Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Critically Endangered
Listed marine
Listing and Conservation Advices Commonwealth Listing Advice on Neophema chrysogaster (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2006ds) [Listing Advice].
 
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan required, this species had a recovery plan in force at the time the legislation provided for the Minister to decide whether or not to have a recovery plan (19/2/2007).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans National Recovery Plan for the Orange-bellied Parrot (Neophema chrysogaster) (Orange-bellied Parrot Recovery Team (OBPRT), 2006a) [Recovery Plan].
 
Other EPBC Act Plans Threat Abatement Plan for Beak and Feather Disease Affecting Endangered Psittacine Species (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2005q) [Threat Abatement Plan].
 
Threat Abatement Plan for Predation by the European Red Fox (Environment Australia (EA), 1999a) [Threat Abatement Plan].
 
Threat Abatement Plan for Predation by Feral Cats (Environment Australia (EA), 1999b) [Threat Abatement Plan].
 
Threat Abatement Plan for Competition and Land Degradation by Feral Rabbits (Environment Australia (EA), 1999c) [Threat Abatement Plan].
 
Policy Statements and Guidelines Survey Guidelines for Australia's Threatened Birds. EPBC Act survey guidelines 6.2 (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2010l) [Admin Guideline].
 
Information Sheets Background and Implementation Information for the Orange-bellied Parrot Recovery Plan (Orange-bellied Parrot Recovery Team (OBPRT), 2006) [Information Sheet].
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument].
 
List of Migratory Species (13/07/2000) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000b) [Legislative Instrument].
 
Declaration under section 248 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of Marine Species (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000c) [Legislative Instrument].
 
Inclusion of species in the list of threatened species under section 178 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (46) (05/09/2006) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2006f) [Legislative Instrument].
 
List of Migratory Species - Amendment to the list of migratory species under section 209 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (26/11/2013) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2013af) [Legislative Instrument].
 
State Government
    Documents and Websites
NSW:Orange-belied Parrot - endangered species listing. NSW Scientific Committee - final determination (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2000d) [Internet].
NSW:Orange-bellied Parrot - profile (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2005hx) [Internet].
TAS:Orange-bellied Parrot (Tasmanian Department of Primary Industries, Parks, Water and Environment (TAS DIPWE), 2009r) [Internet].
TAS:Neophema chrysogaster (Orange-bellied Parrot): Species Management Profile for Tasmania's Threatened Species Link (Threatened Species Section (TSS), 2014sy) [State Action Plan].
VIC:Flora and Fauna Guarantee Action Statement 43-Orange-bellied Parrot Neophema chrysogaster (Edgar, B. & P. Menkhorst, 2003) [State Action Plan].
State Listing Status
NSW: Listed as Critically Endangered (Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995 (New South Wales): December 2013 list)
SA: Listed as Endangered (National Parks and Wildlife Act 1972 (South Australia): June 2011 list)
TAS: Listed as Endangered (Threatened Species Protection Act 1995 (Tasmania): September 2012 list)
VIC: Listed as Threatened (Flora and Fauna Guarantee Act 1988 (Victoria): February 2014 list)
Non-statutory Listing Status
IUCN: Listed as Critically Endangered (Global Status: IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: 2013.1 list)
VIC: Listed as Critically Endangered (Advisory List of Threatened Vertebrate Fauna in Victoria: 2013 list)
NGO: Listed as Critically Endangered (The Action Plan for Australian Birds 2010)
Scientific name Neophema chrysogaster [747]
Family Psittacidae:Psittaciformes:Aves:Chordata:Animalia
Species author (Latham,1790)
Infraspecies author  
Reference  
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images

Scientific name: Neophema chrysogaster

Common name: Orange-bellied Parrot

Other names: Orange-breasted Parrot, Yellow-bellied Parrot, Orange-bellied Grass-parakeet, Orange-breasted Grass-parakeet (Higgins 1999).

The Orange-bellied Parrot (OBP) is conventionally accepted as a species.

The Orange-bellied Parrot is a small 'grass parrot'. Adults weigh 45 to 50 grams (Higgins 1999) and are 21 cm in length (Forshaw 1981). They have bright green upper body parts and light green to bright yellow under bodies. The wings have a royal blue leading edge, and they have an orange patch on the belly (OBPRT 2006).

The Orange-bellied Parrot is endemic to south-eastern Australia. Its current non-breeding mainland distribution is from the mouth of the Murray River in South Australia, along the coast, to the east of Jack Smith Lake in South Gippsland, Victoria (OBPRT 2006), covering approximately 1000 km of coastline (Drechsler 1998). The most used sites in Victoria are around Port Phillip Bay and Bellarine Peninsula. In South Australia, Carpenter Rocks is the main site (OBPRT 2006). Records indicate that the Orange-bellied Parrot's former distribution extended as far west as York Peninsula, South Australia (Jarman 1965) and as far north as Shellharbour (Morris 1986b; Starks 1988).

The current distribution of the Orange-bellied Parrot during its breeding season is a coastal strip of south-western Tasmania (OBPRT 2006). Old records indicate that the Orange-bellied Parrot's Tasmanian distribution was wider in the past (Jarman 1965), indicated by records of clutches of Orange-bellied Parrot eggs collected in 1898 and 1899, at locations 100 km inland from their current breeding location (Brown & Wilson 1984).

A detailed description of the Orange-bellied Parrot's distribution, by state, follows.

Tasmania

  • The breeding area of the Orange-bellied Parrot is restricted to south-western Tasmania, mainly within approximately 30 km of the coast, from Birchs Inlet, southern Macquarie Harbour, to west of Ironbound Range, east of Louisa Bay (Brown 1980b; Brown & Wilson 1984; White 1985). The greatest concentration of nest sites is within 20 km of Melaleuca (Brown & Wilson 1984).

  • During the northward migration birds have regularly been recorded on King Island (Brown & Wilson 1980; Green & McGarvie 1971; Peter & Starks 1993; Starks 1994; Starks et al. 1992) and most, if not all, of the Orange-bellied Parrot population is believed to pass through this location (Brown & Wilson 1984). This species has also been recorded north of Macquarie Harbour and on the western and north-western coast of Tasmania whilst on passage, e.g. Trial Harbour, Sandy Cape, Woolnorth (Hull & McNeair 2001), Stanley, and Hunter Group (Aust. Atlas in Higgins 1999; Brown & Wilson 1980, 1984; Milledge 1972; Starks 1993, 1998, 1999a).

  • There have been few records of this species on the northern coast of Tasmania, e.g. Cape Portland and Musselroe Bay (Loyn & Kinhill Planners 1979b). Also, few records in the south east, near Snug Island and on South Bruny Island (Brown & Wilson 1984; Ratkowski & Ratkowski 1980). The Orange-bellied Parrot is said to have been observed in the central ranges (Brown & Wilson 1984) but no further details have been recorded.

  • The Orange-bellied Parrot has rarely been recorded on off-shore islands in the south, e.g. a small flock on Maatsuyker Island, May 1971 (Brothers 1979). It has not been recorded on the Furneaux Group (Green 1969).

Victoria

  • The most recent data indicates that up to 70% of the known Orange-bellied Parrot population congregates at three sites in Victoria, around Port Phillip Bay and the Bellarine Peninsula. These sites are: the Western Treatment Plant at Point Wilson (mainly within the Spit Nature Conservation Reserve); Lake Connewarne; and Swan Bay, including Swan Island (Starks & Holdsworth 2003). There has been a recent discovery of a small wintering population at Yambuk (Starks 1999b, 2001, 2002), where 10% of the known population has been found since 1999 (Starks & Holdsworth 2003).


  • There have been many recorded sightings at Western Port, particularly at French Island (Loyn et al. 1994; Starks 1988, 1993, 1995a). It was once recorded at Seaford Swamp, eastern Port Phillip Bay (Starks 1988). Most records in western Port Phillip Bay and Bellarine Peninsula are from Williamstown, south to Mud Island, Lake Connewarre and Breamlea. This species is less common farther west, near Warrnambool and Port Fairy, and it has occasionally been recorded at Discovery Bay (Brown & Wilson 1984; Emison et al. 1987; Hewish & Starks 1988; Jarman 1965; Jessop & Reid 1986; Loyn & Kinhill Planners 1979a; Starks 1988, 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995a, 1996; Starks et al. 1992). Three birds were observed at Portland in 1957 and 1958 (Jarman 1965).


  • In Gippsland, there have been rare records at Jack Smith Lake and on islands in Corner Inlet (Emison et al. 1987; Loyn & Kinhill Planners 1979a; Starks 1992b). A single bird was observed at Wilsons Promontory in 1909 (Loyn & Kinhill Planners 1980). Small flocks have been seen at Andersons Inlet in 1989, 1998 and 1999 (Starks 1992, 1998, 1999b). There are also several records from Powlett River mouth (Drummond 1985b; Jessop & Reid 1986; Loyn & Kinhill Planners 1979a; Starks 1988, 1993, 1999c).

  • There have been few inland records of this species. Single birds have been recorded at Lake Corangamite in May 1950, Woolsthorpe in 1954, and at Lake Thurrumbong in October 1956 (Jarman 1965; Loyn & Kinhill Planners 1979a; Starks 1993).

South Australia

  • In the past, there have been reported influxes of this species in South Australia. In south-eastern South Australia, in 1918, several hundreds were said to have been seen near Robe (Ashby 1924a, 1927a), although such events may be attributed to misidentification, as this species is often mistaken for the Blue-winged Parrot (Higgins 1999).

  • Most recent sightings in this state have occurred around Canunda National Park and in the southern part of the Coorong National Park, located between the Victorian border and Port MacDonnell (OBPRT 2006; Starks & Holdsworth 2003).

  • Most recorded sightings are confined to the south east of the state, from the Victorian border north west to Lake Alexandrina, near Tolderol, Nappyalla and Goolwa. Records are mainly near Carpenter Rocks, Kingston, in the south east of South Australia, and in the Coorong (Eckert 1990; Loftus 1976; Starks 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995a, 1996; Starks et al. 1992; Stove 1994).

  • The Orange-bellied Parrot has been recorded around Adelaide, two were recorded at ICI Saltworks, in February 1978 (Loyn & Kinhill Planners 1979a), one recorded at Noarlunga in July 1999 (Starks 1999b) and a small flock at Laverton Saltworks in 1953 (Watson 1955). Vagrants have been recorded farther west, such as a single bird at Chinamans Creek, 23 km south of Port Augusta, in August/September 1992 (Klau & Langdon 1994). This species has not been recorded on Kangaroo Island (Abbott 1974).

NSW

  • Recent records of this species in NSW are rare, but it has been recorded at Comerong Island, Shoalhaven Estuary, June 1986 (Morris 1986b; Starks 1988), a single bird at Shellharbour (G. Southwell pers. comm. in Starks & Holdsworth 2003) and at Maroubra (B. Henson pers. comm. in Starks & Holdsworth 2003) in 2003, possibly the same bird (Starks & Holdsworth 2003).

  • There are historical reports of Orange-bellied Parrots in the Sydney area, between 1890 and 1912. However, these reports are regarded by some as dubious, as Orange-bellied Parrots are not found anywhere else in NSW (McGill 1960).

The extent of occurrence for the Orange-bellied Parrot is 27 000 km² and the trend is decreasing (Garnett & Crowley 2000).

The area of occupancy for the Orange-bellied Parrot is 30 km² and the trend is decreasing (Garnett & Crowley 2000).

The Orange-bellied Parrot is bred in captivity at Hobart, Tasmania; at the Healesville Sanctuary and with a private aviculturalist, in Victoria; and at Adelaide Zoo, South Australia (Starks & Holdsworth 2003). There are around 100 captive-bred birds being managed for release into the wild to boost wild population numbers. Around 70 birds were released into the wild in the spring of 2007 (Nettleford 2008), of which 30 to 40 have been sighted in the summer of 2008.

The Orange-bellied Parrot has been surveyed at its breeding site since 1991 and at various wintering sites since 1979. The results of the counts conducted in winter and summer are consistently different each year. The discrepancy between these figures may be due to birds using sites unknown to surveyors during the winter counts (Starks & Holdsworth 2003). A leg banding program was begun in 1988 to provide information regarding site fidelity and recruitment levels (Menkhorst 1992). Holdsworth (2006) has published an analysis of reproductive and demographic data from around 25 years of observations of the parrot in the wild. The current winter survey results are published regularly at the Birds Australia Orange-bellied Parrot project website.

The current total wild population of Orange-bellied Parrots is unlikely to exceed 150 individuals (M. Holdsworth 2005 pers. comm. cited in OBPRT 2006a) and captive-bred parrots number around 100 (Nettleford 2008).

The entire known Orange-bellied Parrot population exists as one population (Starks & Holdsworth 2003). However, some recent evidence suggests that small unknown sub-populations may exist, and further investigation is required (OBPRT 2006a).

During the late 1800s, and in the 1920s, the Orange-bellied Parrot was reported widely as being common, or locally abundant (Jarman 1965). However, since this time the numbers of Orange-bellied Parrots has steadily declined.

The Orange-bellied Parrot population has been recorded at fewer than 200 individuals, since 1979, when comprehensive counts began (Brown & Wilson 1982; Menkhorst et al. 1990; OBPRT 1999; Stephenson 1991). The first recovery plan in 1984 estimated the population at a maximum of 160 birds, including juveniles. An average population of 117 birds, also including juveniles, was estimated between 1992/93 and 1998/99 (Starks & Holdsworth 2004). The current estimated adult Orange-bellied Parrot population is 78 birds (estimated from the population at the breeding site, for the years 1999 to 2004, with a range of 69 to 88). The estimated population, including juveniles, at the time of departure for the yearly northward migration is 183.4 birds over the same period, with a range of 171 to 193 (DPIWE 2004).

The generation length for the Orange-bellied Parrot is two years (Garnett & Crowley 2000).

The Orange-bellied Parrot's breeding habitat is part of the Tasmanian Wilderness World Heritage Area (Stephenson 1991). Five areas used by the Orange-bellied Parrot in its winter range are listed under the Ramsar Convention as wetlands of international significance. These sites are: Corner Inlet, Western Port and western Port Phillip Bay in Victoria; Lavinia Nature Reserve on King Island, Tasmania; and the Coorong in South Australia (Starks & Holdsworth 2003).

The Orange-bellied Parrot is known to occur in the following state-managed parks and reserves: Canunda National Park (SA NPWS 1986), Coorong National Park and Coorong Game Reserve (SA NPWS 1990), Beachport Conservation Park (Sutherland 1990), Swan Bay Marine and Wildlife Reserves (Edgar 1991), Jack Smith Lake State Game Reserve (DCE 1991), Lake Connewarre State Game Reserve (Lee 1993), Carpenter Rocks (Owers 1994), Lavinia Nature Reserve (Tas PWS 1998) and Tasmanian Wilderness World Heritage Area (Starks & Holdsworth 2003; Tas PWS 1999).

Throughout the year Orange-bellied Parrots are found in salt marshes, coastal dunes, pastures, shrub lands, estuaries, islands, beaches and moorlands within 10 km of the coast (OBPRT 2006a). Holes in eucalypts are used for nesting (Brown & Wilson 1982).


The breeding habitat of the Orange-bellied Parrot is usually within 30 km of the coast of south-western Tasmania. They inhabit complex, near-coastal buttongrass (Gymnoschoenus sphaerocephalus) plains, moors and sedgelands, dissected by creeklines dominated by paperbarks (Melaleuca) and tea-trees (Leptospermum), and with patches of Smithton Peppermint (Eucalyptus nitida) forest (Brown 1980b, 1984; Brown et al. 1985; Milledge 1972; Starks et al. 1992). At Melaleuca, Orange-bellied Parrots are often seen in vegetable gardens near breeding sites (Menkhorst et al. 1990; White 1985).

Orange-bellied Parrots nest in the hollows (in the limb or trunk, vertical or angled) of mature eucalypt trees, often in Smithton Peppermint, and sometimes Swamp Gum (E. ovata), often in forests and copses near buttongrass plains (Brown 1984; Brown & Wilson 1982; Hinsby 1947; Stephenson 1991). Birds have used artificial nest-boxes since 1991, at the Melaleuca breeding sites (M. Holdsworth cited in Higgins 1999). At Melaleuca and Birchs Inlet, Orange-bellied Parrots favour small forest patches close to feeding areas for nesting, but they probably nest within extensive forest at Towterer Creek, north of Port Davey (M. Holdsworth pers. comm. in Starks & Holdsworth 2003).

Early in the breeding season birds prefer to forage in areas burnt seven to 15 years earlier. During the middle of the breeding season they prefer areas burnt three to five years earlier. After the young have hatched, adults will also feed in Boronia shrubs growing in taller Melaleuca and Leptospermum scrub beside creeks (Brown 1980b, 1984; Brown et al. 1985; Brown & Wilson 1982, 1984; Menkhorst et al. 1990). At Melaleuca, birds feed at tables where food is supplied throughout the breeding season (Brown & Wilson 1984; Lane & Kinhill Planners 1979a; Menkhorst et al. 1990).

Habitat used for roosting at the breeding sites in Tasmania is thick swards of sedges, among Melaleuca and Leptospermum, and in dense heath beside creeks (Brown & Wilson 1982; Stephenson 1991). They loaf beneath tussocks or small bushes (Forshaw 1969) and have been observed loafing in eucalypt woodland, and in Leptospermum and Melaleuca scrub in south west Tasmania (P.B. Brown cited in Higgins 1999).

While on passage in western and north-western Tasmania they occur in dunes, heathland, coastal grasslands and pasture, and salt marsh (Brown 1980b, 1984; Brown et al. 1985; Brown & Wilson 1982; Stephenson 1991). On King Island they occur in low, estuarine salt marsh dominated by Beaded Glasswort (Sarcocornia quinqueflora) and Shrubby Glasswort (Sclerostegia arbuscula) and with scattered reeds, and flanked by dense Swamp Paperbark (Melaleuca ericifolia) scrub (Brown et al. 1985; Brown & Wilson 1982; Peter & Starks 1993), in pasture (Brown et al. 1985; Green & McGarvie 1971; Jarman 1965) and in other grassy areas, including golf courses and sometimes on beaches (Brown et al. 1985).

On King Island they roost and loaf in dense clumps of Swamp Paperbark and Coastal Wattle (Acacia sophorae) at the edges of estuaries (Brown et al. 1985; Brown & Wilson 1982; Jarman 1965; Peter & Starks 1993). On the southward migration, a flock thought to have recently arrived from the mainland was seen loafing in a grassy paddock and on fence-rails, sheltering from cold winds (Dove 1931).

During winter, on mainland Australia, Orange-bellied Parrots are found mostly within 3 km of the coast (Starks et al. 1992). In Victoria, they mostly occur in sheltered coastal habitats, such as bays, lagoons and estuaries, or, rarely, saltworks. They are also found in low samphire herbland dominated by Beaded Glasswort (Sarcocornia quinqueflora), Sea Heath (Frankenia pauciflora) or Sea-blite (Suaeda australis), and in taller shrubland dominated by Shrubby Glasswort (Sclerostegia arbuscula). They are sometimes found in low samphire dominated by Grey Glasswort (Halosarcia halocnemoides) or in Chenopodium herbfields (Belcher 1914; Carr & Kinhill Planners 1979; Forshaw 1969; Hewish & Starks 1988; Loyn et al. 1986, 1994; P.W. Menkhorst in Higgins 1999; Starks 1988, 1992b, 1993, 1995a; Stephenson 1991; Watson 1955; Yugovic 1984).

Orange-bellied Parrots also occur on grassy fairways of golf courses adjacent to Sclerostegia shrubland, sewage-filtration paddocks, grassy tracks round edges of sewage-treatment ponds or other grassy areas near salt marsh, and occasionally in improved pasture (Forshaw 1969; Jarman 1965; Jessop & Reid 1986; Loyn et al. 1986; Starks 1988, 1992, 1994, 1995b; Wheeler 1950). They do not usually feed in salt marsh that has been heavily grazed by sheep (Lane & Kinhill Planners 1979b) but feed in areas regenerating after sheep, or other disturbances, have been removed (Loyn et al. 1986; Menkhorst et al. 1990; Starks et al. 1992), though only for a short time (P. Menkhorst cited in Higgins 1999). Orange-bellied Parrots are sometimes found on beachfronts, among patches of colonising plants (Loyn et al. 1986; Watson 1955). They are rarely found in the sparsely scattered Sea Rush (Juncus kraussii) in salt marsh (Hewish & Starks 1988).

Habitat critical for the survival of the species during winter is saltmarsh along the western shore of Port Phillip Bay at the Murtcaim Wildlife Area, Lake Connewarre and Swan Bay, including Swan Island (OBPRT 2006). Swan Island is Commonwealth land, managed by the Department of Defence. They are very rarely recorded around lakes further than 3 km from the coast (Starks et al. 1992).

In South Australia, Orange-bellied Parrots are found mostly on beaches and coastal dunes, but also sometimes at the edges of estuaries and coastal lagoons. In these habitat types they are mostly found among colonising plants, especially Sea Rocket (Cakile maritima) growing on beaches above the high tide mark, in dune frontages and blowouts (Ashby 1924a; Brown & Wilson 1982; Jarman 1965; Starks et al. 1992; Starks 1993; Stephenson 1991). They are also found in Sarcocornia dominated saltmarsh, including patches growing in sediment-deposits in drains (Loyn et al. 1986). They are sometimes recorded in pastures and open grassy areas (Kinhill Planners 1979b), in heath vegetation (Loyn & Kinhill Planners 1979b) or, very rarely, in cultivated sunflower crops (Brown et al. 1985; Eckert 1990). They were once recorded in coastal scrub on a cliff top (Ashby 1924a).

During winter on the mainland Orange-bellied Parrots have been recorded roosting in dense clumps of Coastal Tea-tree (Leptospermum laevigatum) or Melaleuca (Jessop & Reid 1986; Starks 1992b, 1993), in extensive Sclerostegia shrublands within salt marsh and in clumps of boxthorn (Lucium) (Hill 1995; Jessop & Reid 1986; Loyn et al. 1986). At Carpenter Rocks, South Australia, they have been recorded roosting among thickets of Coastal Wattle, Coast Beard Heath (Leucopogon parviflorus) and Coast Daisy-bush (Olearia axillaris) (Brown et al. 1985; Stephenson 1991) and in dense Eucalyptus and Melaleuca woodland dominated by Moonah (Melaleuca lanceolata) (Gibbons 1984; Starks 1993).

Orange-bellied Parrots are capable of breeding the summer following their birth. While they are presumed to be monogamous (Wilson & Brown 1980), Holdsworth (pers.comm. in Holdsworth 2006) reports there is some evidence of polygamous behaviour. Clutch size ranges from two to six eggs with most clutches having four to six eggs and no indication that second clutches can be produced in the same season in the wild. Holdsworth's study (2006) of wild populations over 25 consecutive breeding seasons showed the mean lifespan of Orange-bellied Parrots to be 2.2 years with no significant difference between male and female birds in the wild. The oldest male recorded was 11.70 years and the oldest female was 10.41 years (Holdsworth 2006).


The breeding season for the Orange-bellied Parrot is from November to mid-February (Brown & Wilson 1984; North 1901-14). Eggs are laid in early November and mid-December (Hinsby 1947; North 1901-14). Holdsworth (2006) found that the earliest laying date was 29th November and the latest 19th January, with 95% of all eggs laid in December. At Melaleuca, from 1959-97, the first birds usually arrived between the 1st and the 15th of October (Brown & Wilson 1984;). The pairs inspect the nests soon after arrival, and occupy nests from mid-November. Most of the young are fledged in late January to mid-February and they leave the breeding area from mid-March (Brown & Wilson 1984).

The female tends to stay in the nest for several days before the first egg is laid (M. Holdsworth cited in Higgins 1999). Eggs are laid at intervals of two days (Brown & Wilson 1984), with clutches averaging 4.7 eggs (Holdsworth 2006). During the laying period the male feeds the female from a branch near the nest (Brown & Wilson 1984). Only the female incubates the eggs (Higgins 1999) that hatch after 21 days (OBPRT 1999). After hatching, the female remains in the nest for 10 days, attended by the male. After 10 days the female stops brooding during the day and both the male and the female feed the young. Large young (from 14 days old) come to the entrance of the nest to be fed. Young fledge at four to five weeks old (Brown & Wilson 1984). Fledglings are fed by both parents (Brown & Wilson 1980, 1984; Brown 1984; Lewitzka 1988). After fledging, young congregate in groups at feeding areas (Brown & Wilson 1984).

Up to 17 nest boxes are occupied at Melaleuca by Orange-bellied Parrots each year, one was used at Towterer Creek in 2003, and up to nine boxes are used by released birds at Birchs Inlet each year (Starks & Holdsworth 2003).

The Orange-bellied Parrot feeds almost exclusively on seeds and fruits, mainly of sedges, and salt-tolerant coastal and salt marsh plants. They occasionally feed on flowers and stems (Brown & Wilson 1984).

In Tasmania, during the breeding season, they feed on Poaceae (Poa poiformis), Restionaceae (Lepyrodia tasmanica, Restio complanatus), Apiaceae (Actinotus bellidioides), Asteraceae (Helichrysum pumilum), Cyperaceae (Gymnoschoenus sphaerocephalus), Rutaceae (Boronia citriodora, B. parviflora, B. pilosa), Rosaceae (Acaena novae-zelandiae) and Stylidiaceae (Stylidium graminifolium) (Brown & Wilson 1984; Loyn et al. 1986; Starks 1994, 1995b, 1996, 1997a).

On passage they are known to feed on Apiaceae (Apium prostratum), Asteraceae (Leontodon leysseri), Brassicaceae (Cakile maritima), Chenopodiaceae (Chenopodium glaucum, Sarcocornia quinqueflora), Plantaginaceae (Plantago coronopus), Polygonaceae (Polygonum aviculare) and Rosaceae (Acaena novae-zelandiae) (Brown & Wilson 1984; Loyn et al. 1986; Starks 1994, 1995b, 1996, 1997a).

During the winter period they feed on Poaceae (Poa annua), Aizoaceae (Galenia pubescens), Asteraceae (Arctotheca calendula, Helianthus annuus), Boraginaceae (Heliotropium europaeum), Brassicaceae (Brassica fruiticulosa, Cakile maritima), Chenopodiaceae (Atriplex hastate, Chenopodium glaucum, Halosarcia halocnemoides, Sarcocornia quinqueflora, S. blackiana, Sclerostegia arbuscula, Suaeda australis), Frankeniaceae (Frankenia pauciflora), Oxalidaceae (Oxalis corniculatus), Plantaginaceae (Plantago sp., P. coronopus), Polygonaceae (Polygonum sp.) and Rosaceae (Acaena novae-zelandiae) (Brown & Wilson 1984; Loyn et al. 1986; Starks 1994, 1995b, 1996, 1997a).

The foraging behaviour of the Orange-bellied Parrot is generally to feed on the ground or in low vegetation, usually less than 1 m above the ground (Brown & Wilson 1980, 1984; Loyn et al. 1986). Birds usually forage in pairs or singly during the breeding season, or in small flocks of varying size in the non-breeding season (Forshaw 1969; Starks et al. 1992). Single birds have often been recorded feeding with other species, particularly Blue-winged Parrots, but also Elegant Parrots, European Goldfinches (Carduelis carduelis), European Greenfinches (C. chloris) and House Sparrows (Passer domesticus) (Starks 1998; Starks et al. 1992;).

At the Point Wilson-Western Treatment Plant, Victoria, they mainly feed by taking ripe or developing seeds or fruits from low herbs and shrubs (mostly Chenopodiaceae) with their bill. They usually extract the seeds from the fruits and discard succulent salty fruit. They will also climb well among branches of shrubs to reach seeds, and occasionally take food from the ground, particularly when little other food is available (Loyn et al. 1986). At other times they will feed on fallen seeds of wireweed (Polygonum), Atriplex and Heliotropium europaeum (J.R. Starks cited in Higgins 1999).

Orange-bellied Parrots have been observed drinking from puddles of rainwater on tracks, among rocks or in ploughed firebreaks, from run-off channels from paddocks, in places where banks are shallow and muddy, shallow rocky edges of sewage ponds, and roadside rainwater drains. They have also been seen to sip dew from long grass and from depressions in boulders filled by heavy rains (Hill 1995; Loyn et al. 1986).

Orange-bellied Parrots will drink and bathe at the edge of sewage treatment ponds at Western Treatment Plant (J.R. Starks 2002 cited in Higgins 1999). They may also obtain water by eating succulent leaves of salt marsh plants (Loyn et al. 1986). Birds were observed to visit rain-filled depressions in boulders (near roosting sites), at dawn and dusk but only seen to drink at dusk (Hill 1995).

Orange-bellied Parrots migrate yearly from the breeding site in south-western Tasmania, in a northward direction, along the western and north-western coast of Tasmania and through western Bass Strait, to spend the non-breeding period on the mainland. They return via the same route. The northward migration is protracted, the southward migration is rapid (Aust. Atlas in Higgins 1999). The numbers of birds recorded at regularly used sites on passage vary unpredictably (Brown & Wilson 1984). Orange-bellied Parrots are thought to travel at night (Forshaw 1969), though there is little evidence to support this (Le Souëf 1906; Starks 1993). It has been suggested that a single bird recorded at Chinamans Creek, South Australia, in 1992, may have associated with migrating Blue-winged Parrots (Klau & Langdon 1994).

Orange-bellied Parrots depart the breeding grounds from January to April. Migration is largely uncoordinated, with paired, unpaired and juvenile Orange-bellied Parrots commencing migration at different times (Brown & Wilson 1984). Adults usually leave breeding areas from late February to early March (Milledge 1972; Starks et al. 1992). The unpaired adults leave first, in February, then breeding adults in late February and early March, earlier if nests fail, as early as mid-December. It has also been suggested that unsuccessful breeders leave with unpaired birds in February. Juveniles usually depart mid to late March, and in some years, not till the third week in April (Brown & Wilson 1984; Starks 1988; Starks et al. 1992; White 1985). Some captive-bred birds released at Melaleuca have stayed till the 10th of May (M. Holdsworth cited in Higgins 1999).

Orange-bellied Parrots travel along the western and north-western coasts of Tasmania during March to May (Brown 1980; Brown & Wilson 1984; Tas. Bird Reps 1976, 1978 in Higgins 1999). Scattered winter records indicate that some birds may stay in Tasmania for part, or whole of the non-breeding season (Hinsby 1947; Brown 1984; Brown & Wilson 1980, 1984; Starks 1994). Orange-bellied Parrots arrive at King Island in March and depart in June. Most of the population probably migrates through King Island.

Birds arrive at the mainland in March and April. On the mainland they are usually present in Victoria from late March onwards (Emison et al. 1987). It has been suggest that after arriving on the mainland birds move east along the Victorian coast to beyond Wilsons Promontory and to the west, into south-eastern South Australia (Brown & Wilson 1984). In most years, the first mainland records are of adults in the last week of March, though these have been recorded as early as the 2nd of March (Jarman 1965; Starks et al. 1992). Most early arrivals in Victoria are singles or small groups. Groups of more than 10 birds have been recorded from early April (Starks et al. 1992). None have been recorded west of the Bellarine Peninsula, Victoria, in March (Starks et al. 1992). At Point Wilson-Western Treatment Plant, first arrivals range from the 23rd of March to the 10th of May. At Lake Connewarre, about half of the population arrive between late March and early April (Starks 1992b). The first birds at Yambuk arrive early to mid-April (Starks 2001, 2002).

Birds spend the winter on the mainland, from March to November. In Victoria, at the Point Wilson Western Treatment Plant, numbers slowly increase from March to a maximum between mid-June and mid-August (Starks 1993, 1997a; Starks et al. 1992). Numbers at this site gradually decline from August to early November, suggesting gradual movement away from the area (Loyn et al. 1986; Starks et al. 1992). At Swan Island, birds usually arrive late in June with the maximum number of birds present in August to September. Lake Connewarre supports between 19 and 67% of the total wintering population between April and July (Starks 1997a; Starks et al. 1992) and maximum numbers occur in May and June (Starks 1993). One juvenile colour-banded bird was seen at the Point Wilson Western Treatment Plant in early June, and then seen at Swan Island in late October, 24 km to the south east (Starks 1997a).

In South Australia, the first birds are seen in April or early May (Higgins 1999), with numbers increasing to a maximum in July (Jarman 1965). Orange-bellied Parrots have been recorded at Carpenter Rocks, South Australia, in most years. They usually arrive in mid-July and leave in late August or early September (Starks et al. 1992). There may be some interchange between non-breeding sites (Jessop & Reid 1986; Loyn & Chandler 1978). Birds move from some sites (e.g. Lake Connewarre), possibly when food is exhausted (Jessop & Reid 1986; Starks 1992b). At Blackford Drain birds have been seen in early April to early July (Starks 1988, 1992b). Small numbers of Orange-bellied Parrots have also recently been reported from the Adelaide area (C. Tzaros pers. comm. 2006 in OBPRT 2006).

Birds depart the mainland for Tasmania in September and November. The southward migration is rapid (Stephenson 1991) and there are few passage records. They apparently return via western Bass Strait, as in the northward migration (Higgins 1999). The first adults leave the mainland in September, with the last usually gone by November (Stephenson 1991).

Birds arrive back in Tasmania between September and November (Littler 1910a). First returns at Melaleuca have been recorded on the 16th October 1979 (Brown & Wilson 1980), the 5th October 1988 (Higgins 1999) and the 2nd October (Holdsworth 2006). The first to arrive are those in their second year or older (Holdsworth 2006). Most arrive at breeding grounds in pairs (Brown 1980). Counts at Melaleuca over the 1991–92 breeding season recorded maximum number of adults in the week ending on the 9th December (Starks 1994).

Unpaired birds, mostly males, probably move throughout the breeding range during summer (Brown & Wilson 1984). At the breeding grounds, most local movements are made early to mid-morning and in the late afternoon, and appear to be along definite flight paths (Lane & Kinhill Planners 1979a).

Birds Australia, with the support of the Orange-bellied Parrot Recovery Team, co-ordinate winter surveys (from April to October) of Orange-bellied Parrots across Tasmania, Victoria and South Australia. Regional facilitators organise teams of trained volunteers to undertake surveys and record sightings. Detailed survey guidelines and training are provided to volunteers and are available at the project website. The guidelines include some the following points:

  • Optimum survey hours throughout the winter period are from sunrise till around 11.00am, and again from around 3.00pm to sunset, as this is when Neophema parrots are most likely to be actively foraging. In the middle of the day they may move to nearby cover to loaf, preen and socialise.
  • Orange-bellied Parrots tend not to stray far from the sea or lake shoreline and they appear to show a preference for foraging on the edges of saltmarsh where green coloured plants are often more prevalent than reddish ones.
  • The parrots can feed for long periods on the ground or low in vegetation, calling softly to each other and only occasionally. They camouflage very well whilst feeding and it often takes a close approach to see or flush the birds.
  • Orange-bellied Parrots are gregarious by nature and may "join" flocks of other species (Blue-winged or Elegant Parrots) when feeding, but look brighter, sound different and fly 'with', but not quite 'in', the flock (BA 2008).

From October to January, surveys of nesting sites are undertaken in Tasmania, usually from set-point observation posts. Searches of possible breeding habitat are conducted periodically, involving Tasmania's Department of Primary Industries, Water and Environment staff and volunteers (Holdsworth 1998).

The Orange-bellied Parrot is usually distinctive within its core breeding habitat, but it can be confused with the Blue-winged and Elegant Parrots (Higgins 1999). The identity of birds that are suspected to be Orange-bellied Parrots is rarely confirmed by sight only. It is therefore critical that observers are familiar with flight and alarm calls to distinguish the Orange-bellied Parrot from other parrots in the genus Neophema.

A large proportion of wild Orange-bellied Parrots have been colour-banded as part of the Recovery Teams' population monitoring objectives. As such, the Recovery Team and Birds Australia encourage people to include details of the colour of the leg bands and the letter printed on the band (it will only appear on one of the leg bands) and to contact either the regional survey co-ordinator or the Birds Australia co-ordinator with the sighting information (BA 2008a).

The main current threat to the Orange-bellied Parrot is the loss and fragmentation of its non-breeding saltmarsh habitat. Suitable habitat has been lost to the construction of farmland, industrial sites and saltworks (Ashby 1924b; Brown & Wilson 1982; Loyn et al. 1986; Menkhorst et al. 1990; Starks 1995b; Stephenson 1991; Yugovic 1984). The main factors contributing to the loss of Orange-bellied Parrot habitat are:


  • drainage of wetlands for grazing

  • alteration and destruction of saltmarsh for industrial and urban development

  • grazing of native vegetation

  • vegetation clearance for agricultural purposes

  • changes to land use practices

  • recreational activities (OBPRT 2006a).

Potential threats to the Orange-bellied Parrot population include loss of unknown breeding sites, competition from introduced species, predation, Psittacine Circoviral Disease (PCD), collision with structures, ingestion of toxic weeds and reduced availability of food due to the changed species composition at feeding sites (OBPRT 2006a).

Breeding Site Threats
Most of the breeding habitat of the Orange-bellied Parrot is protected within the Tasmanian Wilderness World Heritage area. However, as it is possible that some breeding sub-populations are unknown, there is potential for some Orange-bellied Parrots to be subject to development pressure within the South-west Conservation Area, in particular through mineral exploration pressure, mine development and associated infrastructure within the Cape Sorrel to Low Rocky Point region (OBPRT 2006a).

At known breeding sites Orange-bellied Parrots have been aggressively prevented from entering nest-hollows by introduced Common Starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) (M. Holdsworth cited in Higgins 1999; Tas. Bird Rep. 10 cited in Higgins 1999). It has been reported that Orange-bellied Parrots may compete with introduced granivores, such as House Sparrow (Passer domesticus), European Goldfinch (Carduelis carduelis), European Greenfinch (C. chloris) and House Mouse (Mus domesticus) (Gibbons 1984; Hill 1995; Loyn et al. 1986).

Predation
The feather remains of an Orange-bellied Parrot have been found on and around a fence-post at the Spit Nature Conservation Reserve, consistent with predation by a bird of prey (J.R. Starks 2002, pers. comm cited in TSSC 2006ds). A feather was found near a Peregrine Falcon roost at Stephens Bay, Tasmania, in 1997, and a plastic band from an Orange-bellied Parrot was found among prey remains at The Nut, Stanley, north-western Tasmania in 1997 (Holdsworth 1998). Feral predators such as cats and foxes pose a risk to Orange-bellied Parrots, particularly in migration and wintering habitats (OBPRT 2006a).

Disease and Toxins
Psittacine Circoviral Disease (PCD) was a significant cause of death among captive Orange-bellied Parrots during the breeding program in 1986–1991 (Brown 1988) and has also been found in the wild population (OBPRT 1999). Orange-bellied Parrots are also known to forage on a range of exotic weed species within the non-breeding range, several of which are potentially toxic (e.g. Common Heliotrope, Heliotropium europaeum, and Opium Poppy Papaver somniferum). Lethal or sub-lethal impacts from consumption of these species and the added risk of exposure to any herbicides used to control weeds, has not been assessed (OBPRT 2006a)

The illegal import of exotic psittacine birds also presents a risk of introducing and establishing new virulent diseases to Australian wild and captive populations. This risk is of particular significance to threatened species such as the Orange-bellied Parrot. The control of transfer of disease from introduced species has been addressed through the establishment of draft quarantine protocols for the housing of seized exotic psittacine birds.(OBPRT 2006a).

Invasive Species
The Orange-bellied Parrot may also be adversely affected by the growth of dense vegetation at feeding sites. In south west Tasmania, changes in fire-regimes have allowed Melaleuca and Leptospermum to dominate; this domination may eventually render feeding habitat unsuitable (Brown & Wilson 1982; Lane & Kinhill Planners 1979a). Invasive weeds also impact on Orange-bellied Parrot foraging habitats throughout the species' non-breeding range. Species of concern include:

  • Rice Grass (Spartina anglica)

  • Coast Barb-grass (Parapholis incurva)

  • Sea Barley-grass (Critesion marinum)

  • Maram Grass (Ammophila arenaria)

  • Sea Spurge (Euphorbia paralias)

  • Boxthorn (Lycium ferocissimum).

These aggressive colonisers are salt-tolerant and have the capacity to push out native food plants within saltmarshes, coastal herbfields and dune systems (OBPRT 2006a). At the Western Treatment Plant, Point Wilson, Victoria, invasive weeds have changed the floristic content of feeding sites within saltmarshes and filtration paddocks, reducing both abundance and accessibility of food plants (Hill 1995; McMahon et al. 1994).

The grazing of saltmarsh by introduced herbivores, such as sheep, rabbits and hares, may be detrimental to saltmarsh vegetation and soils, and may be responsible for reducing seed availability in saltmarshes and adjacent habitat (Carr et al. 1991). Further changes to feeding habitat may be caused by the removal of known and potential Orange-bellied Parrot habitat from the site of windfarm developments (J.R. Starks 2002, pers. comm. in TSSC 2006ds), for example at Yambuk, Victoria, where the removal of Bidgee-widgee (Acaena novae-zelandiae) is recommended as a way of reducing the risk of bird strike (Kimber et al. 2001). In south-eastern South Australia, four-wheel-drive activity along beaches damages dunes and patches of Cakile (Brown & Wilson 1982).

Stochastic Events
As the entire known Orange-bellied Parrot population exists as one small population, this species is vulnerable to catastrophic natural events, including storms which may interfere with migration and fire, which may destroy nest sites, eggs and chicks (Starks & Holdsworth 2003). With such a small breeding population, events such as breeding failure or heavy winter losses in one year could result in rapid population decline (Brown and Wilson 1982). Loss of genetic variation is also an important influence on the long-term survival of the species (Starks & Holdsworth 2003).

Collision
The potential threat that wind farm developments in Tasmania, western Victoria and south-eastern South Australia pose to the Orange-bellied Parrot has been quantified in the Wind farm Birdstrike Cumulative Risk Assessment Report (Smales et al. 2005). The assessment report concluded that the predicted annual cumulative mortality rate from all the wind farms modelled corresponds to an additional Orange-bellied Parrot mortality of around one bird per year.

Extinction risk modelling, also undertaken as part of the study, indicated that the extinction risk for the Orange-bellied Parrot would increase slightly as a result of the increase in mortality predicted by the wind farm birdstrike cumulative impacts modelling. This prediction was determined by examining the change in extinction risk for the Orange-bellied Parrot population, over and above the existing background rate, due to the increased mortality resulting from collisions with all existing and proposed wind farms within the species' range (Smales et al. 2005).

The extinction risk modelling study also predicted that the species has a very high probability of going extinct within about 50 years, even in the absence of any mortality due to wind turbine collisions. Although the study concluded that the likely impacts of wind farms on the Orange-bellied Parrot are low, it also noted that almost any negative impact on the species could tip the balance against its continued existence. The report states that, despite the best efforts to assist recovery of the Orange-bellied Parrot, there are clearly substantive factors (both known and unknown) that are presently preventing growth of the population and placing it at very significant risk of extinction (Smales et al. 2005).

Squid fishing boats in Bass Strait and other illuminated structures such as light houses may disrupt Orange-bellied Parrot migration to the mainland and cause direct mortality through bird strike (Starks & Holdsworth 2003).

Shooting, Aviculture
In the past, the Orange-bellied Parrot was shot for sport (Ashby 1924a; North 1901–14) and trapped illegally for aviculture, particularly in South Australia (Aust. Atlas in Higgins 1999; Jarman 1965). Several pairs of Orange-bellied Parrots were illegally sold into Europe in the early 1970s (Low 1980).

The current Recovery Plan includes the following objectives:

  • To monitor the population size, productivity, survival and life history of the Orange-bellied Parrot.
  • To identify all sites used by Orange-bellied Parrots and better understand migration.
  • To increase the carrying capacity of habitat by actively managing sites throughout the species' range.
  • To identify, measure and ameliorate threats, particularly in migratory and winter habitats.
  • To increase the number of breeding sub-populations /groups.
  • To maintain a viable captive population.

Most of the areas used regularly by the Orange-bellied Parrot are either reserved for nature conservation or are subject to heritage agreements, planning regulations or co-operative agreements between landholders. Management plans for government parks and reserves throughout its range take Orange-bellied Parrot management issues into consideration (OBPRT 2006a).

Fire management prescriptions are being implemented at breeding sites (Marsden-Smedley 2001). Control burns are carried out, according to Parks and Wildlife Services (Tasmania) regional fire management plans, in order to reduce the threat of catastrophic bush fires, and to maintain an adequate diversity and abundance of food plants (Starks & Holdsworth 2003).


The following projects have received Government funding grants for conservation and recovery work benefiting the Orange-bellied Parrot :

The King Island Natural Resources Management Group Inc (Tasmania) received $29 610 through the Threatened Species Network Community Grants in 2005–06 for control of feral cats to protect the parrots during their stopover on King Island.

Port Fairy Golf Club Inc (Victoria) received $1818 through the Threatened Species Network Community Grants in 2008-09 for the planting of roosting trees for orange-bellied parrots. The project will establish areas of (succession planting) re-vegetation in the western corner of the Port fairy Golf course to provide future roosting sites for the orange-bellied parrot.

The Understorey Network (Tasmania) received $9645 through the Threatened Species Network Community Grants in 2008-09 for the Orange-bellied Parrot Costal Habitat Restoration project. The project will supply native plants and undertake a coastal habitat restoration project.

The first major study into the basic biology, ecology, distribution and requirements of the Orange-bellied Parrot, throughout its range, was conducted from 1979 to 1981. This research was conducted by the National Parks and Wildlife Service of Tasmania and funded by the World Wide Fund for Nature (Australia). This information was published in Brown and Wilson (1980), and was the basis of the first Orange-bellied Parrot recovery plan by Brown and Wilson in 1984.

Another major study on this species was conducted at Point Wilson, which is the largest known over-wintering location of the Orange-bellied Parrot. This information is summarised in Loyn and colleagues (1986). A Population Viability Analysis of this species has been completed by Drechsler and Meredith (2000). Holdsworth (2006) published an analysis of the demographic and reproductive aspects of the Orange-bellied Parrot based on around 25 years of monitoring that has been undertaken in Melaleuca and Birchs Inlet in Tasmania.

The "Orange-bellied Parrots: Defining and maintaining key mainland habitats", project is a Natural Heritage Trust funded project being undertaken between 2005 and 2008. It involves the Victorian Department of Sustainability and Environment, the Orange-bellied Parrot Recovery Team, the Glenelg-Hopkins Catchment Management Authority and Birds Australia. This three-year project seeks to examine the habitat and site use by Orange-bellied Parrots throughout their mainland winter range, improve understanding of movement and dispersal patterns and better manage and protect key habitat. Six regional facilitators are organising and co-ordinating surveys and comprehensive databases, maps, models and management plans are being developed (BA 2008a).

Since 1984, five Recovery Plans have been prepared for the Orange-bellied Parrot; the first by Brown and Wilson (1984), followed by Stephenson (1991), Askey-Doran (1995) and the two most recent by the Orange-bellied Parrot Recovery Team (1999, 2006a).

Other relevant documents include the following plans:


The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Agriculture and Aquaculture:Land clearing, habitat fragmentation and/or habitat degradation The Action Plan for Australian Birds 2000 (Garnett, S.T. & G.M. Crowley, 2000) [Cwlth Action Plan].
Orange-bellied Parrot Recovery Plan: Management Phase 1998-2002 (Orange-bellied Parrot Recovery Team (OBPRT), 1999) [State Recovery Plan].
National Recovery Plan for the Orange-bellied Parrot (Neophema chrysogaster) (Orange-bellied Parrot Recovery Team (OBPRT), 2006a) [Recovery Plan].
Commonwealth Listing Advice on Land clearance (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2001w) [Listing Advice].
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Grazing pressures and associated habitat changes Orange-bellied Parrot Recovery Plan: Management Phase 1998-2002 (Orange-bellied Parrot Recovery Team (OBPRT), 1999) [State Recovery Plan].
National Recovery Plan for the Orange-bellied Parrot (Neophema chrysogaster) (Orange-bellied Parrot Recovery Team (OBPRT), 2006a) [Recovery Plan].
Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Habitat alteration (vegetation, soil, hydrology) due to trampling and grazing by livestock National Recovery Plan for the Orange-bellied Parrot (Neophema chrysogaster) (Orange-bellied Parrot Recovery Team (OBPRT), 2006a) [Recovery Plan].
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Habitat loss and modification due to clearance of native vegetation and pasture improvements The Impact of Global Warming on the Distribution of Threatened Vertebrates (ANZECC 1991) (Dexter, E.M., A.D. Chapman & J.R. Busby, 1995) [Report].
Biological Resource Use:Gathering Terrestrial Plants:Commercial harvest Orange-bellied Parrot Recovery Plan: Management Phase 1998-2002 (Orange-bellied Parrot Recovery Team (OBPRT), 1999) [State Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Gathering Terrestrial Plants:Recreational harvest Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Climate Change and Severe Weather:Climate change altering atmosphere/hydrosphere temperatures, rainfall patterns and/or frequency of severe weather events Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Sea level rise:Inundation associated with climate change Inundation study (Environmental Resources Information Network, 2007) [Database].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Storms and Flooding:Storm damage National Recovery Plan for the Orange-bellied Parrot (Neophema chrysogaster) (Orange-bellied Parrot Recovery Team (OBPRT), 2006a) [Recovery Plan].
Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Indirect Ecosystem Effects:Loss and/or fragmentation of habitat and/or subpopulations National Recovery Plan for the Orange-bellied Parrot (Neophema chrysogaster) (Orange-bellied Parrot Recovery Team (OBPRT), 2006a) [Recovery Plan].
Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Indirect Ecosystem Effects:Restricted geographical distribution (area of occupancy and extent of occurrence) National Recovery Plan for the Orange-bellied Parrot (Neophema chrysogaster) (Orange-bellied Parrot Recovery Team (OBPRT), 2006a) [Recovery Plan].
Energy Production and Mining:Mining and Quarrying:Habitat destruction, disturbance and/or modification due to mining activities National Recovery Plan for the Orange-bellied Parrot (Neophema chrysogaster) (Orange-bellied Parrot Recovery Team (OBPRT), 2006a) [Recovery Plan].
Energy Production and Mining:Mining and Quarrying:Habitat modification through open cut mining/quarrying activities Orange-bellied Parrot Recovery Plan: Management Phase 1998-2002 (Orange-bellied Parrot Recovery Team (OBPRT), 1999) [State Recovery Plan].
Energy Production and Mining:Renewable Energy:Habitat modification due to wind farm development and operation National Recovery Plan for the Orange-bellied Parrot (Neophema chrysogaster) (Orange-bellied Parrot Recovery Team (OBPRT), 2006a) [Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Recreational Activities:Disturbance, especially from human recreational activities and development National Recovery Plan for the Orange-bellied Parrot (Neophema chrysogaster) (Orange-bellied Parrot Recovery Team (OBPRT), 2006a) [Recovery Plan].
Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation National Recovery Plan for the Orange-bellied Parrot (Neophema chrysogaster) (Orange-bellied Parrot Recovery Team (OBPRT), 2006a) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Oryctolagus cuniculus (Rabbit, European Rabbit) Orange-bellied Parrot Recovery Plan: Management Phase 1998-2002 (Orange-bellied Parrot Recovery Team (OBPRT), 1999) [State Recovery Plan].
National Recovery Plan for the Orange-bellied Parrot (Neophema chrysogaster) (Orange-bellied Parrot Recovery Team (OBPRT), 2006a) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Euphorbia paralias (Sea Spurge, Spurge) National Recovery Plan for the Orange-bellied Parrot (Neophema chrysogaster) (Orange-bellied Parrot Recovery Team (OBPRT), 2006a) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Lycium ferocissimum (African Boxthorn, Boxthorn) National Recovery Plan for the Orange-bellied Parrot (Neophema chrysogaster) (Orange-bellied Parrot Recovery Team (OBPRT), 2006a) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation by weeds Commonwealth Listing Advice on Neophema chrysogaster (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2006ds) [Listing Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Vulpes vulpes (Red Fox, Fox) Orange-bellied Parrot Recovery Plan: Management Phase 1998-2002 (Orange-bellied Parrot Recovery Team (OBPRT), 1999) [State Recovery Plan].
Commonwealth Listing Advice on Neophema chrysogaster (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2006ds) [Listing Advice].
Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Felis catus (Cat, House Cat, Domestic Cat) Orange-bellied Parrot Recovery Plan: Management Phase 1998-2002 (Orange-bellied Parrot Recovery Team (OBPRT), 1999) [State Recovery Plan].
Commonwealth Listing Advice on Neophema chrysogaster (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2006ds) [Listing Advice].
Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Sturnus vulgaris (Common Starling) National Recovery Plan for the Orange-bellied Parrot (Neophema chrysogaster) (Orange-bellied Parrot Recovery Team (OBPRT), 2006a) [Recovery Plan].
Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Canis lupus familiaris (Domestic Dog) Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation by birds Orange-bellied Parrot Recovery Plan: Management Phase 1998-2002 (Orange-bellied Parrot Recovery Team (OBPRT), 1999) [State Recovery Plan].
Commonwealth Listing Advice on Neophema chrysogaster (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2006ds) [Listing Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Predation, competition, habitat degradation and/or spread of pathogens by introduced species National Recovery Plan for the Orange-bellied Parrot (Neophema chrysogaster) (Orange-bellied Parrot Recovery Team (OBPRT), 2006a) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Presence of pathogens and resulting disease National Recovery Plan for the Orange-bellied Parrot (Neophema chrysogaster) (Orange-bellied Parrot Recovery Team (OBPRT), 2006a) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Problematic Native Species:Competition and/or predation by birds Commonwealth Listing Advice on Neophema chrysogaster (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2006ds) [Listing Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Problematic Native Species:Psittacine Circoviral Disease Orange-bellied Parrot Recovery Plan: Management Phase 1998-2002 (Orange-bellied Parrot Recovery Team (OBPRT), 1999) [State Recovery Plan].
Commonwealth Listing Advice on Psittacine Circoviral (beak and feather ) Disease affecting endangered psittacine species (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2001v) [Listing Advice].
Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Changes in hydrology including habitat drainage National Recovery Plan for the Orange-bellied Parrot (Neophema chrysogaster) (Orange-bellied Parrot Recovery Team (OBPRT), 2006a) [Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity) Commonwealth Listing Advice on Neophema chrysogaster (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2006ds) [Listing Advice].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate fire regimes including natural wildfires National Recovery Plan for the Orange-bellied Parrot (Neophema chrysogaster) (Orange-bellied Parrot Recovery Team (OBPRT), 2006a) [Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate prescribed regimes and/or vegetation management to control fire regimes Orange-bellied Parrot Recovery Plan: Management Phase 1998-2002 (Orange-bellied Parrot Recovery Team (OBPRT), 1999) [State Recovery Plan].
Residential and Commercial Development:Commercial and Industrial Areas:Recreational, commercial and industrial development National Recovery Plan for the Orange-bellied Parrot (Neophema chrysogaster) (Orange-bellied Parrot Recovery Team (OBPRT), 2006a) [Recovery Plan].
Residential and Commercial Development:Housing and Urban Areas:Habitat loss, modification and fragmentation due to urban development Orange-bellied Parrot Recovery Plan: Management Phase 1998-2002 (Orange-bellied Parrot Recovery Team (OBPRT), 1999) [State Recovery Plan].
National Recovery Plan for the Orange-bellied Parrot (Neophema chrysogaster) (Orange-bellied Parrot Recovery Team (OBPRT), 2006a) [Recovery Plan].
Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].
Residential and Commercial Development:Residential and Commercial Development:Habitat modification (clearance and degradation) due to urban development National Recovery Plan for the Orange-bellied Parrot (Neophema chrysogaster) (Orange-bellied Parrot Recovery Team (OBPRT), 2006a) [Recovery Plan].
Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Low genetic diversity and genetic inbreeding National Recovery Plan for the Orange-bellied Parrot (Neophema chrysogaster) (Orange-bellied Parrot Recovery Team (OBPRT), 2006a) [Recovery Plan].
Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Low numbers of individuals Orange-bellied Parrot Recovery Plan: Management Phase 1998-2002 (Orange-bellied Parrot Recovery Team (OBPRT), 1999) [State Recovery Plan].
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Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Neophema chrysogaster in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Fri, 1 Aug 2014 00:49:35 +1000.