixon (2001).

Currently there is no recovery plan in place for the Blue Tinsel Lily but as the species is listed as rare under the West Australian Wildlife Conservation Act 1950, and is ranked as Critically Endangered under IUCN criteria, an Interim Recovery Plan will be prepared for this species in accordance with CALM draft Policy Statement 9. Given that this species is ranked Critically Endangered a recovery plan will be prepared as soon as possible but is subject to resource availability (CALM 2005).

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Indirect Ecosystem Effects:Restricted geographical distribution (area of occupancy and extent of occurrence) National recovery plan for the Blue Tinsel Lily (Calectasia cyanea) (Department of Environment and Conservation, 2009h) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Vegetation and habitat loss caused by dieback Phytophthora cinnamomi Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Calectasia cyanea (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008zh) [Conservation Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Problematic Native Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Macropus fuliginosus (Western Grey Kangaroo) National recovery plan for the Blue Tinsel Lily (Calectasia cyanea) (Department of Environment and Conservation, 2009h) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Problematic Native Species:Competition, predation and/or habitat degradation by kangaroos and wallabies Commonwealth Listing Advice on Calectasia cyanea (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2006ci) [Listing Advice].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity) National recovery plan for the Blue Tinsel Lily (Calectasia cyanea) (Department of Environment and Conservation, 2009h) [Recovery Plan].
Commonwealth Listing Advice on Calectasia cyanea (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2006ci) [Listing Advice].
Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Low numbers of individuals National recovery plan for the Blue Tinsel Lily (Calectasia cyanea) (Department of Environment and Conservation, 2009h) [Recovery Plan].
Transportation and Service Corridors:Transportation and Service Corridors:Road and rail maintenance works Commonwealth Listing Advice on Calectasia cyanea (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2006ci) [Listing Advice].

Barrett, R.L. & K.W. Dickson (2001). A revision of the genus (Calectasiaceae) with eight new species described from south-west Western Australia. Nuytsia. 13 (3):411-448.

Barrett, S. (2005). Personal Communications.

Brown, R. (1810). Prodromus Florae Novae Hollandiae. Page(s) 263-264.

CALM (2004). Draft Policy Statement No 9. Conserving Threatened Species and Ecological Communities (Revised). Western Australian Department of Conservation and Land Management.

Department of Environment and Conservation (2009h). National recovery plan for the Blue Tinsel Lily (Calectasia cyanea). [Online]. Western Australia: Department of Environment and Conservation. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/recovery/calectasia-cyanea.html.

IUCN (2001). IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria version 3.1. IUCN, Gland Switzerland.

Seaton, J.S. (1965). The blue tinsel lily, Calectasia cyanea. Australian Plants. 3. Society for Growing Australian Plants, NSW.

West Australian Threatened Flora Seed Centre (WATFSC) (2005). Records held in the West Australian Threatened Flora Seed Centre Database. West Australian Department of Conservation and Land Management.

Western Australian Herbarium (2005). FloraBase - The Western Australian Flora. [Online]. Perth, Western Australia: Department of Conservation and Land Management. Available from: http://florabase.calm.wa.gov.au/.

EPBC Act email updates can be received via the Communities for Communities newsletter and the EPBC Act newsletter.

This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Calectasia cyanea in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Wed, 3 Sep 2014 01:18:02 +1000.