Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Endangered
Listing and Conservation Advices Commonwealth Listing Advice on Dasyurus maculatus maculatus (Spot-tailed Quoll, Spotted-tailed Quoll, Tiger Quoll) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2004b) [Listing Advice].
 
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan required, included on the Commenced List (1/11/2009).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans
Other EPBC Act Plans Threat Abatement Plan for Predation by the European Red Fox (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2008zzq) [Threat Abatement Plan].
 
Policy Statements and Guidelines Survey guidelines for Australia's threatened mammals. EPBC Act survey guidelines 6.5 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011j) [Admin Guideline].
 
EPBC Act Administrative Guidelines on Significance - Supplement for the Tiger Quoll (southeastern mainland population) and the Use of 1080 (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2004d) [Admin Guideline].
 
Draft EPBC Act Policy Statement 3.4 - Significant impact guidelines for the endangered spot-tailed quoll Dasyurus maculatus maculatus (southeastern mainland population) and the use of 1080 (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2009e) [Admin Guideline].
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Determination that a distinct population of biological entities is a species under section 517 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (Quolls) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2004a) [Legislative Instrument].
 
Inclusion of species in the list of threatened species under section 178 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (05/05/2004) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2004e) [Legislative Instrument].
 
State Government
    Documents and Websites
ACT:Spotted-tailed Quoll (Dasyurus maculatus) - a vulnerable species, Action Plan No. 30 (ACT Government, 2005) [State Action Plan].
ACT:Spotted-tailed Quoll (Dasyurus maculatus). A vulnerable species (Australian Capital Territory Department of Territory and Municipal Services (ACT TAMS), 2006l) [Information Sheet].
NSW:Old Growth Forests - North east NSW. Natural Resource Management Advisory Series: Note 5 (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2004f) [Information Sheet].
NSW:Trees with Hollows. North east NSW. Natural Resource Management Advisory Series: Note 1 (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2004g) [Information Sheet].
NSW:Spotted-tailed Quoll - profile (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2005cb) [Internet].
NSW:Spotted-tailed Quoll Threatened Species Information (NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service (NSW NPWS), 1999ay) [Information Sheet].
QLD:Spotted-tailed quoll (Department of Environment and Heritage Protection (DEHP), 2013bb) [Database].
QLD:Spotted-tailed quoll (southern subspecies) Dasyurus maculatus maculatus (Queensland Environment Protection Agency (Qld EPA), 2008b) [State Species Management Plan].
VIC:Spot-tailed Quoll Dasyurus maculatus Action Statement: No. 15 (Backhouse, G., 2003) [State Action Plan].
State Listing Status
ACT: Listed as Vulnerable* (Nature Conservation Act 1980 (Australian Capital Territory): 2013 list)
NSW: Listed as Vulnerable* (Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995 (New South Wales): December 2013 list)
QLD: Listed as Vulnerable* (Nature Conservation Act 1992 (Queensland): May 2014 list)
SA: Listed as Endangered* (National Parks and Wildlife Act 1972 (South Australia): June 2011 list)
VIC: Listed as Threatened* (Flora and Fauna Guarantee Act 1988 (Victoria): February 2014 list)
Non-statutory Listing Status
VIC: Listed as Endangered (Advisory List of Threatened Vertebrate Fauna in Victoria: 2013 list)
Scientific name Dasyurus maculatus maculatus (SE mainland population) [75184]
Family Dasyuridae:Polyprotodonta:Mammalia:Chordata:Animalia
Species author (Kerr, 1792)
Infraspecies author  
Reference  
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images

Australian Capital Territory: At the species level, Dasyurus maculatus is listed as Vulnerable under the Nature Conservation Act 1980.

New South Wales: At the species level, Dasyurus maculatus is listed as Vulnerable under the Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995.

Queensland: At the subspecies level, Dasyurus maculatus maculatus is listed as Vulnerable under the Nature Conservation Act 1992.

South Australia: At the species level, Dasyurus maculatus is listed as Endangered under the National Parks and Wldlife Act 1972.

Victoria: At the species level, Dasyurus maculatus is listed as Threatened under the Flora and Fauna Guarantee Act 1988.

Scientific name: Dasyurus maculatus maculatus (south-eastern mainland population)

Common name: Spot-tailed Quoll

Other common names: Spotted-tail Quoll, Tiger Quoll, Spotted-tailed Quoll, Tiger Cat, Spotted-tailed Native Cat, Spotted-tailed Dasyure

In this profile, unless stated otherwise, the use of the common name Spot-tailed Quoll refers to Dasyurus maculatus maculatus (south-eastern mainland population), rather than D. m. maculatus (Tasmanian population) which shares the same common name.

Two subspecies of Dasyurus maculatus are recognised: D. m. gracilis, found in northern Queensland, and D. m. maculatus, found in south-east Queensland to Victoria and Tasmania.

Two distinct populations of Dasyurus maculatus maculatus are recognised: a south-eastern mainland population and a Tasmanian population (Dawson 2005; Edgar & Belcher 2008). The Tasmanian population is listed as Vulnerable under the EPBC Act.

The taxonomic position of Dasyurus maculatus maculatus (south-eastern mainland population) is disputed. Genetic studies have indicated a closer similarity between a north Queensland D. m. gracilis population and a NSW D. m. maculatus population than between D. maculatus populations from mainland Australia and from Tasmania (Firestone et al. 1999). This research suggests that D. m. maculatus (Tasmanian population) should be raised to the subspecies level and that D. m. gracilis and D. m. maculatus (south-eastern mainland population) should be treated as separate management units of the same subspecies (Firestone et al. 1999).

The Spot-tailed Quoll is a nocturnal, cat-sized, carnivorous marsupial with reddish-brown fur. It has distinctive white spots over its back and tail (Cronin 1991; Edgar & Belcher 2008).

Males are 380–759 mm in head and body length, and females are 350–450 mm. Tail length is 370–550 mm for males and 340–420 mm for females. Males weigh up to 7 kg and females up to 4 kg (Edgar & Belcher 2008) although the mean weight range for male adults is 2.8–4.6 kg and 1.5–2 kg for females (Belcher 2003; Green & Scarborough 1990; Jones 1997; Körtner et al. 2004).

The Spot-tailed Quoll was previously widely distributed from south-east Queensland, eastern NSW, Victoria, south-east South Australia and Tasmania (Jones et al. 2001). The subspecies' mainland range has reduced by 50–90% (Jones et al. 2001). Detailed distribution records and abundance estimates are generally lacking due to the scale and intensity of surveying that is required to detect the species across its entire range (Long & Nelson 2004).

Figures from 2004 suggest that there are 44 known sites in NSW, 16 sites in the ACT, four to five sites in Victoria and possibly none in South Australia (TSSC 2004b).

ACT
There are records of the Spot-tailed Quoll throughout the ACT, including four from suburban areas (Nelson et al. 2001; Sherlock 2008). The subspecies was recorded in May 2002 at Sentry Box Mountain at the southern end of Namadgi National Park (NP) (J. Dawson n.d., pers. comm. cited in ACT Government 2005). In 2003–04, the Spot-tailed Quoll was found at three locations in the Gudgenby Valley and the Orroral Valley within Namadgi NP (M. Dunford n.d., pers. comm. cited in Long & Nelson 2004).

NSW
Spot-tailed Quoll records are generally confined to within 200 km of the coast and range from the Queensland border to Kosciuszko NP. Locations include:

  • Hunter Valley, Taree, Port Macquarie and Coffs Harbour through to the gorges and escarpments of the New England Tableland (Maxwell et al. 1996)
  • locally abundant populations occur in the south of the state (i.e. Kosciuszko NP and coastal national parks) (Long & Nelson 2004)
  • isolated records near Hay (Long & Nelson 2004)
  • several disjunct populations between the Border Ranges and the Blue Mountains/Illawarra area (Catling & Burt 1997).

Queensland
The Spot-tailed Quoll occurs in south-east Queensland: coastally from Bundaberg to the border and inland to Monto and Stanthorpe (Van Dyck & Longmore 1991). Occurrences from five broad geographic areas are known: four from coastal ranges and the Great Dividing Range from the NSW border to Gladstone. The fifth is centred on the eastern Darling Downs-Inglewood Sandstone provinces of the Brigalow Belt South Bioregion (S. Burnett n.d., pers. comm. cited in Long & Nelson 2004). Unconfirmed reports suggest the subspecies may occur in the Clarke and Conway Range areas, eastern Queensland (Long & Nelson 2004).

Historical locations include the D'Aguilar Range west of Brisbane and coastal areas from Coolangatta to Bundaberg. The species is now believed to be extinct in these regions (S. Burnett n.d., pers. comm. cited in Long & Nelson 2004).

South Australia
The Spot-tailed Quoll is presumed extinct in South Australia (Long & Nelson 2004).

Victoria
In Victoria, the Spot-tailed Quoll is mainly confined to public land, mostly in parks, reserves and state forests (Backhouse 2003). Locations include:

  • Mount Eccles NP and the Otway Ranges in south-west Victoria (Mansergh 1984)
  • Macedon Ranges north-west of Melbourne (Mansergh 1984)
  • north and east of Melbourne in the eastern highlands (Backhouse 2003; Mansergh 1995a)
  • sites adjacent to NSW populations (Backhouse 2003)
  • East Gippsland, particularly the upper Snowy River Valley and the Rodger River-Errinundra Plateau area (Backhouse 2003; Mansergh 1995a)
  • Strezlecki Range in South Gippsland (Backhouse 2003)
  • Wilson's Promontory NP, the subspecies current status at this location is unknown (Long & Nelson 2004)
  • Grampians NP (ABC News 2013).

Distribution trends
The geographic distribution of the Spot-tailed Quoll is contracting and its subpopulations are becoming increasingly fragmented (TSSC 2004b). Declines in the extent of occurrence and area of occupancy have been observed and are projected to continue, however no accurate numerical data are available (TSSC 2004b).

ACT
Environment ACT has conducted surveys for the Spot-tail Quoll in Namadgi NP and a number of nature reserves (including Tidbinbilla Nature Reserve (NR) and Rob Roy NR) (ACT Government 2005).

NSW
Surveys conducted in NSW include:

  • In Werrikimbe NP (northern NSW), 40 individual Spot-tailed Quolls were trapped along 40 km of road (representing a 240 km² area), in 2000–01 (TSSC 2004b).
  • In Tallaganda State Forest (SF) (southern NSW), in an area of 43 km² six individuals were recorded in 1997, seven in 1998, eight in 1999 and one in 2000 (TSSC 2004b). Radio-tracking was also undertaken at this site during this period (Belcher & Darrant 2004).
  • In Badja SF (southern NSW), in an area of 60 km², 11 individuals were recorded in 1996 and zero in 2000–01 (TSSC 2004b). Radio-tracking was also undertaken at this site during this period (Belcher & Darrant 2004).
  • A transect survey encompassing parts of both Tallaganda SF and Badja SF, with an estimated catchment area of 240 km², recorded 23 individuals in 1999 (TSSC 2004b).
  • Surveys in 2002–05 occurred in the lower catchment of Jacobs River in the Byadbo Wilderness Area of southern Kosciuszko NP. Dietary analysis and live-trapping were also carried out (Dawson 2005).
  • Surveys have been conducted in the Googong Foreshore area (ACT Government 2005).
  • Motion activated camera surveys in Watagans NP, where the subspecies was detected (UoW 2014).

Queensland
A survey in south-east Queensland at eight sites recorded six Spot-tailed Quolls from a single site over an eight-month period during 1993 (TSSC 2004b).

Victoria
Surveys conducted in Victoria include:

  • At Suggan Buggan (north-east Victoria) in an area of 43 km² six individuals were recorded in 1994, four in 1995 and two in 1996 (Belcher 2000b), radio-tracking was also undertaken at this site during this period (Belcher & Darrant 2004).
  • At Mount Eccles (south-west Victoria) a hair-tube survey obtained four records from three adjoining 1 km² survey blocks in a total survey area of 33 km² (TSSC 2004b).
  • Systematic surveys for Spot-tailed Quolls in the Otway Ranges (southern Victoria) during the development of the West Victoria Regional Forest Agreement, and surveys in north-east Victoria, south-west Victoria and the Strezlecki Ranges have been undertaken (Backhouse 2003).
  • At the Otway Ranges a survey in 1999 obtained four records from an area of 1200 km² (Belcher 2000a).

According to the Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC 2004b), it is likely that the total number of mature adult Spot-tailed Quolls is probably greater than 2000 but fewer than 10 000 individuals. It is unclear whether this estimate includes Tasmanian populations of the subspecies. Extant populations are highly fragmented and declining (Dawson 2005; Edgar & Belcher 2008; Mansergh 1984).

In the ACT, the Spot-tailed Quoll is known from Namadgi NP (Catling & Burt 1994; Long & Nelson 2004).

In NSW, the Spot-tailed Quoll is known from Badja SF, Chaelundi SF, Limeburner's Creek NR, Tallaganda SF, Tuggolo SF, Nowendoc NP, Styx River SF, Cunnawarra SF and Kosciuszko NP (Catling & Burt 1994; Long & Nelson 2004).

In Victoria, the subspecies is known from Otway NP and Mt Eccles NP (Catling & Burt 1994; Long & Nelson 2004).

The Spot-tailed Quoll has a preference for mature wet forest habitat (Belcher 2000b; Green & Scarborough 1990; Watt 1993), especially in areas with rainfall 600 mm/year (Edgar & Belcher 2008; Mansergh 1984). Unlogged forest or forest that has been less disturbed by timber harvesting is also preferable (Catling et al. 1998, 2000). This subspecies has been recorded from a wide range of habitats, including:

  • temperate and subtropical rainforests in mountain areas
  • wet schlerophyll forest
  • lowland forests
  • open and closed eucalypt woodlands
  • inland riparian and River Red Gum (Eucalyptus camaldulensis) forests
  • dry 'rainshadow' woodland
  • sub-alpine woodlands
  • coastal heathlands
  • occasional sightings from open country, grazing lands, rocky outcrops and other treeless areas (Edgar & Belcher 2008; Green & Scarborough 1990; Jones & Mansergh 1995a; Maxwell et al. 1996; NSW NPWS 1999; Reside 1997 cited in Dawson 2005; Rose 1996 cited in Dawson 2005).

Belcher (2000b) observed that Spot-tailed Quolls at Suggan Buggan used escarpment and gully habitats. Possum, rat and antechinus scats were observed on the cliffs, rock ledges and outcrops along the escarpment suggesting that it was a prey-rich habitat. The gullies utilised by Spot-tailed Quolls featured an abundance of Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) and possums (Belcher 2000b).

Habitat requirements
The Spot-tailed Quoll is predominantly nocturnal and rests during the day in dens (Jones et al. 2001). Habitat requirements include suitable den sites such as hollow logs, tree hollows, rock outcrops or caves (NPWS 1999at). Individuals also require an abundance of food, such as birds and small mammals, and large areas of relatively intact vegetation through which to forage (NSW NPWS 1999at). This subspecies is moderately arboreal and approximately 11% of travelling is done in trees (Jones 1995 cited in Jones et al. 2001).

Life expectancy
Although the Spot-tailed Quoll generally lives between three and four years in captivity (Collins 1973 cited in Jones et al. 2001), one individual was recorded as living for six years and three months (Mitchell 1911 cited in Jones et al. 2001).

Reproduction
In captive studies, Spot-tailed Quoll females older than three years did not produce litters, but males up to the age of five and half years sired young (Collins et al. 1993). Males reach their maximum weight at three years and females at around two years (Belcher 2003; Körtner et al. 2004).

Mating and births for the Spot-tailed Quoll occur over the winter months (June–August) (Fleay 1940; Lee et al. 1982 cited in Dawson 2005; Settle 1978). It is possible for roaming males to mate with more than one female per year (Belcher & Darrant 2004).

Following a 21-day gestation period, litters of between four and six are born in late July to mid-August (Belcher 2003; Fleay 1940; Settle 1978). Newborns measure 7 mm in length (Fleay 1940; Green & Scarborough 1990) but grow to 35 mm by four weeks of age. Young are attached to the teat for about eight weeks from birth. After this time, young may be left in the maternal den while the mother is hunting for food to bring back to her young. At 18–21 weeks the young are fully independent and 33% of the body size of the mother (Collins 1973 cited in Jones et al. 2001; Edgar & Belcher 2008; Fleay 1940; Green & Scarborough 1990; Troughton 1954).

Captive breeding
Spot-tailed Quolls are difficult to breed in captivity (Collins et al. 1993; Conway 1988; Jones et al. 2001).

Diet
Spot-tailed Quolls are predators of mainly medium-sized mammals (500–5000 g) (Edgar & Belcher 2008). The main prey items include: Ringtail Possum (Pseudocheirus pererinus), Common Brushtail Possum (Trichosurus vulpecula), Mountain Brushtail Possum (Trichosurus caninus), Greater Gilder (Petauroides volans) and Rabbit (Alexander 1980 cited in Dawson 2005; Belcher 1995, 2000b). Additionally, the subspecies consume insects, lizards, crayfish, poultry, birds, small mammals, frogs, fish, plant material and refuse that has been discarded by humans (Dawson 2005; Jones et al. 2001).

Seasons and different habitats provide different primary feeding resources (Dawson et al. 2007). In tall wet forests of the escarpment ranges of southern NSW, Greater Gliders occur at high densities and are the main prey item of the subspecies (Belcher 2000b). In a dry rainshadow woodland habitat of the Kosciusko NP found Common Brushtail Possums to be the most utilised prey, with largomorphs (Rabbits and Hares (Lepus europaeus)) becoming increasingly utilised following wildfire in the area (Dawson et. al 2007).

Feeding behaviour
The Spot-tailed Quoll is adept at climbing high into trees and can capture possums, tree-roosting domestic Chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) and sleeping birds at night (Fleay 1940; Jones 1995 cited in Jones et al. 2001). Spot-tailed Quolls have been recorded in tree hollows hunting Great Gliders (Belcher 2000b).

Home ranges/territories
Radio-tracking studies (Claridge et al. 2005) of the Spot-tailed Quoll in Kosciuszko NP in 2002 resulted in home range estimates of 620–2560 ha for males, and 90–650 ha for females. The mean home range for males was 992 ± 276 ha, and 244 ± 72 ha for females (Claridge et al. 2005).

Belcher and Darrant's (2004) studies in 1994–99 in Victoria and NSW indicated that adult female Spot-tailed Quolls occupied exclusive territories throughout the year. Females tolerated their female offspring within their territory, at least until the offspring reached sexual maturity. The home ranges of males overlapped extensively with other males and with females throughout the year (Belcher & Darrant 2004). The Spot-tailed Quolls in Belcher and Darrant's (2004) study were solitary following mating. It was observed that males did not assist in the rearing of young.

The Spot-tailed Quolls in Belcher and Darrant's (2004) study occupied very large home ranges, with males occupying significantly larger home ranges than females. The mean home range size for males was more than three times the mean for females. This difference is partly due to differences between the sexes in weight and energy requirements (Harestad & Bunnell 1979 cited in Belcher & Darrant 2004). Male home range size may also be influenced by the need to gain access to females (Lindstedt et al. 1986 cited in Belcher & Darrant 2004).

Latrines
Latrines of the Spot-tailed Quoll are sites where groups of individuals repeatedly urinate and defecate over long periods of time. This results in the bleaching of the soil substrate and an accumulation of scats (Dawson 2005; Kruuk & Jarman 1995). For a highly cryptic species such as the Spot-tailed Quoll, latrines provide focal points for studies into distribution, diet, habitat, population structure, and management (Dawson 2005). Latrines are typically found in rocky creek beds, at the bases of cliffs, and on roads (Burnett 2000 cited in Jones et al. 2001; Kruuk & Jarman 1995). Visits to latrines occur throughout the night, with activity peaks during the breeding season (Belcher 1994 cited in Jones et al. 2001).

Techniques to survey Spot-tailed Quolls include searches for latrine sites, searches for scats of other predators (which may contain quoll hair and bone fragments) and hair sampling tubes (ACT Government 2005).

The Australian Museum Business Services (AMBS 2004b) recommended the following survey techniques to detect the presence of the Spot-tailed Quoll (including Tasmanian populations) in areas up to 5 ha in size:

  • daytime searches for potentially suitable habitat resources, such as areas associated with gullies or ridges and potential den sites (caves, hollow logs or dense understorey vegetation such as Lantana (Lantana spp.) that provides suitable cover)
  • daytime searches for signs of activity, including tracks, scats and latrines
  • hair sampling device (hair-funnels) surveys, using a mixture of sardines, tuna oil and flour for bait (the Spot-tailed Quoll is included among those animals able to be distinguished from hair samples) (AMBS 2004b).

Habitat loss and degradation
The loss, fragmentation, disturbance and degradation of habitat through clearing of native vegetation, timber harvesting and other forest management practices are probably the greatest threats to the Spot-tailed Quoll. The results of these actions include reduced prey abundance (such as Greater Gliders), greater Red Fox (Vulpes vulpes) incursion, changed fire regimes (ACT Government 2005; Belcher et al. 2007; Catling & Burt 1995; Catling et al. 1998; Long & Nelson 2004).

Predation
Predation from Red Foxes, Dingos (Canis lupus dingo) and Domestic Dogs (Canis lupus familiaris), are current threats to quolls (Körtner & Gresser 2002; Murray & Poore 2004). The impacts of introduced predators on the Spot-tailed Quoll are likely to be magnified if they occur in conjunction with other threatening processes (Burnett 1993 cited in Long & Nelson 2004).

Given the dietary and habitat overlap between the Spot-tailed Quoll and introduced carnivores, particularly the Cats (Felis catus) and foxes (Belcher 1994; Burnett 2001; Dickman 1996; Taylor 1986), competitive effects may also be occurring (Long & Nelson 2004).

Timber harvesting, forest management activities and land clearing may increase Red Fox accessibility into forests. These activities are likely to have increased the distribution and abundance of Red Foxes in south-east NSW and led to the reduction in medium-sized ground-dwelling mammals of the area (Catling & Burt 1995; Catling et al. 1998). Less disturbed forests in north-east NSW have less Red Foxes and greater quoll occurrence (Catling et al. 2000; Backhouse 2003; Körtner & Gresser 2002; Maxwell et al. 1996).

Fire
Fire has a positive and negative impact on the habitat of Spot-tailed Quoll. The availability of prey and refugia may be limited in the short-term following fire, but in the longer term, fire may accelerate the formation of tree hollows used by this subspecies and their prey (ACT Government 2005; Long & Nelson 2004).

Long-term post-fire mortality of the species is likely to be influenced by habitat patchiness, timber harvesting and the availability of prey and refuges to provide protection from predators. The reduced availability of prey may affect the fecundity of Spot-tailed Quolls and exacerbate competitive interactions with other predators (Long & Nelson 2004).

Direct killing
Spot-tailed Quolls have been killed by landholders in response to poultry coop raids (Long & Nelson 2004).

Road mortality
The large home ranges of the Spot-tailed Quoll, particularly males, makes them susceptible to road mortality in forested areas fragmented by roads, and a tendency to scavenge road-killed carcasses may increase this threat (Dawson 2005; Green & Scarborough 1990; Nelson 2004; Jones 2000 cited in Long & Nelson 2004; Jones et al. 2003; Long & Nelson 2004).

Poisoning by Cane Toads
There is only anecdotal evidence indicating that Cane Toads (Bufo marinus) threaten Spot-tailed Quoll populations. The Chuditch (Dasyurus geoffroii) and Northern Quoll (Dasyurus hallucatus) are both known to be killed by the poison secreted by Cane Toads (Covacevich & Archer 1975 cited Long & Nelson 2004). Dramatic declines in Northern Quoll populations are attributed to Cane Toads (Oakwood 2004 cited in Long & Nelson 2004).

1080 baiting
Red Foxes, wild Dingos and wild dogs are the targets of pest-control programs in Australia, many of which involve the distribution of sodium monofluroacetate (1080) baits (Fleming et al. 2001; Glen & Dickman 2003a, 2003b; Saunders et al. 1995). Various studies have recorded the removal of baits by non-target animals and particular concern has been given to the possible effects of 1080 baiting on the Spot-tailed Quoll (Glen & Dickman 2003a, 2003b). Although Spot-tailed Quolls are more tolerant to 1080 than canids, the 6 mg dose of 1080 in fresh dog baits and 3 mg dose in fox baits is potentially fatal, particularly for smaller individuals, such as females and juveniles (Körtner & Watson 2005).

Trail Baiting
Trail baiting involves laying bait along trails that foxes and dogs use. The removal of non-toxic baits was monitored during a simulated trail-baiting programme for foxes and wild dogs in the central tablelands of NSW in 2000–01 (Glen & Dickman 2003b). This study showed that Spot-tailed Quolls have the ability to locate and remove non-toxic baits buried at a depth of 7 cm, either beneath the ground surface or in a mound. The study also showed that individual quolls can remove baits from several bait stations on the same night. For instance, one individual was recorded removing baits from at least three, possibly four, consecutive bait stations on the same night (Glen & Dickman 2003b). Although some Spot-tailed Quolls may survive the dose of 1080 contained in a single Foxoff®bait (3 mg of 1080) (McIlroy 1981), the chances of survival after consuming two or more baits is greatly reduced (Glen & Dickman 2003b). However, while Spot-tailed Quolls take non-toxic meat baits, Spot-tailed Quolls may avoid eating baits containing 1080 based on smell or taste and/or vomit or regurgitate baits before absorbing a lethal dose (McIlroy 2007). Subsequent reviews and practices have indicated that baits placed in areas where dogs and foxes are likely to travel (e.g. along tracks), and spaced at least 200 m apart, are less likely to pose a threat to non-target animals such as quolls (especially when baits are buried to a depth of 10 cm or deeper) (APMVA 2008).

Trail-baiting trials were conducted on the eastern escarpment of the New England Tablelands (NSW) during 2000–01 (Körtner & Gresser 2002). The trials, which used Foxoff® baits, involved recording bait visits and bait takes by radio-collared Spot-tailed Quolls. Quoll deaths due to 1080-poisoning were not recorded because of a lack of bait consumption. Spot-tailed Quolls regularly visited bait stations and removed baits which were then discarded. Körtner & Gresser (2002) suggested that this occurred because quolls found the Foxoff®baits unpalatable, either because of 1080 or because of the matrix of the bait itself (Körtner & Gresser 2002).

Aerial Baiting
A 1999 study (Murray & Poore 2004) was conducted in Tallaganda SF (SF No. 577) and the northern section of Badjas SF (SF No. 567). The results provided evidence that Spot-tailed Quolls are capable of locating and consuming non-toxic meat baits deployed from aircraft as part of a wild dog control programme (Murray & Poore 2004).

A 2003–04 study was conducted by Claridge and colleagues (2006) within the catchments of the Jacobs River and Ingebirah Creek, in the Byadbo Wilderness Area of Kosciuszko NP reaffirmed the findings of Murray and Poore (2004), that Spot-tailed Quolls are able to encounter and consume non-toxic meat baits (Claridge et al. 2006).

The impact of aerial poison baiting on Spot-tailed Quolls as been inferred from population studies where local declines were observed in the presence of a baiting activity (Belcher 2003). According to Claridge and colleagues (2006), 'the overwhelming limitation of such studies is that causation [of the negative impact of 1080 on quolls] has not been demonstrated, but alluded to'.

A further study by Claridge and Mills (2007) of 1080 aerial deployed baits found no short-term impact on Spot-tailed Quolls.

Three aerial baiting trials have been conducted in NSW by the Department of Environment and Conservation during 2004–05, and in Queensland in 2002–05. Mortality among quoll populations was much lower than that predicted by previous non-toxic aerial bait uptake trials (NSW DEC 2005c).

1080 Baiting
Glen and Dickman (2003b) recommend that mound bait stations should not be used where there are populations of Spot-tailed Quolls, and that baits should be buried below the ground in these areas. Subsequent reviews have indicated that mound baiting, with baits buried to a depth of greater than 10 cm may reduce the likelihood of quolls uncovering baits (APVMA 2008; Glen et al 2007). To reduce the likelihood of individual quolls taking several baits in a short space of time, which may be fatal, bait stations should be spaced further than 200 m apart (APVMA 2008). A period of free-feeding should precede the use of toxic baits where quolls may be present. Free-feeding involves placing non-toxic baits in mounds covered with sand or raked soil so that animal footprints can be identified to confirm visitation by target animals.

Habitat Management
Following their radio-tracking studies of the subspecies in Victoria and NSW, Belcher and Darrant (2004) suggested that, rather than a reliance on public reserves, appropriate management and conservation is necessary for the south-east mainland population at a landscape-level.

Also, the maintenance of territories of female Spot-tailed Quolls (particularly their prey items, breeding dens and connectivity between these dens) are of critical importance to the conservation of the subspecies, as the distribution of males appear to be largely influenced by the presence of breeding adult females (Belcher & Darrant 2004).

ACT
The ACT Government (2005) has proposed the following conservation measures:

  • Continue research, surveys and monitoring programmes.
  • Ensure pest control activities, such as baiting, comply with best practice prescriptions.
  • Manage or avoid habitat disturbance in reserved areas known to support quoll populations.
  • Protection of critical Spot-tailed Quoll habitat should be incorporated into fire management prescriptions.

Victoria
The Victorian Department of Sustainability and Environment (Backhouse 2003) has proposed the following conservation measures:

  • Develop a detection model to assess the presence and habitat use of Spot-tailed Quolls.
  • Conduct surveys in north-east Victoria as part of the North East Forest Management Plan (Vic. DNRE 2001).
  • Investigate any Spot-tailed Quoll sightings in areas with few recent records.
  • Report and verify all Spot-tailed Quoll records by the Victorian Department of Sustainability and Environment staff and the public.
  • Collect biological and ecological data on the Spot-tailed Quoll.

Threatened Species Network funding grants benefiting the Spot-tailed Quoll
The Ovens, King, Black Dog Implementation Committee North East Catchment Management Authority (Victoria) received $13 000 through the Threatened Species Network Community Grants in 2002–03, part of which was for the development and enhancement of vegetation links between two major remnants in order to improve overall quality of habitat for the Spot-tailed Quoll in the Chiltern region (DEWHA 2008acu).

The Glen Innes Natural Resources Advisory Committee received $16 136 through the Threatened Species Network Community Grants in 2007–08, part of which was for improving quoll awareness in the Glen Innes district. This project will educate the community about improving bird cages/pens to protect from quoll predation, and will conduct pre and post-activity community survey to gauge an understanding of quoll awareness and attitudes towards quolls (DEWHA 2008acu).

Foxground Landcare Group Inc (NSW) received $13 472 through the Threatened Species Network Community Grants in 2008–09 for Surveying and Monitoring Spotted-tailed Quolls in Foxground. The project aims to determine the specific habitat requirements of the Spotted-tailed Quoll on freehold land in Foxground. The project will establish a conservation management agreement and feral animal control programs, raise community awareness, and surveying and monitoring will be used to determine population size, age, gender and diet (DEWHA 2008acu).

1080 baiting
All states and territories where the Spot-tailed Quoll occurs have best practice guidelines or operational policies on the use of 1080, including instructions for the timing of baiting activities, deployment methods, acceptable 1080 dosage levels and the distances baits should be spaced.

Important description studies for the Spot-tailed Quoll include Belcher (2000) and Dawson (2005).

A Victorian Action Statement (Backhouse 2003), an ACT Action Plan (ACT Government 2005) and NSW priority actions (NSW NPWS 1999at) are available for Dasyurus maculatus. Draft guidelines regarding the use of 1080, and strategies for minimising its impact on populations of Spot-tailed Quoll (DEH 2004d; DEWHA 2009e), are also available.

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Agriculture and Aquaculture:Land clearing, habitat fragmentation and/or habitat degradation Commonwealth Listing Advice on Dasyurus maculatus maculatus (Spot-tailed Quoll, Spotted-tailed Quoll, Tiger Quoll) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2004b) [Listing Advice].
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Grazing pressures and associated habitat changes Border Ranges Rainforest Biodiversity Management Plan - NSW & Queensland (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010n) [State Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Logging and Wood Harvesting:Habitat loss, modification and degradation due to timber harvesting Northern Rivers Regional Biodiversity Management Plan (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010p) [State Recovery Plan].
Commonwealth Listing Advice on Dasyurus maculatus maculatus (Spot-tailed Quoll, Spotted-tailed Quoll, Tiger Quoll) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2004b) [Listing Advice].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Habitat Shifting and Alteration:Habitat loss, modification and/or degradation Border Ranges Rainforest Biodiversity Management Plan - NSW & Queensland (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010n) [State Recovery Plan].
Northern Rivers Regional Biodiversity Management Plan (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010p) [State Recovery Plan].
Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Ecosystem Degradation:Decline in habitat quality Commonwealth Listing Advice on Dasyurus maculatus maculatus (Spot-tailed Quoll, Spotted-tailed Quoll, Tiger Quoll) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2004b) [Listing Advice].
Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Indirect Ecosystem Effects:Loss and/or fragmentation of habitat and/or subpopulations Border Ranges Rainforest Biodiversity Management Plan - NSW & Queensland (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010n) [State Recovery Plan].
Northern Rivers Regional Biodiversity Management Plan (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010p) [State Recovery Plan].
Commonwealth Listing Advice on Dasyurus maculatus maculatus (Spot-tailed Quoll, Spotted-tailed Quoll, Tiger Quoll) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2004b) [Listing Advice].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human induced disturbance due to unspecified activities Border Ranges Rainforest Biodiversity Management Plan - NSW & Queensland (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010n) [State Recovery Plan].
Northern Rivers Regional Biodiversity Management Plan (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010p) [State Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation by weeds Border Ranges Rainforest Biodiversity Management Plan - NSW & Queensland (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010n) [State Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Vulpes vulpes (Red Fox, Fox) Tasmania's Threatened Fauna Handbook: What, Where and How to Protect Tasmania's Threatened Animals (Bryant, S. & J. Jackson, 1999b) [Book].
Commonwealth Listing Advice on Dasyurus maculatus maculatus (Spot-tailed Quoll, Spotted-tailed Quoll, Tiger Quoll) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2004b) [Listing Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Felis catus (Cat, House Cat, Domestic Cat) The threat posed by pest animals to biodiversity in New South Wales (Coutts-Smith, A.J., P.S. Mahon, M. Letnic & P.O. Downey, 2007) [Management Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Canis lupus familiaris (Domestic Dog) Commonwealth Listing Advice on Dasyurus maculatus maculatus (Spot-tailed Quoll, Spotted-tailed Quoll, Tiger Quoll) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2004b) [Listing Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Rhinella marina (Cane Toad) The threat posed by pest animals to biodiversity in New South Wales (Coutts-Smith, A.J., P.S. Mahon, M. Letnic & P.O. Downey, 2007) [Management Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Animal control Northern Rivers Regional Biodiversity Management Plan (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010p) [State Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Predation, competition, habitat degradation and/or spread of pathogens by introduced species Border Ranges Rainforest Biodiversity Management Plan - NSW & Queensland (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010n) [State Recovery Plan].
Northern Rivers Regional Biodiversity Management Plan (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010p) [State Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Presence of pathogens and resulting disease Border Ranges Rainforest Biodiversity Management Plan - NSW & Queensland (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010n) [State Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:pest animal control Commonwealth Listing Advice on Dasyurus maculatus maculatus (Spot-tailed Quoll, Spotted-tailed Quoll, Tiger Quoll) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2004b) [Listing Advice].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity) Border Ranges Rainforest Biodiversity Management Plan - NSW & Queensland (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010n) [State Recovery Plan].
Northern Rivers Regional Biodiversity Management Plan (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010p) [State Recovery Plan].
Commonwealth Listing Advice on Dasyurus maculatus maculatus (Spot-tailed Quoll, Spotted-tailed Quoll, Tiger Quoll) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2004b) [Listing Advice].

ABC News (2013b). Endangered tiger quoll spotted in Grampians for the first time in more than 140 years. [Online]. Available from: http://www.abc.net.au/news/2013-10-03/endangered-tiger-quoll-spotted-in-grampians-for-the-first-time-/4995444.

ACT Government (2005). Spotted-tailed Quoll (Dasyurus maculatus) - a vulnerable species, Action Plan No. 30. [Online]. Canberra: Environment ACT. Available from: http://www.environment.act.gov.au/cpr/conservation_and_ecological_communities/threatened_species_action_plans.

Australian Museum Business Services (AMBS) (2004b). Spotted-tailed Quoll (southeast mainland & Tas subspecies) Dasyurus maculatus maculatus. The Provision of Data for National Fauna Survey Standards: Non-flying Mammals. Draft Report for the Department of the Environment and Heritage. East Sydney, NSW: AMBS.

Australian Pesticides and Veterinary Medicines Authority (APVMA) (2008). Review findings sodium fluoroacetate - Technical Report - The reconsideration of registrations of products containing sodium fluoroacetate and approvals of their associated labels - Environment Assessment. Canberra: Commonwealth of Australia.

Backhouse, G. (2003). Spot-tailed Quoll Dasyurus maculatus Action Statement: No. 15. [Online]. East Melbourne: Department of Sustainability and Environment. Available from: http://www.dse.vic.gov.au/plants-and-animals/flora-and-fauna-guarantee-act-action-statements-index-of-approved-action-statements.

Belcher, C. (1994). Studies on the diet of the Tiger Quoll (Dasyurus maculatus). M.Sc. Thesis. Bundoora, Victoria: La Trobe University.

Belcher, C., J. Nelson & J. Darrant (2007). Diet of the tiger quoll (Dasyurus maculatus) in south-eastern Australia. Australian Journal of Zoology. 55:117-122.

Belcher, C.A. (1995). Diet of the tiger quoll (Dasyurus maculatus) in East Gippsland, Victoria. Wildlife Research. 22:341-357.

Belcher, C.A. (2000a). The range, status and distribution of the Spot-tailed Quoll, Dasyurus maculatus, in the Otway Ranges. Report for the Commonwealth Government of Australia and the Department of Natural Resources, Victoria. Timboon: Ecosystems Environmental Consultants RMB 4269.

Belcher, C.A. (2000b). The Ecology of the Tiger Quoll, Dasyurus maculatus, in south-eastern Australia. Ph.D. Thesis. Melbourne, Victoria: Deakin University.

Belcher, C.A. (2003). Demographics of tiger quoll (Dasyurus maculatus maculatus) populations in south-eastern Australia. Australian Journal of Zoology. 51:611-626.

Belcher, C.A. & J.P. Darrant (2004). Home range and spatial organization of the marsupial carnivore, Dasyurus maculatus maculatus (Marsupialia: Dasyuridae) in south-eastern Australia. Journal of Zoology. 262:271-280.

Burnett, S. (2001). The ecology and conservation status of the northern Spot-tailed Quoll Dasyurus maculatus with reference to the future of Australia's marsupial carnivores. Ph.D. Thesis. Townsville, Queensland: James Cook University.

Catling, P.C. & R.J. Burt (1994). Studies of the ground-dwelling mammals of eucalypt forests in south-eastern New South Wales : the species, their abundance and distribution. Wildlife Research. 21:219-239.

Catling, P.C. & R.J. Burt (1995). Why are red foxes absent from some eucalypt forests in eastern New South Wales?. Wildlife Research. 22:535-546.

Catling, P.C., & R.J. Burt (1997). Studies of the ground-dwelling mammals of eucalypt forests in north-eastern New South Wales: the species, their abundance and distribution. Wildlife Research. 24:1-19.

Catling, P.C., R.J. Burt & R.I. Forrester (1998). Models of the distribution and abundance of ground-dwelling mammals in the eucalypt forests of south-eastern New South Wales. Wildlife Research. 25(5):449-466.

Catling, P.C., R.J. Burt & R.I. Forrester (2000). Models of the distribution and abundance of ground-dwelling mammals in the eucalypt forests of north-eastern New South Wales in relation to habitat variables. Wildlife Research. 27:639-654.

Claridge, A. & D. Mills (2007). Aerial baiting for wild dogs has no observable impact on spotted-tailed quolls (Dasyurus maculatus) in a rainshadow woodland. Wildlife Research. 34:116-124.

Claridge, A.W., A.J. Murray, J. Dawson, R. Poore, G. Mifsud & M.J. Saxon (2006). The propensity of spotted-tailed quolls (Dasyurus maculatus) to encounter and consume non-toxic meat baits in a simulated canid-control program. Wildlife Research. 33:85-91.

Claridge, A.W., D. Paull, J. Dawson, G. Mifsud, A.J. Murray, R. Poore & M.J. Saxon (2005). Home range of the spotted-tailed quoll (Dasyurus maculatus), a marsupial carnivore, in a rainshadow woodland. Wildlife Research. 32(1):7-14.

Collins, L., L. Flicker, A. Heath, G. Peterson, K. Pojeta, M. Rodden, R. Rodden, J. Watson-Jones & M. Willeford Bair (1993). Captive management and husbandry procedures for tiger quolls (Dasyurus maculatus). In: Biology and Management of Australasian Carnivorous Marsupials. TorontoMetropolitan Toronto Zoo and the American Association of Zoological Parks and Aquariums.

Conway, K. (1988). Captive management and breeding of the tiger quoll. International Zoo Yearbook. 27:108-119.

Cronin, L. (1991). Key Guide to Australian Mammals. Balgowlah, NSW: Reed Books.

Dawson, J., A. Claridge, B. Triggs and D. Paull (2007). Diet of a native carnivore, the spotted-tailed Quoll (Dasyurus maculatus), before and after an intense wildfire. Wildlife Research. 34:342-351.

Dawson, J.P. (2005). Impact of wildfire on the spotted-tailed quoll Dasyurus maculatus in Kosciuszko National Park. M.Sc. Thesis. University College (Australian Defence Force Academy), University of New South Wales.

Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC) (2011j). Survey guidelines for Australia's threatened mammals. EPBC Act survey guidelines 6.5. [Online]. EPBC Act policy statement: Canberra, ACT: DSEWPAC. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/epbc/publications/threatened-mammals.html.

Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA) (2008acu). National Threatened Species Day Home Page. [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/ts-day/index.html.

Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA) (2009e). Draft EPBC Act Policy Statement 3.4 - Significant impact guidelines for the endangered spot-tailed quoll Dasyurus maculatus maculatus (southeastern mainland population) and the use of 1080 . [Online]. Canberra: DEWHA. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/epbc/publications/dasyurus-maculatus-maculatus.html.

Dickman, C.R. (1996). Overview of the impacts of feral cats on Australian native fauna. Report to the Australian Nature Conservation Agency. Canberra: Australian Nature Conservation Agency.

Edgar, R. & C. Belcher (2008). Spotted-tailed Quoll, Dasyurus maculatus (Kerr, 1792). In: Strahan, R., ed. The Mammals of Australia. Page(s) 61-62. Carlton, Victoria: Reed New Holland.

Firestone, K.B., M.S. Elphinstone, W.B. Sherwin & B.A. Houlden (1999). Phylogeographical population structure of tiger quolls Dasyurus maculatus (Dasyuridae: Marsupialia), an endangered carnivorous marsupial. Molecular Ecology. 8:1613-1625.

Fleay, D. (1940). Breeding of the Tiger Cat. Victorian Naturalist. 56:159-163.

Fleming, P., L. Corbett, R. Harden & P. Thomson (2001). Managing the Impacts of Dingoes and Other Wild Dogs. Canberra: Bureau of Rural Sciences.

Glen, A.S. & C.R. Dickman (2003a). Monitoring bait removal in vertebrate pest control: a comparison using track identification and remote photography. Wildlife Research. 30:29-33.

Glen, A.S. & C.R. Dickman (2003b). Effects of bait-station design on the uptake of baits by non-target animals during control programmes for foxes and wild dogs. Wildlife Research. 30:147-149.

Glen, A.S., M.N. Gentle & C.R. Dickman (2007). Non-target imparcts of poison baiting for predator control in Australia. Mammal Review. 37(3):191-205.

Green, R.H. & T.J. Scarborough (1990). The spotted-tailed quoll Dasyurus maculatus (Dasyuridae, Marsupialia) in Tasmania. The Tasmanian Naturalist. 100:1-15.

Jones, M. (1997). Character displacement in Australian dasyurid carnivores: size relationships and prey size patterns. Ecology. 78:2569-2587.

Jones, M.E., M. Oakwood C.A. Belcher, K. Morris, A.J. Murray, P.A. Woolley, K.B. Firestone, B. Johnson & S. Burnett (2003). Carnivore Concerns: Problems, issues and solutions for conserving Australasia's marsupial carnivores. In: Jones, M., C. Dickman & M. Archer, eds. Predators with Pouches: The biology of carnivorous marsupials. Page(s) 422-434. Collingwood, Victoria: CSIRO Publishing.

Jones, M.E., R.K. Rose & S. Burnett (2001). Dasyurus maculatus. Mammalian Species. 676:1-9. American Society of Mammalogists.

Körtner, G. & P. Watson (2005). The immediate impact of 1080 aerial baiting to control wild dogs on a spotted-tailed quoll population. Wildlife Research. 32:673-680.

Körtner, G. & S. Gresser (2002). Impact of fox baiting on quoll populations. Final Report to Environment Australia and the New South Wales National Parks and Wildlife Service.

Körtner, G., S. Gresser, B. Mott, B. Tamayo, P. Pisanu, P. Bayne & R. Harden (2004). Population structure, turnover and movement of spotted-tailed quolls on the New England Tablelands. Wildlife Research. 30:111-118.

Kruuk, H. & P.J. Jarman (1995). Latrine use by the spotted-tailed quoll (Dasyurus maculatus: Dasyuridae, Marsupialia) in its natural habitat. Journal of Zoology. 236:345-349.

Long, K & J. Nelson (2010a). (Draft) National Recovery Plan for the Spotted-tailed Quoll Dasyurus maculatus. Victorian Department of Sustainability and Environment.

Long, K.I. & J.L. Nelson (2004). (Draft) Recovery Plan for Dasyurus maculatus (Spotted-tailed Quoll) 2005-2009. Canberra: Department of the Environment and Heritage.

Mansergh, I.M. (1984). The status, distribution and abundance of Dasyurus maculatus (Tiger Quoll) in Australia with particular reference to Victoria. Australian Zoologist. 21:109-122.

Mansergh, I.M. (1995a). Spot-tailed quoll. In: Menkhorst, P.W., ed. Mammals of Victoria. Page(s) 51-52. Melbourne: Oxford University Press.

Maxwell, S., A.A. Burbidge & K. Morris (1996). The 1996 Action Plan for Australian Marsupials and Monotremes. [Online]. Wildlife Australia, Environment Australia. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/resource/action-plan-australian-marsupials-and-monotremes.

McIlroy, J. (2007). A review of the effect of large scale 1080 baiting ofr fox and wild dog control on the spotted-tailed quoll, Dasyurus maculatus maculatus. Canberra: Department of the Environment and Water Resources.

McIlroy, J.C. (1981). The sensitivity of Australian animals to 1080 poison. II. Marsupial and eutherian carnivores. Australian Wildlife Research. 8:385-399.

Murray, A.J. & R.N. Poore (2004). Potential impact of aerial baiting for wild dogs on a population of spotted-tailed quolls (Dasyurus maculatus). Wildlife Research. 31:639-644.

Nelson, L.S., D. Fletcher, N. Bensley, M.A. Dunford, M.J. Jekabsons, B.J. Morris & P. Ormay (2001). 1999-2000 Survey for the Spotted-tailed Quoll (Dasyurus maculatus maculatus) in the ACT. Internal Report 2001/02, Environment ACT. Canberra: Wildlife Research and Monitoring, Environment ACT.

NSW Department of Environment and Conservation (NSW DEC) (2005c). Research results on the impact of aerial baiting for wild dogs on spotted-tailed quoll populations. Aerial Baiting and Quolls Research Steering Committee, Quoll Fact Sheet, September 2005. Sydney, NSW: DEC.

NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service (NSW NPWS) (1999at). Spotted-tailed Quoll, Dasyurus maculatus (Kerr 1792). Hurstville, NSW: NPWS.

Saunders, G., B. Coman, J. Kinnear & M. Braysher (1995). Managing Vertebrate Pests: Foxes. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service.

Settle, G.A. (1978). The quiddity of Tiger Quolls. Australian Natural History. 19:165-169.

Sherlock, E. (2008). It's back to the wild life for rare quoll. Sunday Canberra Times. 1/6/2008:p.11.

Taylor, R.J. (1986). Notes on the diet of the carnivorous mammals of the Upper Henty River region, western Tasmania. Papers and Proceedings of the Roayal Society of Tasmania. 120:7-10.

Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC) (2004b). Commonwealth Listing Advice on Dasyurus maculatus maculatus (Spot-tailed Quoll, Spotted-tailed Quoll, Tiger Quoll). [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/species/tiger-quoll.html.

Troughton, E. (1954). The marsupial "tiger" cat. Birth and growth in captivity. The Australian Museum Magazine. 11:200-202.

University of Wollongong (UoW) (2014). Endangered Tiger quoll spotted alive and well near Newcastle. Campus News. [Online]. Available from: http://media.uow.edu.au/news/UOW173344.html.

Van Dyck, S.M. & Longmore, N.W. (1991). The mammal records. In: Ingram, G.J. & Raven, R.J., eds. Atlas of Queensland's Frogs, Reptiles, Birds & Mammals. Page(s) 284-336. Brisbane: Queensland Museum.

Victoria Department of Natural Resources and Environment (Vic. DNRE) (2001). Forest Management Plan of the North East. East Melbourne, Victoria: DNRE.

Watt, A. (1993). Conservation status and draft management plan for Dasyurus maculatus and D. hallucatus in southern Queensland. Queensland: Department of Environment and Heritage.

EPBC Act email updates can be received via the Communities for Communities newsletter and the EPBC Act newsletter.

This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Dasyurus maculatus maculatus (SE mainland population) in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Wed, 17 Sep 2014 01:15:44 +1000.