Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Vulnerable as Macadamia integrifolia
Listing and Conservation Advices Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Macadamia integrifolia (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008adf) [Conservation Advice].
 
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan required, a recovery plan is likely to provide for the research and management actions necessary to stop the decline of, and support the recovery of, this species (17/10/2007).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans Southern Macadamia Species Recovery Plan (Costello, G., M. Gregory & P. Donatiu, 2009) [Recovery Plan] as Macadamia integrifolia.
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument] as Macadamia integrifolia.
 
State Government
    Documents and Websites
NSW:Rough-shelled Bush Nut Profile (NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service (NPWS), 2005) [Information Sheet].
State Listing Status
QLD: Listed as Vulnerable (Nature Conservation Act 1992 (Queensland): July 2012) as Macadamia integrifolia
Scientific name Macadamia integrifolia [7326]
Family Proteaceae:Proteales:Magnoliopsida:Magnoliophyta:Plantae
Species author Maiden & E.Betche
Infraspecies author  
Reference Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 21 (31 May 1897) 624.
Other names Macadamia ternifolia var. integrifolia [47487]
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Other illustrations Google Images
http://farrer.riv.csu.edu.au/ASGAP/gall4aa.html#mi-image
http://www.anbg.gov.au/images/photo_cd/630930713442/024.html
http://www.anbg.gov.au/images/photo_cd/301610241712/067.html

Scientific name: Macadamia integrifolia

Common name: Macadamia Nut

Other names: Queensland Nut, Smooth-shelled Macadamia, Bush Nut, Nut oak

In the Beechmont area and the Tamborine Mountain area, north to the Wongawallan Creek area, the Macadamia Nut co-occurs with the Rough-shelled Bush Nut (Macadamia tetraphylla) (Quinn et al. 1995).

The Macadamia Nut is a medium-sized tree which can grow to approximately 20 m in height with a similar crown width, giving the tree a rounded shape (Barry & Thomas 1994; Queensland CRA/RFA Steering Committee 1997; Ryan 2006; Stanley & Ross 1986). The leaves are simple, narrow-elliptical to narrow-oblong in shape, tough, dark green and occur on branchlets in groups of three. Leaves are 10–15 cm long (Barry & Thomas 1994; Gross 1995; Ryan 2006). Juvenile leaves have a serrated edge but mature leaves have a smooth margin (Ryan 2006). The flowers are cream or creamy-white in colour and occur on racemes up to 30 cm long (Barry & Thomas 1994; Gross 1995; Forster et al. 1991; Ryan 2006; Stanley & Ross 1986). The racemes originate at the leaf axil (Barry & Thomas 1994). The fruit are a hard brown nut encased in a green leathery outer shell with a 2–3 cm diameter (Barry & Thomas 1994; Ryan 2006). The smooth brown nut contains an edible kernel (Ryan 2006).

The Macadamia Nut is found in remnant rainforest in northern NSW and south-east Queensland (Gross 1995).

NSW
While specimens have been collected from the North Coast of NSW (e.g. Lismore, Gross 1995), this species is not known to occur naturally in NSW (Harden 1991).

Queensland
This species is known from Mt Bauple, north of Gympie (Stanley & Ross 1986), to Currumbin Valley in the Gold Coast hinterland (Barry & Thomas 1994).

Along with the Rough-shelled Bush Nut, this species forms the basis of the commercial macadamia nut industry in Australia and Hawaii, usually as a hybrid selection. The species is rarely grown as an ornamental tree (Johnson 1954; Wrigley & Fagg 1989).

Some plants are cultivated in botanic gardens (Barry & Thomas 1994). The Macadamia Nut is currently in cultivation at the Australian National Botanic Gardens, Canberra; Royal Botanic Gardens, Sydney; the Botanic Gardens of Adelaide; Royal Botanic Gardens, Melbourne and the Rockhampton Botanic Gardens (Meredith & Richardson 1990).

The Macadamia Nut occurs as a scattered rare to occasional tree, and populations sizes are difficult to estimate (Barry & Thomas 1994). Populations in the Queensland Regional Forest Agreement (RFA) region (area of 10 000 km²) are estimated at 2500 mature individuals in 20 populations. These populations were formerly declining but are now considered stable (Queensland CRA/RFA Steering Committee 1997). Locations of the Queensland RFA populations include:

National Parks
Mt Bauple National Park (north of Gympie); Nicoll Scrub National Park (Gold Coast hinterland); Triunia National Park (90 km north of Brisbane).

State Forests
Imbril State Forest, Mitchell Logging Area.

Crown Land
Pine Mt Reserve, Mt Gravatt; BBC reserve, Avalon Rd, Tingalpa Creek, Brisbane.

Freehold
Cliff Barron Rd, Ormeau; Allen Scrub, Chatsworth; Mt Cooroy; Mt Bauple; Sankey's Scrub, Pine Mt Rd, Holland Park (tenure unknown); Amamoor Scrub (State Forest and freehold); Mt Nebo, The Goat Track; Mt Cotton, Mt Cotton Rd; Kandanga, near Amamoor; Mooloo, south-west of Gympie; Mary Creek; Amamoor Scrub, Red Gully Rd; Kenilworth; 6 km west of Woombye; Ward's Scrub, Samford Valley; Yellow wood, Beenleigh; Bahr's Scrub, Beenleigh; Pimpama River, Ormeau; Cedar Creek, Ridge Rd; Wongawallan; Spring Creek, Belmont.

Barry and Thomas (1994) record additional populations at Mudgeeraba; Nerang-Lower Beechmont Rd; Bahr's Hill, Beenleigh; Ormeau; Shaw's Pocket Rd. Barry and Thomas (1994) provide a list of localities and collection dates of specimens held at Queensland Herbarium, Brisbane, in 1994.

During a flora survey for the Beechmont Road upgrade, a population of an estimated 144 Macadamia Nuts was observed (Reynolds 2010). This estimate may have been an over estimate as most other populations have 5–20 plants. Twenty-three mature and six juvenile Macadamia Nuts were to be translocated from the site to be established in the Canungra Field Training Area (Reynolds 2011). A further 2700 plants were to be planted to ensure stability at the rehabilitation site (Reynolds 2011).

The Macadamia Nut occurs and is protected in the following four reserves in south-east Queensland: Nicholls Scrub National Park; Triunia National Park; Mt Cooroy Conservation Park; and Mt Bauple National Park (Barry & Thomas 1994).

The Macadamia Nut grows in remnant rainforest (Gross 1995; Stanley & Ross 1986), preferring partially open areas such as rainforest edges (Ryan 2006). However, this habitat is not continuously fit for the species (Queensland CRA/RFA Steering Committee 1997).

In a survey of eight populations in the Cooroy-Maleny district of the Sunshine Coast, Barry and Thomas (1994) collated the following habitat information. The sites spanned a wide range of landforms including hill crests, hill slopes, scree slopes and foot slopes, gullies, benches and terrace plains. The slopes range from level to steep, with altitudes from 5–340 m above sea level. High nutrient alluvial and volcanic soils predominate often with considerable exposure of rock fragments or substrate, mostly basalt and diorite. The surface soils are uniformly dark, slightly acid (pH 5.5–6.5) and varying in texture from clayey-sand through various loams to silty-clay. All sites are well-drained, some excessively so (Barry & Thomas 1994).

The Macadamia Nut prefers to grow in mild frost-free areas with a reasonably high rainfall. There have been records of planted specimens bearing fruit as far south as Sydney (Ryan 2006).

Vegetation communities in which the Macadamia Nut is found range from complex notophyll mixed forest, extremely tall closed forest, simple notophyll mixed very tall closed forest to simple microphyll-notophyll mixed mid-high closed forest with Araucaria and Argyrodendron emergents (Barry & Thomas 1994; Queensland CRA/RFA Steering Committee 1997; Ryan 2006).

Tha Macadamia Nut reaches maturity at around ten years, and has a juvenile period of over six years (Queensland CRA/RFA Steering Committee 1997).

This species has been recorded flowering in January, March and June (Forster et al. 1991) to November (Barry & Thomas 1994; Gross 1995; Stanley & Ross 1986). Fruits have been recorded from November–January and March–April (Barry & Thomas 1994; Forster et al. 1991). Macadamia Nuts begin to produce viable nut loads at around 10 years of age (Vock 1989 cited in Blundell 1998). Reproduction is by seed, with a seed viability of 3–6 months. The seeds are eaten by mammals and are dispersed by stream. The plant resprouts when damaged (Queensland CRA/RFA Steering Committee 1997).

The greatest threat to the Macadamia Nut is land clearing for urban and agricultural development (Queensland CRA/RFA Steering Committee 1997; Ryan 2006). Other threats include weed invasion, wind, wildfire and inappropriate fire regimes (Queensland CRA/RFA Steering Committee 1997; Ryan 2006).

Land Clearing
Land clearing is potentially damaging to Macadamia Nut trees by isolating trees and making them more susceptible to wind damage, as well as reducing the availability of natural pollinators (Ryan 2006). Wind damage can occur to fruiting trees (weighed down with nuts) that do not have a protective windbreak, resulting in loss of branches or, in some cases, the loss of a whole tree (Ryan 2006).

Weeds
Weeds, such as Lantana (Lantana camara) and Camphor Laurel (Cinnamomum camphora), can dominate preferred habitat of the Macadamia Nut, making it difficult for new trees to become established. Weeds can also increase the likelihood of wildfires (Ryan 2006).

Fire and Soil Damage
Macadamia Nut trees are highly susceptible to fire damage (O'Hare & Rigden 2006). Compaction of the soil layer around the base of trees, caused by livestock and vehicles, has a deleterious effect on trees by preventing water from penetrating and draining from the soil (Ryan 2006).

Ryan (2006) suggests the following recovery actions for the Macadamia Nut:

Habitat Improvement
Revegetating cleared areas around Macadamia Nut trees with native subtropical rainforest species will provide a wind buffer and an increase in biodiversity, potentially controlling pest species. The proximity of an individual to the rainforest increases the pollination and fruit set of Macadamia Nuts (Blanche et al. 2006).

Weed control
Controlling weeds in rainforest areas is important for the long-term survival of the Macadamia Nut in the wild.

Fire and Soil Degradation
Prescribed burns early in the dry season are suggested as a method to prevent wildfires. During prescribed burns, a protective buffer of 30 m should be maintained around Macadamia Nut trees. Any fallen vegetation and other flammable debris should be removed from 2 m around trunks of juvenile trees and up to 2 m from the canopy of larger, mature trees. A 5 m buffer should be placed around Macadamia Nut trees to exclude animals and vehicles. In addition, a 0.3 ha buffer should be created around known Macadamia Nut populations to exclude timber harvesting with all trees being at least 30 m within the buffer area.

The following recovery actions are recommended for the similar Rough-shelled Bush Nut (NSW NPWS 2005):

  • protect rainforest from fire
  • exclude grazing stock from known areas of habitat by fencing
  • control weeds in rainforest areas
  • protect areas of rainforest habitat from clearing or development
  • expand and connect remaining remnant patches of habitat
  • plant commercial hybrid macadamias away from wild populations.

Studies describing pollinator requirements and fruit maturity include Blanche and colleagues (2006), Heard (1993), Sakai and Nagao (1985), and Wallace and colleagues (1996).

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Agriculture and Aquaculture:Land clearing, habitat fragmentation and/or habitat degradation Southern Macadamia Species Recovery Plan (Costello, G., M. Gregory & P. Donatiu, 2009) [Recovery Plan].
Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Macadamia integrifolia (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008adf) [Conservation Advice].
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Grazing pressures and associated habitat changes Southern Macadamia Species Recovery Plan (Costello, G., M. Gregory & P. Donatiu, 2009) [Recovery Plan].
Border Ranges Rainforest Biodiversity Management Plan - NSW & Queensland (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010n) [State Recovery Plan].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Climate Change and Severe Weather:Climate change altering atmosphere/hydrosphere temperatures, rainfall patterns and/or frequency of severe weather events Southern Macadamia Species Recovery Plan (Costello, G., M. Gregory & P. Donatiu, 2009) [Recovery Plan].
Border Ranges Rainforest Biodiversity Management Plan - NSW & Queensland (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010n) [State Recovery Plan].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Habitat Shifting and Alteration:Habitat loss, modification and/or degradation Border Ranges Rainforest Biodiversity Management Plan - NSW & Queensland (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010n) [State Recovery Plan].
Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Ecosystem Degradation:Decline in habitat quality Border Ranges Rainforest Biodiversity Management Plan - NSW & Queensland (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010n) [State Recovery Plan].
Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Indirect Ecosystem Effects:Loss and/or fragmentation of habitat and/or subpopulations Southern Macadamia Species Recovery Plan (Costello, G., M. Gregory & P. Donatiu, 2009) [Recovery Plan].
Border Ranges Rainforest Biodiversity Management Plan - NSW & Queensland (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010n) [State Recovery Plan].
Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Macadamia integrifolia (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008adf) [Conservation Advice].
Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Indirect Ecosystem Effects:Small isolated populations Southern Macadamia Species Recovery Plan (Costello, G., M. Gregory & P. Donatiu, 2009) [Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human induced disturbance due to unspecified activities Border Ranges Rainforest Biodiversity Management Plan - NSW & Queensland (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010n) [State Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Lantana camara (Lantana, Common Lantana, Kamara Lantana, Large-leaf Lantana, Pink Flowered Lantana, Red Flowered Lantana, Red-Flowered Sage, White Sage, Wild Sage) Southern Macadamia Species Recovery Plan (Costello, G., M. Gregory & P. Donatiu, 2009) [Recovery Plan].
Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Macadamia integrifolia (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008adf) [Conservation Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Cinnamomum camphora (Camphor Laurel, Camphor Tree, Gum Camphor, True Camphor, Japanese Camphor, Formosa Camphor, Shiu Leaf) Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Macadamia integrifolia (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008adf) [Conservation Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Panicum maximum (Guinea Grass, Green Panic, Hamil Grass) Southern Macadamia Species Recovery Plan (Costello, G., M. Gregory & P. Donatiu, 2009) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Dolichandra unguis-cati (Cat's Claw Vine, Yellow Trumpet Vine, Cat's Claw Creeper, Funnel Creeper) Southern Macadamia Species Recovery Plan (Costello, G., M. Gregory & P. Donatiu, 2009) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation by weeds Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Macadamia integrifolia (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008adf) [Conservation Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Presence of pathogens and resulting disease Border Ranges Rainforest Biodiversity Management Plan - NSW & Queensland (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010n) [State Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity) Southern Macadamia Species Recovery Plan (Costello, G., M. Gregory & P. Donatiu, 2009) [Recovery Plan].
Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Macadamia integrifolia (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008adf) [Conservation Advice].
Residential and Commercial Development:Commercial and Industrial Areas:Recreational, commercial and industrial development Southern Macadamia Species Recovery Plan (Costello, G., M. Gregory & P. Donatiu, 2009) [Recovery Plan].
Residential and Commercial Development:Housing and Urban Areas:Habitat loss, modification and fragmentation due to urban development Southern Macadamia Species Recovery Plan (Costello, G., M. Gregory & P. Donatiu, 2009) [Recovery Plan].
Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Macadamia integrifolia (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008adf) [Conservation Advice].
Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Low genetic diversity and genetic inbreeding Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Macadamia integrifolia (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008adf) [Conservation Advice].

Barry, S.J. & G.T. Thomas (1994). Threatened Vascular Rainforest Plants of South-east Queensland: A Conservation Review. Queensland Department of Environment and Heritage.

Blanche, R.K., J.A. Ludwig & S.A. Cunningham (2006). Proximity to rainforest enhances pollination and fruit set in orchards. Journal of Applied Ecology. 43 (6):1182-1187.

Blundell, R. (1998). Australia's most delicious bush nut: Macadamia Nuts. [Online]. Canberra: Australian National University. Available from: http://fennerschool-associated.anu.edu.au//fpt/nwfp/macanut/macanut.html#cult. [Accessed: 15-Oct-2008].

Costello, G., M. Gregory & P. Donatiu (2009). Southern Macadamia Species Recovery Plan. [Online]. Report to Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts, Canberra. Sydney, NSW: Horticulture Australia Limited. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/recovery/southern-macadamia-species.html.

Forster, P.I., P.D. Bostock, L.H. Bird & A.R. Bean (1991). Vineforest Plant Atlas for South-East Queensland with Assessment of Conservation Status. Indooroopilly: Queensland Herbarium.

Gross, C.L. (1995). Macadamia. In: Orchard, A.E. & P.M. McCarthy, eds. Flora of Australia. 16:419-425. Canberra: ABRS and Melbourne: CSIRO.

Harden, G.J. (ed.) (1991). Flora of New South Wales, Volume Two. Kensington, NSW: University of NSW Press.

Heard, T.A. (1993). Pollinator Requirements and Flowering Patterns of Macadamia integrifolia. Australian Journal of Botany. 41:491-497.

Johnson, L.A.S. (1954). Macadamia ternifolia F.Muell. and a related new species. The Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales. 79:15-18. Sydney.

Meredith, L.D. & M.M. Richardson (1990). Rare or Threatened Australian Plant Species in Cultivation in Australia. Report Series No. 15. Page(s) 1-114. Canberra: Australian National Parks and Wildlife Service.

NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service (NPWS) (2005). Rough-shelled Bush Nut Profile. [Online]. Sydney: NSW NPWS. Available from: http://www.threatenedspecies.environment.nsw.gov.au/tsprofile/profile.aspx?id=10499. [Accessed: 15-Oct-2008].

O'Hare, P. & P. Rigden (2006). Growing macadamia: before you start. [Online]. Queensland: Department of Primary Industires and Fisheris. Available from: http://www2.dpi.qld.gov.au/horticulture/18636.html. [Accessed: 16-Oct-2008].

Queensland CRA/RFA Steering Committee (1997). Forest taxa at risk, threats, conservation needs and recovery planning in south-east Queensland. Queensland Government & Commonwealth of Australia.

Quinn, F., J.B. Williams, C.L. Gross & J. Bruhl (1995). Report on rare and threatened plants of north-eastern New South Wales. Armidale: University of New England.

Reynolds, B.T. (2010). Beechmont Road Flora Survey. Greening Australia. Report for Queensland Department of Transport and Main Roads.

Reynolds, B.T. (2011). Beechmont Road Macadamia integrifolia and Cupaniopsis newmanii Translocation and Ecosystem Rehabilitation Plan. Greening Australia. Report for Queensland Department of Transport and Main Roads.

Ryan, S. (2006). Conservation Management Profile: Queensland nut tree Macadamia integrifolia. [Online]. Queensland: Environmental Protection Agency, Ecosystem Conservation Branch. Available from: http://www.epa.qld.gov.au/publications/p02096aa.pdf/Queensland_nut_tree_emMacadamia_integrifolia/em.pdf. [Accessed: 16-Oct-2008].

Sakai, W.S. & M.A. Nagao (1985). Fruit growth and abscission in Macadamia imtegrifolia. Physiologia Plantarum. 64 (4):455-460.

Stanley, T.D. & E.M. Ross (1986). Flora of south-eastern Queensland. Volume Two. Brisbane, Queensland: Department of Primary Industries.

Wallace, H.M., V. Vithanage & E.M. Exley (1996). The Effect of Supplementary Pollination on Nut Set of Macadamia (Proteaceae). Annals of Botany. 78:765-773.

Wrigley, J.W. & M. Fagg (1989). Banksias, Waratahs and Grevilleas and all other plants in the Australian Proteaceae family. Sydney, NSW: William Collins Publishers.

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This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Macadamia integrifolia in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Sun, 20 Apr 2014 05:11:09 +1000.