Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Vulnerable
Listing and Conservation Advices Commonwealth Listing Advice on Dasyurus maculatus maculatus (Spot-tailed Quoll, Spotted-tailed Quoll, Tiger Quoll) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2004b) [Listing Advice].
 
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan required, included on the Commenced List (1/11/2009).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans
Policy Statements and Guidelines Survey guidelines for Australia's threatened mammals. EPBC Act survey guidelines 6.5 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011j) [Admin Guideline].
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Determination that a distinct population of biological entities is a species under section 517 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (Quolls) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2004a) [Legislative Instrument].
 
Inclusion of species in the list of threatened species under section 178 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (05/05/2004) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2004e) [Legislative Instrument].
 
State Government
    Documents and Websites
TAS:Spotted-tail Quoll (Tasmanian Department of Primary Industries, Parks, Water and Environment (TAS DIPWE), 2009h) [Internet].
TAS:Dasyurus maculatus maculatus (Tasmanian population) (Spotted-tail Quoll, Spot-tailed Quoll, Tiger Quoll (Tasmanian population)): Species Management Profile for Tasmania's Threatened Species Link (Threatened Species Section (TSS), 2014xw) [State Action Plan].
VIC:Spot-tailed Quoll Dasyurus maculatus Action Statement: No. 15 (Backhouse, G., 2003) [State Action Plan].
State Listing Status
TAS: Listed as Rare (Threatened Species Protection Act 1995 (Tasmania): Rare species: September 2012 list)
Scientific name Dasyurus maculatus maculatus (Tasmanian population) [75183]
Family Dasyuridae:Polyprotodonta:Mammalia:Chordata:Animalia
Species author  
Infraspecies author  
Reference  
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images

Scientific name: Dasyurus maculatus maculatus (Tasmanian population)

Common name: Spotted-tailed Quoll (Tasmanian population)

Other names: Tiger Quoll, Spot-tailed Quoll (Tasmanian population)

The Spotted-tailed Quoll, Dasyurus maculatus, has two recognized subspecies (Long & Nelson 2010a):

  • Dasyurus maculatus gracilis: This subspecies range is restricted to north-eastern Queensland.
  • Dasyurus maculatus maculatus: This subspecies occurs from southern Queensland through to south-western Victoria and Tasmania. Genetic analysis indicates that the Tasmanian population is sufficiently distinct from its mainland counterparts to warrant subspecific status (Firestone et al. 1999); however, this has not yet been officially recognized.

The Spotted-tailed Quoll (Tasmanian population) is a medium sized carnivourous marsupial and member of the Dasyuriade family. It is one of Australia's largest extant marsupial carnivores with males weighing between 2.6 kg and 4.6 kg and females between 1.5 kg and 2.2 kg. In extreme cases males have been recorded at 7 kg and females at 4 kg. Males are longer than females, growing to about 1.3 m in length, with females growing up to 85 cm (Bryant & Jackson 1999b). The northern subspecies, Dasyurus maculatus gracilis is considerably smaller than the southern subspecies Dasyurus maculatus maculatus. They are both characterized by a thick neck, strong head and rounded nose. They have thick, short fur which is golden to dark chocolate brown on the back and a pale cream on the underside. The Spotted-tailed Quoll (Tasmanian population) has distinct white spots of varying size over the back, head and along the tail. They are agile both on the ground and when climbing. Their ability to climb is assisted by the ridges present in the pads of all their feet. The species is easily distinguished from other Quolls by its large and predominately spotted tail, from which it derives its name (Long & Nelson 2010a).

The species is distributed across the whole of Tasmania, with the exception of King Island and Flinders Island, where it is locally extinct. Important populations have been located at the following sites in Tasmania (Long & Nelson 2010a):

Population Basis for 'importance' classification
Freycinet National Park research population
Central-north Tasmania (including Great Western Tiers to Narawntapu) stronghold & research population
Cradle Mountain National Park stronghold & research population
Far north-western Tasmania (including the Smithton and Marrawah regions) stronghold & research population
Eastern Tiers/northern Midlands (including Nugent and Ross regions) stronghold population
Southern forests/South Coast (including the Hastings region) stronghold population
Gordon River system stronghold population
South-west Cape stronghold population
 

Tasmania's Threatened Fauna Handbook identifies the following key sites for the Spotted-tailed Quoll (Tasmanian population) (Bryant & Jackson 1999b):

  • northern forested areas bounded by Wynyard, Gladstone and the central and north-eastern highlands
  • the north-western wet forests; including the catchments of the Arthur and Montagu Rivers
  • the Dry eucalypt forests in the central north coastal regions bounded by the Tamar, Devonport and Western Tiers
  • patches between the King River and Strahan, the Gordon River and Huon River Catchments as well as the coastal strip from Strahan to Temma.

 

The Spotted-tailed Quoll (Tasmanian population) is a forest dependent species that occupies a large range of habitats. The species habitat is characterized by high annual rainfall and predictable rain patterns. The southern subspecies has been recorded in rainforests, wet and dry sclerophyll forest, coastal heathland, scrub and dunes, woodland, heathy woodland, swamp forest, mangroves, on beaches and sometimes in grassland or pastoral areas adjacent to forests. High densities of the species have been recorded in both dry and wet forests (Andrew 2005; Jones & Barmuta 2000).

The species has an extensive home range, from several hundred to several thousand hectares. They are known to use multiple dens and change dens every 1–4 days. Den sites have been recorded at a variety of locations including rock crevices, hollow logs, hollow tree buttresses, tree hollows, windrows, clumps of vegetation, caves, boulder tumbles, under buildings, and in the dens of rabbits and wombats. Maternal den sites are similar to those mentioned above. Female Spotted-tailed Quolls (Tasmanian population) are known to dig burrows when a suitable substrate is available (Long & Nelson 2010a).

A study of Spotted-tailed Quolls in south-eastern Australia (mainland population) revealed that prey density and den availability are the two main factors in the use of habitat. These results are likely to apply to the Tasmanian population in which suitable prey habitat is associated with predictable rainfall patterns and warm mean annual temperatures. Habitat critical to both subspecies of the Spotted-tailed Quoll contain adequate denning resources in large forest areas. This provides the species with a high density of mammalian prey (Long & Nelson 2010a).

Life expectancy
The average lifespan of the Spotted-tailed Quoll (Tasmanian population) is relatively short and estimated between 3–5 years in the wild (Long & Nelson 2010a).

Sexual maturity
Sexual maturity is reached at approximately one year of age, however, some females do not produce a litter until their second year (Long & Nelson 2010a).

Reproduction
Most females produce a litter annually, though occasionally breeding may not occur in successive years. The average litter size is five young, however, there is evidence for high mortality rates from birth to weaning. In study areas, high recruitment of sub-adult populations has been recorded. The litter size appears to increase with age (Long & Nelson 2010a).

Spotted-tailed Quolls (Tasmanian population) are carnivourous and hunt primarily on the ground, although arboreal behavior has been observed. Their diet consists primarily of mammals, particularly medium sized mammals; however, birds, reptiles and invertebrates are also eaten. The relative proportion of each component of the diet varies with the species' sex, age, location and prey availability. Much of the species' arboreal mammalian prey relies on tree hollows and shelter for breeding. As such forestry practices influence the abundance and availability of prey species. Logging and fire events are also likely to alter prey abundance. In Tasmania, predation on domestic poultry is also commonly reported, as well as scavenging of road kill fauna. These behaviors have subjected the species to persecution and may contribute to the species decline (Belcher 1995, 2000b; Belcher et al. 2007; Dawson et al. 2007; Glen & Dickman 2006b; Jarman et al. 2007).

The Spotted-tailed Quoll (Tasmanian population) is solitary and occupies large home ranges. The males territory overlaps multiple female home ranges and have been recorded between 359 ha and 5512 ha in size. Females generally have a non-overlapping home range between 88 ha and 1515 ha in size (Long & Nelson 2010a).

The Tasmanian population of the Spotted-tailed Quoll is distributed throughout the entire island. Unlike its mainland relatives, declining population trends have not yet been quantified. The high rate of land clearing and habitat loss across the species' core range, however, suggests a declining population. The Draft Spotted-tailed Quoll Recovery Plan (Long & Nelson 2010a) identifies the following key threatening processes for the species:

Habitat loss and modification
Habitat loss and modification is widely accepted as the greatest threat to the Spotted-tailed Quolls (Belcher 2004; Jones et al. 2003; Mansergh 1984; Watt 1993). In Tasmania, an estimated 50% of the species core habitat has been removed by logging or for agricultural purposes. Of the remaining 50%, over half has been subjected to logging in the past 20 years. This is particularly noticeable in the north and northwestern regions of the state where habitat clearing for eucalypt and pine plantations accelerated significantly in the 1980s (Kirkpatrick & Jenkin 1996).

Habitat clearing in Tasmania mirrors that of the mainland. In south-east Queensland over 70% of the species habitat has been cleared, mostly within the past 20 years. In Victoria, prior to European settlement, 74% of the state was forest and dense woodlands; today this has been reduced to 33% (Mansergh 1984). Urban development in coastal regions of NSW has also cleared the species local habitat and placed added pressure on the species (Andrew 2005).

Fragmentation
In many areas the habitat currently available to the Spotted-tailed Quoll is fragmented resulting in isolated populations (Mansergh 1984; Watt 1993). This results in inherent breeding complications, including difficulty in locating breeding partners and a lack of genetic diversity. The species naturally occurs in low population densities meaning isolated populations have inherent breeding difficulties. Furthermore the species breeds only once a year, placing further pressure on breeding adults. Isolated populations also lack the genetic diversity of non-isolated populations (Backhouse 2003; Firestone 2003; Watt 1993). Isolated populations are also subject to stochastic events (i.e. bush fires, floods) and more likely to become extinct due to such events (Long & Nelson 2010a).

Timber harvesting
Recent Population Viability Analysis modelling predicted major declines in the population of Spotted-tailed Quolls (Tasmanian population) in north-east Tasmania and a high risk of extinction. The model was based on a range of projected logging regimes. Furthermore surveys have indicated that only male Spotted-tailed Quolls and non-breeding females are located in recently logged forests (Long & Nelson 2010a). This indicates the need for proper habitat reservation and management within the state to ensure sustainable breeding populations are maintained. Research suggests that forestry practices that remove or reduce prey or critical habitat (including trees with hollows, hollow logs and complex vegetation structure) may render the habitat unsuitable for the Spotted-tailed Quoll (Tasmanian population) (Watt 1993). Considering the long time periods required to produce hollows in trees and logs, the lack of availability of den sites is likely to place pressure on the species, particularly in the breeding season (Andrew 2005).

Poison baiting
The use of 1080 (sodium fluroacetate) to control populations of Red Fox (Vulpes vulpes), wild dogs (Canis lupus familiaris and Canis lupus dingo) and the European Rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) occurs extensively in the Spotted-tailed Quolls (Tasmanian population) range. Laboratory measurements indicate the lethal dose per individual that will kill 50% of the population (known as LD50) is 1.85 mg/kg of body weight. The standard quantity of 1080 in baits varies from 3–6 mg, with a 3 mg dose sufficient to kill a juvenile Spotted-tailed Quoll (Long & Nelson 2010a).

A single Spotted-tailed Quoll (Tasmanian population) has been observed taking bait from multiple bait stations placed 400–600 m apart. As the species is highly mobile, the removal of multiple baits is possible even from widespread bait stations. Spotted-tailed Quolls (Tasmanian population) are able to consume 700 g of food a day, making it possible for two baits to be consumed daily. To date however, little is known about the long-term health, survival or fecundity of Spotted-tailed Quolls (Tasmanian population) that ingest sub-lethal doses of 1080. Captive and field trials have shown that Spotted-tailed Quolls (Tasmanian population) will consume non-poisoned Foxoff baits (Belcher 1998; Murray 1998; Murray et al. 2000). Simulated aerial bating using non-poisoned baits found that 6 of 10 and 8 of 17 Spotted-tailed Quolls (Tasmanian population) took up the bait. In Tasmania meat baits are required to be buried 10 cm below the ground to minimise the take from native species. Field trials have found that Spotted-tailed Quolls (Tasmanian population) will take up bait buried at 10 cm but rarely anything deeper than this (Körtner et al. 2003).

Studies on the impact of baiting on wild dogs and foxes revealed a surprisingly low number of Spotted-tailed Quoll deaths that could be attributed to the uptake of the bait. This is despite the fact the Spotted-tailed Quolls consumed a relatively large number of the baits. Possible reasons for the small number of deaths include: lack of bait palatability (Körtner et al. 2003), low bait uptake or failure to encounter baits (Claridge & Mills 2007; Körtner & Watson 2005), innate bait avoidance in populations exposed to regular baiting (Körtner & Watson 2005), partial consumption of baits and regurgitation or vomiting the bait before absorbing a lethal amount of 1080 (Claridge & Mills 2007; Körtner & Watson 2005; Körtner 2007).

Overall the impact of 1080 baiting on the Spotted-tailed Quoll populations through field trials indicate they are probably not as susceptible to fatal poisoning as laboratory measurements indicate. This is further supported by large and healthy populations of Spotted-tailed Quolls within regions undergoing intensive baiting regimes. More research is needed to determine the impact of 1080 baiting on smaller populations (Claridge & Mills 2007; Körtner 2007).

Competition and predation from introduced carnivores
Incidences in which the Spotted-tailed Quolls have been killed by feral cats (Felis catus), dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) and foxes have been reported; however the frequency of such attacks is not well known (Watt 1993). It is believed that predatory interactions between Quolls and feral animals are suppressing Quoll populations.

Spotted-tailed Quolls (Tasmanian population) and introduced carnivores share diet and habitat. For this reason it is believed that there are also competitive pressures placed on the Quolls (Burnett 2001; Glen & Dickman 2008). Cats were introduced into Australia from the mid to late eighteenth century, however, no major declines in Quoll populations occurred until the nineteenth century. This coincides with the arrival of foxes and rabbits. This explains the relative abundance of Spotted-tailed Quolls in Tasmania as compared to the mainland, as foxes were not found in Tasmania until recently. In NSW, foxes were absent from four major populations of Spotted-tailed Quolls, however, in some regions there have been extensive spatial overlaps between foxes and Quolls. Similar results have been found in Queensland, indicating more research is needed into the interaction between Spotted-tailed Quolls (Tasmanian population) and feral predators (Long & Nelson 2010a).

Recent research in Tasmania has revealed ecological and evolutionary evidence for interspecific competition among the surviving marsupial carnivores of Tasmania (Spotted-tailed Quoll (Tasmanian population), Eastern Quoll and Tasmania Devil). This is believed to contribute to the species natural rarity in the state (Jones 1997; Jones & Barmuta 1998). The impacts of introduced carnivores are likely to be magnified when combined with other threatening processes. Areas supporting fox populations are known to have severe habitat degradation, impacting the Spotted-tailed Quoll (Tasmanian population) (Burnett 1993).

Deliberate killing
Due to the Spotted-tailed Quolls (Tasmanian population) attacks on poultry runs, it is often persecuted by landholders. In extreme cases, landholders have reported killing up to 20 Quolls a year in Tasmania. Public perception of the species in certain areas is poor with some landowners threatening to kill Quolls regardless of whether they are threatening livestock (Burnett 1993; Watt 1993). This attitude is a likely result of misinformation in the public. A survey conducted in southern Queensland found that nearly half of all respondents believed the Spotted-tailed Quoll was an introduced feral animal. The impact of this persecution is not well known in Tasmania, however the demise of the species on King Island was attributed to human persecution (Green & McGarvie 1971). The clearing and continued fragmentation of Spotted-tailed Quoll (Tasmanian population) habitat is likely to increase the incidence of human encounters with Spotted-tailed Quolls (Tasmanian population) and potentially the incidence of persecution (Long & Nelson 2010a).

Road mortality
It is estimated that one to two Spotted-tailed Quolls (Tasmanian population) are killed daily on the main road between Hobart and the north-west of the state. Juvenile males are most likely as risk due to their extensive ranging behaviour. While the full impact of road mortality is not well known, other carnivorous marsupials have been significantly impacted (Long & Nelson 2010a). For this reason it is believed to be a significant factor in the decline of some Spotted-tailed Quoll populations (Oakwood 2000).

Wildfire and prescription burning
The impacts on the Spotted-tailed Quolls (Tasmanian population) of wildfires and prescription burning are not well known in Tasmania (Gibbons & Lindenmayer 2002). The anticipated impacts are likely to be a reduction in prey and habitat; specimens found occupying a region one year after a major fire in NSW were in poor condition. Recent research also indicates that fire may be beneficial to Spotted-tailed Quolls (Tasmanian population) as they hasten the formation of tree hollows used by the species and its prey (Gibbons & Lindenmayer 2002).

Tasmania's Threatened Fauna Handbook outlines a number of strategies to help the conservation of the Spotted-tailed Quoll (Tasmanian population), including ways to manage key habitat (Bryant & Jackson 1999b). These include:

  • planning of commercial forestry activities to ensure sufficient habitat available over for the species
  • retain areas of native bush to ensure adequate refuge for the species
  • land managers should consider long term protection measures for the species
  • the use of 1080 should be by permit and used only as directed.

Planning commercial forestry activities is particularly important as the Spotted-tailed Quoll (Tasmanian population) has an extensive home range and is territorial. The handbook suggests areas of 50–100 km² be put aside to achieve this. As such land managers are encouraged to implement a management strategy. Such strategies could include the establishment of a wildlife reserve. The effects of 1080 on Spotted-tailed Quolls are still under debate, however guidelines have been developed to reduce potential impact on native species and should be adhered to (Bryant & Jackson 1999b).

The Tasmanian Parks and Wildlife Service is able to provide domestic stock owners with construction details for Quoll proof sheds, advice on driving from dusk till dawn and the benefits of Spotted-tailed Quolls on private property (Bryant & Jackson 1999).

The strategies and actions mentioned above pertain largely to individuals and small groups. The Draft National Recovery Plan for the Spotted-tailed Quoll (Long & Nelson 2010a) provides a nation wide strategy to for the species. The overall objective of the plan is to increase knowledge of the distribution, ecology, status of populations, and impact of threatening processes on Spotted-tailed Quoll populations and to reduce the impact of threatening processes throughout the species' range and subsequently halt the current decline in its distribution and abundance. The plan seeks to achieve this through eleven more specific objectives:

  • Determine the distribution and status of Spotted-tailed Quoll populations throughout the range.
  • Increase knowledge of the biology and ecology of the Spotted-tailed Quoll throughout its range to refine management of the species and its habitat.
  • Reduce the rate of habitat loss and fragmentation on private land.
  • Evaluate and manage the risk posed by silvicultural practices.
  • Determine and manage the threat posed by introduced predators (foxes, cats, wild dogs) and of predator control practices on Spotted-tailed Quoll populations.
  • Determine and manage the impact of fire regimes on Spotted-tailed Quoll populations.
  • Reduce deliberate killings of Spotted-tailed Quolls.
  • Reduce the frequency of Spotted-tailed Quoll road mortality.
  • Assess the threat Cane Toads pose to Spotted-tailed Quolls and develop threat abatement actions if necessary.
  • Determine the likely impact of climate change on Spotted-tailed Quoll populations.
  • Increase community awareness of the Spotted-tailed Quoll and involvement in the Recovery Program.

The plan states that the recovery of the Spotted-tailed Quoll is primarily dependent upon the protection of existing habitat. The re-vegetation of destroyed habitat is also considered, however, regeneration, hollow formation, and the establishment of a prey species may take 120–180 years (Long & Nelson 2010a).

Following the recent introduction of foxes into Tasmania, the government has implemented a fox eradication program. The Fox Eradication Branch is responsible for carrying out the program and has received $2.53 million per year for 10 years (commencing 2007/08). The program seeks to eradicate foxes to protect biodiversity, agriculture and human health. Community support and assistance are seen as crucial for the success of the program. The branches four main objectives are (TAS DPIWE 2010):

  • Eradicate foxes from Tasmania by developing a coordinated strategic response, building on the work of the "Fox Task Force".
  • Prevent incursions of foxes into Tasmania.
  • Gain broad community cooperation and support and to develop a community attitude which actively opposes the presence of foxes in Tasmania.
  • Gain a better understanding of population trends of at risk species.

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Agriculture and Aquaculture:Land clearing, habitat fragmentation and/or habitat degradation Tasmania's Threatened Fauna Handbook: What, Where and How to Protect Tasmania's Threatened Animals (Bryant, S. & J. Jackson, 1999b) [Book].
Biological Resource Use:Logging and Wood Harvesting:Habitat loss, modification and degradation due to timber harvesting Tasmania's Threatened Fauna Handbook: What, Where and How to Protect Tasmania's Threatened Animals (Bryant, S. & J. Jackson, 1999b) [Book].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Recreational Activities:shooting Species threats data recorded on the SPRAT database between 1999-2002 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2012i) [Database].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Felis catus (Cat, House Cat, Domestic Cat) Tasmania's Threatened Fauna Handbook: What, Where and How to Protect Tasmania's Threatened Animals (Bryant, S. & J. Jackson, 1999b) [Book].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Canis lupus familiaris (Domestic Dog) Tasmania's Threatened Fauna Handbook: What, Where and How to Protect Tasmania's Threatened Animals (Bryant, S. & J. Jackson, 1999b) [Book].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Presence of pathogens and resulting disease Tasmania's Threatened Fauna Handbook: What, Where and How to Protect Tasmania's Threatened Animals (Bryant, S. & J. Jackson, 1999b) [Book].
Transportation and Service Corridors:Roads and Railroads:Development and/or maintenance of roads Tasmania's Threatened Fauna Handbook: What, Where and How to Protect Tasmania's Threatened Animals (Bryant, S. & J. Jackson, 1999b) [Book].
Uncategorised:Uncategorised:threats not specified Commonwealth Listing Advice on Dasyurus maculatus maculatus (Spot-tailed Quoll, Spotted-tailed Quoll, Tiger Quoll) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2004b) [Listing Advice].

Andrew, D.L. (2005). Ecology of the tiger quoll Dasyurus maculatus maculatus in coastal New South Wales. M. Sc thesis, Wollongong: University of Wollongong.

Backhouse, G. (2003). Spot-tailed Quoll Dasyurus maculatus Action Statement: No. 15. [Online]. East Melbourne: Department of Sustainability and Environment. Available from: http://www.dse.vic.gov.au/plants-and-animals/flora-and-fauna-guarantee-act-action-statements-index-of-approved-action-statements.

Belcher, C. (2004). The largest surviving marsupial carnivore on mainland Australia: the Tiger or Spotted-tailed Quoll Dasyurus maculatus, a nationally threatened, forest-dependent species. Page(s) 612-623. Mosman, NSW: Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales.

Belcher, C., J. Nelson & J. Darrant (2007). Diet of the tiger quoll (Dasyurus maculatus) in south-eastern Australia. Australian Journal of Zoology. 55:117-122.

Belcher, C.A. (1995). Diet of the tiger quoll (Dasyurus maculatus) in East Gippsland, Victoria. Wildlife Research. 22:341-357.

Belcher, C.A. (1998). Susceptibility of the tiger quoll, Dasyurus maculatus, and the eastern quoll, D. viverrinus, to 1080-poisoned baits in control programmes for vertebrate pests in eastern Australia. Wildlife Research. 25:33-40.

Belcher, C.A. (2000b). The Ecology of the Tiger Quoll, Dasyurus maculatus, in south-eastern Australia. Ph.D. Thesis. Melbourne, Victoria: Deakin University.

Bryant, S. & J. Jackson (1999b). Tasmania's Threatened Fauna Handbook: What, Where and How to Protect Tasmania's Threatened Animals. Hobart, Tasmania: Threatened Species Unit, Parks and Wildlife Service.

Burnett, S. (1993). The Conservation Status of the Tiger Quoll, (Dasyurus maculatus gracilis) in North Queensland. James Cook University, Townsville.

Burnett, S. (2001). The ecology and conservation status of the northern Spot-tailed Quoll Dasyurus maculatus with reference to the future of Australia's marsupial carnivores. Ph.D. Thesis. Townsville, Queensland: James Cook University.

Claridge, A. & D. Mills (2007). Aerial baiting for wild dogs has no observable impact on spotted-tailed quolls (Dasyurus maculatus) in a rainshadow woodland. Wildlife Research. 34:116-124.

Dawson, J., A. Claridge, B. Triggs and D. Paull (2007). Diet of a native carnivore, the spotted-tailed Quoll (Dasyurus maculatus), before and after an intense wildfire. Wildlife Research. 34:342-351.

Department of Primary Industries, Parks, Water and Environment (Tas DIPWE) (2010). Foxes in Tasmania: Fox Eradication Program. [Online]. Available from: http://www.dpiw.tas.gov.au/inter.nsf/WebPages/SSKA-6H27T5?open.

Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC) (2011j). Survey guidelines for Australia's threatened mammals. EPBC Act survey guidelines 6.5. [Online]. EPBC Act policy statement: Canberra, ACT: DSEWPAC. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/epbc/publications/threatened-mammals.html.

Firestone, K.B. (2003). The application of genetic research to conservation management in carnivorous marsupials with special emphasis on dasyurids. In: Eds. M. E. Jones, C. R. Dickman, and M. Archer, eds. Predators with Pouches: The Biology of Carnivorous Marsupials. Collingwood, Victoria: CSIRO Publishing.

Firestone, K.B., M.S. Elphinstone, W.B. Sherwin & B.A. Houlden (1999). Phylogeographical population structure of tiger quolls Dasyurus maculatus (Dasyuridae: Marsupialia), an endangered carnivorous marsupial. Molecular Ecology. 8:1613-1625.

Gibbons, P. & D. Lindenmayer (2002). Tree Hollows and Wildlife Conservation in Australia. Collingwood, Victoria: CSIRO Publishing.

Glen, A.S. & C.R. Dickman (2006b). Diet of the spotted-tailed quoll (Dasyurus maculatus) in eastern Australia: effects of season, sex and size. Journal of Zoology. 269:241-248.

Glen, A.S. & C.R. Dickman (2008). Niche overlap between marsupial and eutherian carnivores: does competition threaten the endangered spotted-tailed quoll?. Journal of Applied Ecology. 45:700-707.

Green, R.H. & A.M. McGarvie (1971). The birds of King Island. Records of the Queen Victoria Museum. 40.

Hilbert, D.W., B. Ostendorf & M.S. Hopkins (2001). Sensitivity of tropical forests to climate change in the humid tropics of north Queensland. Austral Ecology. 26:590-603.

Jarman, P.J., L.R. Allen, D.J. Boschma & S.W. Green (2007). Scat contents of the spotted-tailed quoll Dasyurus maculatus in the New England gorges, north-eastern New South Wales. Australian Journal of Zoology. 55:63-72.

Jones, M. (1997). Character displacement in Australian dasyurid carnivores: size relationships and prey size patterns. Ecology. 78:2569-2587.

Jones, M.E. & L.A. Barmuta (1998). Diet overlap and relative abundance of sympatric dasyurid carnivores: a hypothesis of competition. Journal of Animal Ecology. 67:410-421.

Jones, M.E. & L.A. Barmuta (2000). Niche differentiation among sympatric Australian dasyurid carnivores. Journal of Mammalogy. 81:434-447.

Jones, M.E., M. Oakwood C.A. Belcher, K. Morris, A.J. Murray, P.A. Woolley, K.B. Firestone, B. Johnson & S. Burnett (2003). Carnivore Concerns: Problems, issues and solutions for conserving Australasia's marsupial carnivores. In: Jones, M., C. Dickman & M. Archer, eds. Predators with Pouches: The biology of carnivorous marsupials. Page(s) 422-434. Collingwood, Victoria: CSIRO Publishing.

Körtner, G. & P. Watson (2005). The immediate impact of 1080 aerial baiting to control wild dogs on a spotted-tailed quoll population. Wildlife Research. 32:673-680.

Körtner, G. (2007). 1080 aerial baiting for the control of wild dogs and its impact on spotted-tailed quoll populations in eastern Australia. Wildlife Research. 34:48-53.

Körtner, G., S. Gresser & R. Harden (2003). Does fox baiting threaten the spotted-tailed quoll, Dasyurus maculatus?. Wildlife Research. 30:111-118.

Kirkpatrick, J.B. & E. Jenkin (1996). Land clearance and inundation in Tasmania 1988-94.

Long, K & J. Nelson (2010a). (Draft) National Recovery Plan for the Spotted-tailed Quoll Dasyurus maculatus. Victorian Department of Sustainability and Environment.

Mansergh, I.M. (1984). The status, distribution and abundance of Dasyurus maculatus (Tiger Quoll) in Australia with particular reference to Victoria. Australian Zoologist. 21:109-122.

Murray, A. (1998). Tigers and 1080. The threat posed by buried poison baits to Spotted-tailed Quolls in the Australian Alps National Parks. In: Report to the National Heritage Working Group of the Australian Alps Liaison Committee. Project No. 3.6, Department of Natural Resources and Environment, Victoria.

Murray, A.J., C.A. Belcher, R.N. Poore & J. Darrant (2000). The ability of spotted-tailed quolls to locate and consume meat baits deployed during a simulated aerial baiting program. In: Consultants Report to the Australian Alps Liaison Committee and NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service. East Gippsland Flora and Fauna Group Report No. 9.

Oakwood, M. (2000). Reproduction and demography of the northern quoll, Dasyurus hallucatus, in the lowland savanna of northern Australia. Australian Journal of Zoology. 48:519-539.

Watt, A. (1993). Conservation status and draft management plan for Dasyurus maculatus and D. hallucatus in southern Queensland. Queensland: Department of Environment and Heritage.

EPBC Act email updates can be received via the Communities for Communities newsletter and the EPBC Act newsletter.

This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Dasyurus maculatus maculatus (Tasmanian population) in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Thu, 31 Jul 2014 19:12:49 +1000.