Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Critically Endangered
Listing and Conservation Advices Commonwealth Listing Advice on Pterostylis bryophila (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2006jn) [Listing Advice].
 
Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Pterostylis bryophila (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008agc) [Conservation Advice].
 
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan required, included on the Commenced List (1/11/2009).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
 
Other EPBC Act Plans Threat abatement plan for competition and land degradation by rabbits (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2008adh) [Threat Abatement Plan].
 
Policy Statements and Guidelines Draft survey guidelines for Australia's threatened orchids (Department of the Environment, 2013b) [Admin Guideline].
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Inclusion of species in the list of threatened species under section 178 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (48) (10/11/2006) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2006b) [Legislative Instrument].
 
State Government
    Documents and Websites
SA:Lofty Block Threatened Orchid Recovery Project (South Australian Department for Environment and Heritage (SA DEH), 2009) [Internet].
SA:Threatened Flora of South Australia Fact Sheet - Hindmarsh Valley Greenhood Pterostylis bryophila. Critically Endangered (South Australian Department for Environment and Heritage (SA DEH), 2010c) [Information Sheet].
State Listing Status
SA: Listed as Endangered (National Parks and Wildlife Act 1972 (South Australia): June 2011 list)
Scientific name Pterostylis bryophila [75722]
Family Orchidaceae:Orchidales:Liliopsida:Magnoliophyta:Plantae
Species author D.L.Jones
Infraspecies author  
Reference The Orchadian 12(4): 180 (1977)
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images

Scientific name: Pterostylis bryophila

Common name: Hindmarsh Valley Greenhood

Pterostylis bryophila is conventionally accepted (Barker et al. 2005). It was previously included in Pterostylis obtusa and was described as a distinct species in 1997 (Jones 1997a). One classification has renamed the species as Diplodium bryophilum (Jones 2006), although this has not been accepted (CHAH 2010).

The Hindmarsh Valley Greenhood is a terrestrial orchid that occurs in small to large colonies. Leaves are arranged in a flat or crinkled rosette, growing to 10–22 x 5–15 mm. Flowering occurs from April–July, producing a single, moderately large (18–20 x 8–10 mm), shiny bright green and white flower (Jones 1997a). The flowering stem grows to approximately 12–18 cm in height (Jones 2006).

The Hindmarsh Valley Greenhood has three sepals, two regular petals, and a third, greatly modified petal known as a labellum or lip (Jones 2006). In this species, the dorsal (upper) sepal (29–37 x 10–12 mm) is fused to the petals (24–28 x 5–7 mm), creating a sharply pointed hood extending over the top of the flower. The petals are broad, with the anterior margins strongly flared and held horizontally. The two lateral sepals (13–16 mm) are fused at the front of the flower, enclosing the labellum. The fused front sepals end in long, erect, threat-like points growing to 16–21 mm in length (Jones 2006). The labellum (9.5–11 x 2.5–3 mm) protrudes slightly, is green and white (sometimes brown), curved, slightly notched and has a blunt blackish tip (Jones 1997a, 2006). The opening between the hood and the top of the fused lateral sepals is called the sinus. In this species, the sinus is prominent with a deeply folded interior (Jones 1997a, 2006).

Greenhoods, including the Hindmarsh Valley Greenhood, take their name from the green hooded flower. The hood is formed by the fusing of the petals to the dorsal sepal, ending in a long curved, thread-like point (Jones 2006).

The Hindmarsh Valley Greenhood is endemic to South Australia where it is confined to the Fleurieu Peninsula region. Known locations include Mount Billy Conservation Park (CP)/Hindmarsh Valley Reservoir Reserve, Talisker CP and Hindmarsh Falls (DEH 2006 cited in Quarmby 2010). Unconfirmed collections may have been made at Hindmarsh Tiers and Back Creek (Quarmby 2009 pers. comm. cited in Willson & Bignall 2009a).

Locations reported at Deep Creek and Talisker CP were not relocated in 2009 (Quarmby & Bates 2009 pers. comm. cited in Willson & Bignall 2009a). In addition, the location at Inman Valley may be extinct (Bates 2005 pers. comm. cited in Willson & Bignall 2009a).

The areas where the Hindmarsh Valley Greenhood occurs correspond to the Southern Lofty herbarium region (Barker et al. 2005), the Fleurieu subregion of the Kanmantoo Interim Biogeographic Regionalisation for Australia region (Environment Australia 2000c), and the Adelaide and Mount Lofty Natural Resource Management region.

Extent of occurrence

The total extent of occurrence of the Hindmarsh Valley Greenhood has been estimated to be 72 km² (Quarmby 2010). At least one population is known to be extinct (Quarmby 2005 pers. comm.; Robertson 2005 pers. comm).

Area of occupancy

The total area of occupancy of the Hindmarsh Valley Greenhood is estimated to be 1.6 ha (Quarmby 2010). The extinction of one population has not resulted in a significant decrease in the area of occupancy (Robertson 2005 pers. comm.).

Annual monitoring of Mt Billy CP and Hindmarsh Valley Reservoir has occurred since 1998, including total counts for each smaller population, and counts of the number of individuals in each life stage (i.e. in bud, flowering, with developed capsules etc). Mt Billy CP, which contains the majority of Hindmarsh Valley Greenhood plants, was extensively surveyed in 2003 and 2004, and in 2004 seven permanent quadrats were set up there to monitor the orchid (Quarmby 2005 pers. comm.). Areas of suitable habitat are now extremely rare throughout the range of the species, and it is unlikely that extensive new areas containing the species exist (Quarmby 2005 pers. comm.).

In 2006, the total population of the Hindmarsh Valley Greenhood was estimated to be 880–3400 plants within three subpopulations (Quarmby 2009 pers. comm. cited in Willson & Bignall 2009a). In 2003, 442 and 3204 flowering plants respectively were counted for the two populations at Mt Billy CP; 215 flowering plants were counted for the population at Hindmarsh Valley Reservoir Reserve; and approximately 20 plants were counted in the Talisker CP (this population has not been relocated) (Bates 2005 pers. comm. cited in Willson & Bignall 2009a).

The population at Talisker CP site occurs as two disjunct locations, which are isolated by 40 km from other populations. While the Mt Billy population occurs as three disjunct smaller populations, these are in the same block of native vegetation, separated by only 200–430 m of suitable habitat, and presumed to be close enough for seed dispersal (Quarmby 2005 pers. comm.).

Annual monitoring indicates that the number of flowering and vegetative individuals fluctuates greatly from year to year according to seasonal conditions, particularly variation in rainfall, with low flowering rates in dry years. In any one year, a number of individuals are dormant as tubers. For example, 608 plants were recorded near Mt Billy in 2001, compared to only 51 during the very dry year of 2002. This indicates high dormancy rates in some years and the need for annual monitoring of individual plants to enable analysis of population viability. Insufficient data is available to determine population trends (SA DEH 2005a).

Part of the largest Hindmarsh Valley Greenhood subpopulation (recorded as consisting of 3646 plants in 2003) occurs in Mount Billy CP. Remaining plants occur in the Hindmarsh Valley Reservoir Reserve. A previous subpopulation, now presumed extinct, occurred in a council reserve, Hindmarsh Falls Recreation Reserve (SA DEH 2005a). One small colony of 20 plants is conserved in Talisker CP, although this population has not been relocated.

The Hindmarsh Valley Greenhood occurs in South Australian Blue Gum (Eucalyptus leucoxylon) and Pink Gum (E. fasciculosa) open forest or woodland (Quarmby 2010). The sparse shrub layer contains wattles (Acacia paradoxa and A. pycnantha), Native Cherry (Exocarpos cupressiformis), Sticky Hop-bush (Dodonaea viscosa), Australian Blackthorn (Bursaria spinosa) and Yacca (Xanthorrhoea semiplana). The ground cover layer is diverse and includes ferns, grasses, lilies, orchids and annuals (Bickerton 2001).

The species occurs in moist, shady, mossy areas (e.g. lower slopes of gullies, along creek lines), usually with a southerly aspect. Soils are typically well-structured fertile loams, at altitudes between 200–300 m above sea level (Quarmby 2010). The habitat has been selectively cleared for agriculture in the Southern Mount Lofty Ranges, and remnants are often small, fragmented and/or heavily invaded by weeds (Quarmby 2010).

Hindmarsh Valley Greenhood plants usually produce a rosette of leaves in March or April. Leaves and flowers are not always produced each year, and tubers are capable of remaining dormant for several consecutive years. Flowering is known to vary significantly from year to year depending on autumn rainfall. Buds are produced in April–May and flowering occurs in mid May to late June. By early July the leaf shrivels and the pollinated flowers develop into seed capsules. By late July the capsules dry and dehisce. Tubers are replaced annually and extra daughter tubers may also be produced. Average plant longevity is unknown but assumed to be more than 15 years (Willson & Bignall 2009a).

The Hindmarsh Valley Greenhood is probably pollinated by Nematoceran flies from the families Culicidae (mosquitoes) and Mycetophilidae (fungus gnats), and possibly Phoridae (phorid fly). The species also reproduces vegetatively (often forming dense colonies) and is known to be fire sensitive (SA DEH 2008e; Willson & Bignall 2009a).

Jones (1997a) describes the Hindmarsh Valley Greenhood as being closely related to the Coastal Greenhood (Pterostylis alveata) but distinguishable by its larger flowers and perianth parts, the size of the dorsal sepal, freepoint length and petal size. In particular, the petals are flared horizontally in the Hindmarsh Valley Greenhood but not in the Coastal Greenhood.

Quarmby (2010) describes the distinguishing features of the Hindmarsh Valley Greenhood as:

  • flowering in May–June
  • small erect, shiny green and white striped flowers
  • sinus prominent, with broad out-curved margins
  • labellum tip blackish, just visible above the sinus
  • dorsal sepal sharply pointed.

The following table summarises the threats to the Hindmarsh Valley Greenhood:

Threat Risk  Details 
Weed invasion High Bridal Creeper (Asparagus asparagoides) occurs near to all the populations in Mt Billy CP and Hindmarsh Valley Reservoir Reserve, along with other serious environmental weeds such as Sweet Pittosporum (Pittosporum undulatum) and Bulbil Watsonia (Watsonia meriana subsp. bulbillifera). Bridal Creeper is able to rapidly out-compete understorey species, and has an active growing season which begins before and finishes after that of the Hindmarsh Valley Greenhood (Bickerton 2001). The Talisker CP site is threatened by heavy weed invasion including Bridal Creeper and Phalaris aquatica (Bates 2005 pers. comm.).
Trampling  Medium The Mt Billy CP population is at risk from increased trampling due to the presence of fauna trapping sites in the area, and the opening of the area to public access (Robertson 1998 pers. comm.). The majority of plants in the Park are easily accessible to the public due to its close proximity to a major road and the area's open understorey. 
Fire and Rainfall Medium An intense fire in the 1990s, in what is now Mt Billy CP, resulted in very dense regeneration of the native wattle Acacia paradoxa and the African Daisy (Senecio pterophorus). A temporary major decline in numbers of the Hindmarsh Valley Greenhood was attributed to increased competition from these and other species (Bickerton 2001). It is anticipated that increased fire frequency, drought, and/or a reduced mean annual rainfall, would have a negative impact on the species. Significantly reduced rainfall might also directly affect the species. This is because the Hindmarsh Valley Greenhood is already confined to higher rainfall areas of Fleurieu Peninsula and would be unable to colonise similar soils in even higher rainfall areas due to the now rare, degraded and fragmented nature of such habitats in this region (Davies 2004 pers. comm.). 
Grazing Low  In Mount Billy CP, native and introduced herbivores (Macropod species), Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) and Hares (Lepus sp.) have the potential to severely reduce the number of flowers and consequently reduce the recruitment rate of the Hindmarsh Valley Greenhood (Bickerton 2001). In the largest of the smaller populations in Mount Billy CP, 19–30% of observed Hindmarsh Valley Greenhood plants were grazed (Bickerton 2001).
Pollination limitations Low The interactions of this species with the environment are poorly known. It is unknown whether the species is potentially threatened by pollination limitations due to complex pollinator relationships (as has been found with some rare Caladenia species) (SA DEH 2005a). 
Habitat dieback Low

Habitat where the species occurs is at risk from dieback from Phytophthora (Willson & Bignall 2009a).

Habitat fragmentation Historic 

In the Southern Mount Lofty Ranges area, Blue Gum and Pink Gum grassy woodland has been heavily cleared for agriculture. As a result, remaining remnants are fragmented and often weed infested (Bickerton 2001; Davies 1992). Habitat fragmentation reduces gene flow, decreases genetic diversity and leads to inbreeding of Hindmarsh Valley Greenhood populations. In addition, some populations occur in areas less than 1 ha, making them highly susceptible to localised extinction as a result of random events (SA DEH 2005a).

The population that was previously found at Talisker CP was over 40 km from the nearest population. It occurred in an area heavily infested with weeds and is separated from other populations by largely cleared agricultural land. These conditions make natural recolonisation improbable.

Illegal collection may also threaten the Hindmarsh Valley Greenhood (SA DEH 2008e).

Recovery Plan for orchids in the Lofty Block region

The Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby 2010) outlines recovery strategies and actions for the Hindmarsh Valley Greenhood. Recovery strategies include:

  • determine population size and trends
  • determine extent and number of subpopulations
  • mitigate threats to subpopulations
  • preserve germplasm and mycorrhizae
  • determine feasibility of translocation and implement if viable
  • undertake research
  • inform and encourage landholders and the community.

Regional Recovery Plan for Adelaide and the Mount Lofty Ranges

The Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species and Ecological Communities of Adelaide and the Mount Lofty Ranges, South Australia (Willson & Bignall 2009a) includes the Hindmarsh Valley Greenhood. This plan addresses threat management in the context of broad vegetation groups (Willson & Bignall 2009a). The Hindmarsh Valley Greenhood is included in the Grassy Woodland vegetation group, which is a vegetation community that is identified as a high priority for recovery (Willson & Bignall 2009a). This high priority rating means that conservation investment may be targeted at the Grassy Woodland group (rather than lower priority groups within the area of the regional recovery plan) (Willson & Bignall 2009a).

The plan generally addresses key threats to a range of endangered species in the region, such as: weed invasion, inappropriate fire management regimes, impacts of recreational activities and browsing of herbivorous animals (Willson & Bignall 2009a). There are no specific measures to address threats to the Hindmarsh Valley Greenhood, but, as it occurs in the high priority Grassy Woodland vegetation group, actions to recover this area should benefit the orchid (Willson & Bignall 2009a).

Undertaken actions

The following threat abatement actions have been implemented for the Hindmarsh Valley Greenhood:

  • Bridal Creeper rust (Puccinia myrsiphyllii) was released on Bridal Creeper weeds adjacent to the Hindmarsh Valley Greenhood in Mount Billy CP and Talisker CP in September 2000 (Bickerton 2001; Quarmby 2005 pers. comm.). It severely inhibited the growth of the weed in the wet year of 2003, but was less effective in the drier conditions of 2004 (Quarmby 2005 pers. comm.).
  • During 2004, a contractor was employed to undertake control of Bulbil Watsonia and Sweet Pittosporum in the Park in the vicinity of Hindmarsh Valley Greenhood plants, using minimal impact methods (Quarmby 2005, pers. comm.).
  • The Friends of Mount Billy CP have been conducting a small herbicide trial on Bridal Creeper at the site since 1998 (Bickerton 2001). This group has also been controlling Sweet Pittosporum, Bulbil Watsonia and other weeds in the Park (Quarmby 2005 pers. comm.). The Threatened Plant Action Group hosts an annual weeding day in Hindmarsh Valley Reservoir which concentrates on the removal of Bulbil Watsonia, Bridal Creeper and Sweet Pittosporum in the vicinity of Hindmarsh Valley Greenhood plants.
  • A collaborative project (the Tiers Biodiversity Project) between the Department of Environment and Heritage, the City of Victor Harbor, South Australia Water and other stakeholders occurred at the Hindmarsh Falls site, involving landscape-scale habitat restoration, in particular weed control, and fencing and revegetation on adjacent private land. Volunteers also controlled weeds at a Bush for Life site. This site encompasses the location of the Hindmarsh Falls subpopulation (Quarmby 2005 pers. comm.).

Stephens and colleagues (2003) describe a study into the effect of weed invasion on insect pollination of the Hindmarsh Valley Greenhood.

Management documents relevant for the Hindmarsh Valley Greenhood (Pterostylis bryophila) can be found at the start of this profile.

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Agriculture and Aquaculture:Land clearing, habitat fragmentation and/or habitat degradation Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Pterostylis bryophila (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008agc) [Conservation Advice].
Biological Resource Use:Gathering Terrestrial Plants:Recreational harvest Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Climate Change and Severe Weather:Climate change altering atmosphere/hydrosphere temperatures, rainfall patterns and/or frequency of severe weather events Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].
Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Indirect Ecosystem Effects:Restricted geographical distribution (area of occupancy and extent of occurrence) Commonwealth Listing Advice on Pterostylis bryophila (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2006jn) [Listing Advice].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Recreational Activities:Soil disturbance and/or trampling due to bushwalking Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Commonwealth Listing Advice on Pterostylis bryophila (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2006jn) [Listing Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Lepus capensis (Brown Hare) Pterostylis bryophila in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006td) [Internet].
Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Oryctolagus cuniculus (Rabbit, European Rabbit) Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Pterostylis bryophila (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008agc) [Conservation Advice].
Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Plantago lanceolata (Ribwort, Ribgrass, Lamb's Tongue) Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Scabiosa atropurpurea (Pincushion) Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Rosa rubiginosa (Sweet Briar, Briar Rose, Sweet Briar Rose, Eglantine) Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Genista monspessulana (Montpellier Broom, Cape Broom, Canary Broom, Common Broom, French Broom, Soft Broom) Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Asparagus asparagoides (Bridal Creeper, Bridal Veil Creeper, Smilax, Florist's Smilax, Smilax Asparagus) Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Commonwealth Listing Advice on Pterostylis bryophila (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2006jn) [Listing Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Rubus fruticosus aggregate (Blackberry, European Blackberry) Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Watsonia spp. (Watsonia, Bulbil Watsonia, Wild Watsonia, Bugle Lily) Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Commonwealth Listing Advice on Pterostylis bryophila (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2006jn) [Listing Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation by weeds Commonwealth Listing Advice on Pterostylis bryophila (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2006jn) [Listing Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation caused by exotic pasture species Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Vegetation and habitat loss caused by dieback Phytophthora cinnamomi Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Predation, competition, habitat degradation and/or spread of pathogens by introduced species Commonwealth Listing Advice on Pterostylis bryophila (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2006jn) [Listing Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Problematic Native Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Pittosporum undulatum (Sweet Pittosporum, Snowdrop Tree, Engraver Wood, Mock Orange, Native Laurel, Wave Leaved Pittosporum, White Holly, Native Daphne, Victorian Box, Australian Cheesewood, New Zealand Daphne, Victorian Laurel, Wild Coffee) Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Problematic Native Species:Competition, predation and/or habitat degradation by insects Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Problematic Native Species:Competition, predation and/or habitat degradation by kangaroos and wallabies Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Pterostylis bryophila (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008agc) [Conservation Advice].
Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Alteration of hydrological regimes and water quality Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity) Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Pterostylis bryophila (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008agc) [Conservation Advice].
Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate fire regimes including natural wildfires Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Low genetic diversity and genetic inbreeding Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Poor recruitment (regeneration) and declining population numbers Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].

Barker, W.R., R.M. Barker, J.P. Jessop & H.P. Vonow, eds. (2005). Census of South Australian Vascular Plants, 5th edition. In: Journal of the Adelaide Botanical Gardens Supplement 1. [Online]. Adelaide: Botanic Gardens of Adelaide & State Herbarium. Available from: http://www.flora.sa.gov.au/pdfs/Census_5.0_web.pdf.

Bates, R. (2005). Personal communication.

Bickerton, D. (2001). Draft Recovery Plan for Pterostylis bryophila (Hindmarsh Valley greenhood). Adelaide: National Parks and Wildlife South Australia.

Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria (CHAH) (2010). Australian Plant Census. [Online]. Australian National Herbarium, Australian National Botanic Gardens and Australian Biological Resources Study . Available from: http://www.anbg.gov.au/chah/apc/.

Davies, R. (2004). Personal communication.

Davies, R.J.P. (1992). Threatened Plants of the Murray Mallee, Mt Lofty Range and Kangaroo Island Region of South Australia. Conservation Council of South Australia.

Environment Australia (2000c). Revision of the Interim Biogeographic Regionalisation for Australia (IBRA) and development of version 5.1. [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/parks/nrs/ibra/version5-1/summary-report/index.html.

Jones, D.L. (1997a). Two rare new species of Pterostylis R. Br. (Orchidaceae) allied to P. alveata Garnet. The Orchadian. 12:180-184.

Jones, D.L. (2006). A complete guide to Native Orchids of Australia, including the island Territories. Sydney, NSW: New Holland Publishers (Australia) Pty Ltd.

Quarmby, J.P. (2005). Personal communication.

Quarmby, J.P. (2010). Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia. [Online]. Adelaide, South Australia: Department of Environment and Natural Resources. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/recovery/lofty-block-orchids.html.

Robertson, M. (1998). Personal communication.

Robertson, M. (2005). Personal communication.

South Australia Department for Environment and Heritage (SA DEH) (2005a). SA DEH databases comprising of the Opportune Database, Plant Population Database, Reserves Database, Roadside Vegetation Database and Survey Database. Adelaide, South Australia: Department of Environment and Heritage.

South Australian Department for Environment and Heritage (SA DEH) (2009). Lofty Block Threatened Orchid Recovery Project. [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.sa.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened-species/lbtorp.html.

South Australian Department for Environment and Heritage (SA DEH) (2010c). Threatened Flora of South Australia Fact Sheet - Hindmarsh Valley Greenhood Pterostylis bryophila. Critically Endangered. [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.sa.gov.au/biodiversity/pdfs/hindmarsh_ghood.pdf.

Stephens, C.J., A.D. Austin & J.D. Taylor (2003). Modification of insect-plant interaction: weed invasion and the pollination of an endangered orchid. Records of the South Australian Museum Monograph Series. 7:193-201.

Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC) (2006jn). Commonwealth Listing Advice on Pterostylis bryophila. [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/species/pterostylis-bryophila.html.

Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC) (2008agc). Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Pterostylis bryophila. [Online]. Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/species/pubs/75722-conservation-advice.pdf.

EPBC Act email updates can be received via the Communities for Communities newsletter and the EPBC Act newsletter.

This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Pterostylis bryophila in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Fri, 19 Sep 2014 05:19:06 +1000.