Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Vulnerable
Listing and Conservation Advices Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Polytelis alexandrae (Princess Parrot) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008fv) [Conservation Advice].
 
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan not required, included on the Not Commenced List (1/11/2009).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans
Other EPBC Act Plans Threat Abatement Plan for Beak and Feather Disease Affecting Endangered Psittacine Species (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2005q) [Threat Abatement Plan].
 
Policy Statements and Guidelines Survey Guidelines for Australia's Threatened Birds. EPBC Act survey guidelines 6.2 (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2010l) [Admin Guideline].
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument].
 
State Government
    Documents and Websites
NT:Threatened Species of the Northern Territory-Princess Parrot Polytelis alexandrae (Pavey, C., 2006w) [Information Sheet].
State Listing Status
NT: Listed as Vulnerable (Territory Parks and Wildlife Conservation Act 2000 (Northern Territory): 2012 list)
SA: Listed as Vulnerable (National Parks and Wildlife Act 1972 (South Australia): June 2011 list)
Non-statutory Listing Status
IUCN: Listed as Near Threatened (Global Status: IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: 2013.1 list)
WA: Listed as P4 (Priority Flora and Priority Fauna List (Western Australia): April 2014 list)
Scientific name Polytelis alexandrae [758]
Family Psittacidae:Psittaciformes:Aves:Chordata:Animalia
Species author Gould,1863
Infraspecies author  
Reference  
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images

Scientific name: Polytelis alexandrae.

Common name: Princess Parrot.

Other names: Alexandra's Parrot, Princess Alexandra's Parrot, Rose-throated Parrot, Spinifex Parrot, Princess of Wales Parrakeet, Queen Alexandra's Parakeet, Rose-throated Parakeet (Higgins 1999).

The Princess Parrot is a conventionally accepted species (Christidis & Boles 1994; Schodde & Mason 1997).

The Princess Parrot is a slim, medium-sized parrot that grows to 40 to 45 cm in length, and has a weight of 90 to 120 g (Higgins 1999). It is colourful bird that has blue-grey colouring on the top of the head; pink on the chin and throat; dull olive-green on the hind-neck and upper part of the back; yellow-green patches on the shoulders; bright green, with a black band on the trailing edge, on the underside of the wings; violet on the lower back and rump; dull olive-green, with violet wash, on the breast and belly; bright green on the flanks; green, violet and pink on the thighs; and olive-green on top, and black (with a pink strip) on the underside of the long and tapered tail. The adults have an orange to red-pink bill, bright orange-red irides, and grey legs and feet. There are some slight differences between the sexes, for example, the female is generally duller, and has a much shorter tail, than the male (Higgins 1999).

Juveniles are similar in appearance to the adult female, but they have duller colouring, a dull orange bill that grades to brown at the base, red-brown irides, and dull pink legs and feet (Higgins 1999).

The Princess Parrot usually occurs singly, in pairs, or in small flocks of up to 30 birds. It occasionally congregates in large, loose flocks that may contain 100 or more birds (Blakers et al. 1984; Carter 1993b; Forshaw & Cooper 2002; Johnstone & Storr 1998; Parker 1971). It breeds in small colonies comprised of several pairs (Forshaw & Cooper 2002; North 1912; Storr 1977).

The Princess Parrot is confined to arid regions of Western Australia, the Northern Territory, and South Australia (Barrett et al. 2003; Blakers et al. 1984; Higgins 1999). It is sparsely distributed from near Oodnadatta in South Australia, west to near Coolgardie and the east Murchison River in Western Australia, and north to near the Fitzroy River in Western Australia and to Howell Ponds in the Northern Territory (Baxter & Henderson 2000; Higgins 1999). It is believed that the population is mainly concentrated in the Great Sandy, Gibson, Tanami and Great Victoria Deserts, and in the central ranges (Blyth & Burbidge 1997; Carter 1993b; Higgins 1999). There have been unconfirmed reports of the species from western Queensland (Britton 1992; Higgins 1999).

The extent of occurrence is estimated, with medium reliability, to be 2 000 000 km². Based on the evidence that is available, it is likely that the extent of occurrence fluctuates (Garnett & Crowley 2000). For example, from 1950 to 1974, there were no records of the Princess Parrot in the Great Sandy or Gibson Deserts, but there were many records in the central ranges. However, from 1975 to 1997, the situation was reversed, with many records in the western deserts, and very few records in the central ranges (it should be noted, however, that the lack of records in the western deserts prior to 1975 could have been due, at least in part, to a lack of visits by observers to these regions) (Blyth & Burbidge 1997).

There is some evidence to indicate that the extent of occurrence may have declined during the last 50 years or so. Large-scale movements, and the sporadic appearance of the species outside of its core areas, make it difficult to determine if there has been any change in the distribution. However, there has been a decline in the frequency of records from the periphery of the distribution (south-western and north-western Western Australia, northern Northern Territory, and southern South Australia) since the 1950s, which might indicate that the limits of the distribution have retreated (Garnett & Crowley 2000).

The area of occupancy is estimated, with low reliability, to be 10 000 km². Based on the evidence that is available, it is likely that the area of occupancy fluctuates. The area of occupancy may have declined in the past 50 years or so, based on a decrease in the frequency of records from the limits of the distribution since the 1950s (Garnett & Crowley 2000).

The Princess Parrot is an irregular visitor (sometimes at intevals of more than 20 years) to most sites in its range (Cain 1934; Carter 1993b; Forshaw & Cooper 2002; Higgins 1993; Garnett & Crowley 2000), and its movements are largely unknown (Higgins 1999). For these reasons, it is not possible or practical to provide an estimate of the number of locations at which the Princess Parrot occurs.

The Princess Parrot is held, in small numbers, in more than 30 zoos and institutions worldwide (ISIS 2006e). It is also held in large numbers in private aviaries; it is estimated that 25 000 birds are held by aviculturists in Australia alone. It is possible that the large population that is maintained in captivity may actually be larger than the population that occurs in wild (Garnett 1993).

Despite the abundance of captive stock, no population re-introductions have been attempted or proposed.

It is not possible to determine if the distribution is fragmented because of a lack of information. The actual current extent of the distribution is poorly known because the species has been irregularly recorded over a broad area, in remote or rarely visited regions, and its movements are largely unknown (Higgins 1999).

There have been numerous attempts to locate the Princess Parrot in known or potential areas of habitat, but there have not been any systematic surveys for the species across its entire distribution (Burbidge 2006, pers. comm.).

The Princess Parrot population is estimated, with low reliability, to consist of 5 000 breeding birds (Garnett & Crowley 2000). The remote areas occupied by the species, its irregular occurrence at most sites, and a lack of information on its movements, make it difficult to accurately estimate population size (Higgins 1999).

It is speculated that the Princess Parrot occurs in a single, continuous population (Garnett & Crowley 2000) but again, the lack of knowledge on the distribution and population size make it impossible to assess the structure of the population with any accuracy.

There is no firm evidence to determine the overall trend in Princess Parrot numbers. However, the reporting rate appears to have declined (Garnett & Crowley 2000), and recent sightings (at locations other than Tobin Lake in the Great Sandy Desert) have only been of small parties (Garnett 1993; Garnett & Crowley 2000). In contrast, historical records include reports of large flocks and large breeding colonies (Forshaw & Cooper 2002; North 1912; Parker 1971; Whitlock 1924).

The population size, extent of occurrence and area of occupancy of the Princess Parrot are all believed to fluctuate (Forshaw & Cooper 2002; Garnett & Crowley 2000). This is because the Princess Parrot is thought to breed in response to rainfall, which is an irregular event in the arid zone (Forshaw & Cooper 2002).

The lack of knowledge on the distribution and population size, and the irregular occurrence of the species at most sites, make it difficult to assess the importance of any local or regional populations. However, based on the frequency of records, the population that occurs around Lake Tobin, in the Great Sandy Desert, appears to be of greatest importance to the species (Carter 1993b).

The generation length is estimated, with low reliability, to be five years (Garnett & Crowley 2000).

The Princess Parrot has not been recorded cross-breeding with any other species in the wild. It is unlikely that any cross-breeding occurs because the other two members of the genus Polytelis, the Superb Parrot P. swainsonii and the Regent Parrot P. anthopeplus, usually do not occur in the same locations as the Princess Parrot (Higgins 1999).

The Princess Parrot has been recorded in six reserves: Wanjarri Nature Reserve, Queen Victoria Spring Nature Reserve, Neale Junction Nature Reserve and Ngaanyatjarra Lands Indigenous Protected Area, in Western Australia; Alice Springs Desert Park in the Northern Territory; and Unnamed Conservation Park in South Australia (Atlas of Australian Birds database; Burbidge 2006, pers. comm.; Collins 1984).

The Princess Parrot inhabits sand dunes and sand flats in the arid zone of western and central Australia. It occurs in open savanna woodlands and shrublands that usually consist of scattered stands of Eucalyptus (including E. gongylocarpa, E. chippendalei and mallee species), Casuarina or Allocasuarina trees; an understorey of shrubs such as Acacia (especially A. aneura), Cassia, Eremophila, Grevillea, Hakea and Senna; and a ground cover dominated by Triodia species (Allen 1987; Baxter & Henderson 2000; Carter 1993b; Ford & Sedgwick 1967; Forshaw & Cooper 2002; Garnett 1993; Johnstone & Storr 1998; Parker 1971; Pianka & Pianka 1970). It also frequents Eucalyptus or Allocasuarina trees in riverine or littoral areas (Carter 1993b; Forshaw & Cooper 2002; North 1912).

The Princess Parrot is not known to occur in any of the threatened ecological communities listed under the EPBC Act 1999. It does not associate with any other threatened species listed under the EPBC Act 1999.

Based on observations of captive birds, the Princess Parrot begins to breed in its first or second year (most birds begin in the second year) and is capable of living for up to 30 years (Low 1980; Wilson 1989).

The Princess Parrot is said to breed from September to January (Forshaw & Cooper 2002; Mathews 1916-1917; North 1912). However, dependent young have been recorded in July (Carter 1993b), and it is possible that breeding may occur at any time of the year following rainfall (Forshaw & Cooper 2002).

The Princess Parrot nests in hollows or holes in Eucalyptus trees (including E. camaldulensis) close to watercourses (Forshaw & Cooper 2002; McGilp 1935; North 1912; Storr 1977), or occasionally in Allocasuarina decaisneana trees away from water (Forshaw & Cooper 2002). The nest consists of a pile of decaying wood dust, upon which it lays a clutch of three to six white eggs (Forshaw & Cooper 2002; Mathews 1916-1917; McGilp 1935; North 1912).

The eggs are incubated by the female for a period of about 21 days (Forshaw & Cooper 2002) (or about 20 to 23 days in captivity [Hutchins & Lovell 1985; Shephard 1989]). The nestlings are fed by the female, and sometimes also by the male, during the nestling period of about six weeks (Forshaw & Cooper 2002) (or five to six weeks in captivity [Hutchins & Lovell 1985; Shephard 1989]). In captivity, the fledged young are fed almost entirely by the male (Hocking 1990), and become independent three to five weeks after leaving the nest (Hutchins & Lovell 1985; Shephard 1989).

Breeding success has not been studied in wild populations. In captivity, pairs can rear two broods per breeding season (Hutchins & Lovell 1985; Shephard 1989).

The diet of the Princess Parrot consists of seeds and some flowers, nectar and leaves. It feeds on the seeds of grasses (including Triodia irritans, T. mitchelli, Danthonia bipartita and Rhynchelytrum repens) and other plants (including Acacia aneura, Hakea lorea, Portulaca oleracea, Stenopetalum anfractum and Calandrinia) (Allen 1987; Carter 1993b; Eylmann 1911; Finlayson 1933; Forshaw & Cooper 2002; Garnett 1993; Johnstone & Storr 1998; Keartland 1905; North 1912). It takes nectar and/or flowers from Crotolaria cunninghamii, Grevillea wickhamii, Hakea suberea and Allocasuarina, and leaves from Codonocarpus cotinifolius (Carter 1993; Johnstone & Storr 1998; Eylmann 1911).

The Princess Parrot forages on and near the ground, and amongst the foliage and flowers of shrubs and trees (Carter 1993b; Forshaw & Cooper 2002; Garnett 1993). It forages in the morning, and sometimes in the afternoon before dusk (Carter 1993b).

The movements of the Princess Parrot are poorly known. It is said to be highly nomadic (Blakers et al. 1984; Forshaw & Cooper 2002; Storr 1977) or irruptive (Carter 1993b), and it may possibly be both (Higgins 1999). The evidence that is available suggests that it may be dispersive, but any assessment of the movement patterns is purely speculative due to a lack of information (Higgins 1999). The core range is believed to be in the Great Sandy Desert (Carter 1993b; Higgins 1999), but the movement of birds within the core range, and movements associated with records outside of the core range, are not known (Higgins 1999). It has been speculated that movements are governed by seasonal changes in conditions, and by the availability of food (Hutchins & Lovell 1985). It has also been speculated that movements are governed by the occurrence of ephemeral water, and the flowering of Acacia shrubs (Storr 1967).

The Princess Parrot has been regularly recorded at only one location in recent years (around Lake Tobin, in the Great Sandy Desert) (Carter 1993b; Higgins 1999). It is an irregular visitor to other parts of its range and, at some locations, intervals of more than 20 years can elapse between sightings (Boehm 1947; Cain 1934; Forshaw & Cooper 2002). Its occurrence at some locations has been attributed to movements away from drought-affected areas (Carter 1993b; Garnett 1993; Le Souëf 1915; Whitlock 1925).

Home range size, and the size and usage of territories, has not been documented in the wild. There are reports of up to ten pairs nesting together in a single tree (North 1912), which suggests that at most they defend a small area around the nest. This is supported by observations of captive birds, which show that both adults of a pair defend the nest and its immediate surrounds (Higgins 1999).

The Princess Parrot is a distinctive bird that is unlike any other species in Australia (Higgins 1999). It can be detected by sight, or by the distinctive call (Higgins 1999). It is active, noisy and conspicuous in the morning and evening, but it can be difficult to observe in the middle of the day, when it rests quietly amongst foliage to escape the heat (Carter 1993; Higgins 1999). It is usually somewhat wary (Carter 1993; Higgins 1999), but at times it may tolerate close approach (Forshaw 2002).

There is no evidence to link any threatening process to the Princess Parrot. It is possible that the Princess Parrot may have been adversely affected by the same changes in habitat that caused the extinction of many mammal species in central Australia during the 20th century (Burbidge & McKenzie 1989); its habitat may have been degraded, and the availability of its food reduced, by the introduction of new and unsuitable fire regimes, and herbivores such as sheep, rabbits and camels (Garnett & Crowley 2000). It has also been suggested that an increase in the availability of water in areas subjected to grazing by domestic stock may have allowed other more water-dependent parrots to expand their range into the arid zone, and that if this had occurred, the invasive species could be competing with the Princess Parrot for resources, perhaps to the detriment of the Princess Parrot population (Carter 1993; Garnett 1993).

Other potential threats are Psittacine Beak and Feather disease (or Psittacine Circoviral), and the poaching of eggs or young from nests. Psittacine Beak and Feather disease is an infectious and potentially fatal disease that is common in Australian parrots, and that may be capable of having catastrophic effects on some parrot populations. Symptoms of the disease have been recorded in the Princess Parrot (DEH 2005q), but it is not known if the disease is having any effect on mortality rates or population size.

There is evidence of some recent poaching of eggs or young from Princess Parrot nests in the Great Sandy Desert (Higgins 1999). The abundance of the species in captivity (Garnett 1993) suggests that there should be little demand for wild stock, and incidences of poaching may therefore be rare. However, because the population size is not well known, and could potentially be small (and therefore more vulnerable to a reduction in breeding success), poaching may be a potential threat.

The lack of information on the Princess Parrot and its threats makes it difficult to determine what recovery actions are needed. For this reason, no specific recovery actions have been implemented yet. However, The Action Plan for Australian Birds 2000 recommended that the ecology of the species be studied around Lake Tobin to determine contraints on population size; that sightings of the species outside of Lake Tobin be investigated to characterise and model habitat requirements and the response to fire regimes and rainfall; and that the findings of these studies be incorporated into relevant management plans (Garnett & Crowley 2000). Furthermore, Baxter and Henderson (2000) recommended that long-term research on the species should be commenced, and that Eucalytpus gongylocarpa woodlands in the Great Victoria Desert should be subject to species surveys.

The Princess Parrot should also benefit from the introduction of measures to limit the spread and impact of Psittacine Beak and Feather Disease in populations of Australian parrots (DEH 2005q).

There have not been any major studies on the Princess Parrot, although Higgins (1999) and Baxter and Henderson (2000) do provide comprehensive summaries of historical records.

No recovery, conservation or threat abatement plans have been developed specifically for the Princess Parrot. However, the Princess Parrot, its threats and possible management actions are outlined in The Action Plan for Australian Birds 2000 (Garnett & Crowley 2000), and it is one of many parrot species that are likely to benefit from the introduction and application of the Threat Abatement Plan for Psittacine Beak and Feather Disease (DEH 2005q).

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Habitat loss and modification due to clearance of native vegetation and pasture improvements The Impact of Global Warming on the Distribution of Threatened Vertebrates (ANZECC 1991) (Dexter, E.M., A.D. Chapman & J.R. Busby, 1995) [Report].
Biological Resource Use:Hunting and Collecting Terrestrial Animals:Illegal hunting/harvesting and collection Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Polytelis alexandrae (Princess Parrot) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008fv) [Conservation Advice].
Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Ecosystem Degradation:Decline in habitat quality Polytelis alexandrae in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006rs) [Internet].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Oryctolagus cuniculus (Rabbit, European Rabbit) Polytelis alexandrae in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006rs) [Internet].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, tramping, competition and/or habitat degradation Ovis aries (Sheep) Polytelis alexandrae in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006rs) [Internet].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, tramping, competition and/or habitat degradation Camelus dromedarius (Dromedary, Camel) Polytelis alexandrae in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006rs) [Internet].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Presence of pathogens and resulting disease Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Polytelis alexandrae (Princess Parrot) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008fv) [Conservation Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Problematic Native Species:Competition and/or grazing by parrots Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Polytelis alexandrae (Princess Parrot) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008fv) [Conservation Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Problematic Native Species:Psittacine Circoviral Disease Avian Viruses: Function and Control (Ritchie, B.W., 1995) [Book].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity) Polytelis alexandrae in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006rs) [Internet].

Allen, R.J. (1987). Alexandra's Parrots in the Great Victoria Desert. South Australian Ornithologist. 30:75.

Barrett, G., A. Silcocks, S. Barry, R. Cunningham & R. Poulter (2003). The New Atlas of Australian Birds. Melbourne, Victoria: Birds Australia.

Baxter, C. & R. Henderson (2000). A literature summary of the Princess Parrot Polytelis alexandrae and a suspected recent breeding event in South Australia. South Australian Ornithologist. 33:93-108.

Blakers, M., S.J.J.F. Davies & P.N. Reilly (1984). The Atlas of Australian Birds. Melbourne, Victoria: Melbourne University Press.

Blyth, J. & A. Burbidge (1997). What do we know about the Princess Parrot Polytelis alexandrae?. Eclectus. 3:26-29.

Boehm, E.F. (1947). Oological desiderata in South Australia. South Australian Ornithologist. 18:68-70.

Britton, P.L. (1992). The Queensland Ornithological Society Bird Report, 1991. Sunbird. 22:51-83.

Burbidge, A. (2006). Personal communication. Department of Environment and Conservation, Western Australia.

Burbidge, A.A. & N.L. McKenzie (1989). Patterns in the modern decline of Western Australia's vertebrate fauna: causes and conservation implications. Biological Conservation. 50:143-198.

Cain, W. (1934). Nesting notes in the Port Augusta district. South Australian Ornithologist. 12:170-171.

Carter, M. (1993b). Alexandra's or Princess Parrot - Status and 'normal' range. Wingspan. 12:32-35.

Christidis, L. & W.E. Boles (1994). The Taxonomy and Species of Birds of Australia and its Territories. Royal Australasian Ornithologists Union Monograph 2. Melbourne, Victoria: Royal Australasian Ornithologists Union.

Collins, P.J. (1984). Princess Parrots east of Kalgoorlie. Western Australian Bird Notes. 29:12.

Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH) (2005q). Threat Abatement Plan for Beak and Feather Disease Affecting Endangered Psittacine Species. [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/tap/beak-feather.html.

Eylmann, E. (1911). Die Vogelwelt der Kolonie S'daustralien. Journal f'r Ornithologie. 59:259-299.

Finlayson, H.H. (1933). Two strange parrots in the interior. South Australian Ornithologist. 12:46-48.

Ford, J. & E.H. Sedgwick (1967). Bird distribution in the Nullarbor Plain and Great Victoria Desert region, Western Australia. Emu. 67:99-124.

Forshaw, J.M. & W.T. Cooper (2002). Australian Parrots, 3rd edition. Robina, Queensland: Alexander Editions.

Garnett, S.T., ed. (1993). Threatened and Extinct Birds of Australia. Royal Australasian Ornithologists Union Report 82 2nd (corrected) Edition. Melbourne: Royal Australian Ornithology Union and Canberra: Australian National Parks and Wildlife Service.

Garnett, S.T. & G.M. Crowley (2000). The Action Plan for Australian Birds 2000. [Online]. Canberra, ACT: Environment Australia and Birds Australia. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/action/birds2000/index.html.

Higgins, P.J., ed. (1999). Handbook of Australian, New Zealand and Antarctic Birds Volume 4: Parrots to Dollarbird. Melbourne: Oxford University Press.

Hocking, K. (1990). Bird Keeping in Australia. 33:81-87.

Hutchins, B.R. & R.H. Lovell (1985). Australian Parrots: A Field and Aviary Study. Avicultural Society of Australia, Melbourne.

International Species Information System (ISIS) (2006e). Locations of captive populations of Princess Parrot. [Online]. www.isis.org. [Accessed: 11-Oct-2006].

Johnstone, R.E. & G.M. Storr (1998). Handbook of Western Australian Birds. Vol. 1: Non-passerines (Emu to Dollarbird). Perth, Western Australia: West Australian Museum.

Keartland, G.A. (1905). The range of the Princess of Wales Parakeet, Spathopterus alexandrae, North. Victorian Naturalist. 22:83-84.

Le Souef, E.A. (1915). Birds and drought in the west. Emu. 14:172.

Low, R. (1980). Parrots, Their Care and Breeding. Blandford Press, Poole, UK.

Magrath, M.J.L., M.A. Weston, P. Olsen & M. Antos (2004). Draft Survey Standards for Birds: Species Accounts. Melbourne, Victoria: Report for the Department of the Environment and Heritage by Birds Australia.

Mathews, G.M. (1916-1917). The Birds of Australia. In: Volume 6. Witherby and Company, London.

McGilp, J.N. (1935). Birds of the Musgrave Ranges. Emu. 34:163-176.

North, A.J. (1912). Nests and Eggs of Birds Found Breeding in Australia and Tasmania. In: Special Catalogue 1. 3. Sydney: Australian Museum.

Parker, S.A. (1971). Critical notes on the status of some central Australian birds. Emu. 71:99-102.

Pianka, H.D. & E.R. Pianka (1970). Bird censuses from desert localities in Western Australia. Emu. 70:17-22.

Schodde, R. & I.J. Mason (1997). Aves (Columbidae to Coracidae). In: Houston, W.W.K. & A. Wells, eds. Zoological Catologue of Australia. 37.2. Melbourne: CSIRO Publishing.

Shephard, M. (1989). Aviculture in Australia: Keeping and Breeding Aviary Birds. Melbourne: Black Cockatoo Press.

Storr, G.M. (1967). List of Northern Territory Birds. Western Australian Museum Special Publication. 4.

Storr, G.M. (1977). Birds of the Northern Territory. Special Publications of the Western Australian Museum. 7:1-130.

Whitlock, F.L. (1924). Journey to central Australia in search of the Night Parrot. Emu. 23:248--281.

Whitlock, F.L. (1925). Ten months on the Fitzroy River, north-western Australia. Emu. 25:69-89.

Wilson, K. (1989). Princess Parrots: an avicultural success story. Australian Birdkeeper. 2:324-328.

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This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Polytelis alexandrae in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Thu, 28 Aug 2014 06:50:56 +1000.