Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Vulnerable as Macadamia ternifolia
Listing and Conservation Advices Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Macadamia ternifolia (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008adh) [Conservation Advice].
 
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan required, a recovery plan is likely to provide for the research and management actions necessary to stop the decline of, and support the recovery of, this species (17/10/2007).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans Southern Macadamia Species Recovery Plan (Costello, G., M. Gregory & P. Donatiu, 2009) [Recovery Plan] as Macadamia ternifolia.
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument] as Macadamia ternifolia.
 
State Listing Status
QLD: Listed as Vulnerable (Nature Conservation Act 1992 (Queensland): May 2014 list) as Macadamia ternifolia
Scientific name Macadamia ternifolia [7214]
Family Proteaceae:Proteales:Magnoliopsida:Magnoliophyta:Plantae
Species author F.Muell.
Infraspecies author  
Reference  
Other names Helicia ternifolia [27258]
Macadamia lowii [47450]
Macadamia minor [47455]
Macadamia ternifolia var. ternifolia [47495]
Macadamia ternifolia var. typica [63426]
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Other illustrations Google Images
http://setis.library.usyd.edu.au/pubotbin/ebind2htmlbad/ff?seq=40
http://www.anbg.gov.au/images/photo_cd/630930713442/025.html

Scientific name: Macadamia ternifolia

Common name: Small-fruited Queensland Nut

Other names: Gympie Nut

Conventionally accepted as Macadamia ternifolia (CHAH 2005).

The Small-fruited Queensland Nut is a small, multi-stemmed, evergreen tree growing to approximately eight metres in height (Gross 1995). Leaves are, generally, in whorls of three, on petioles (leaf stalks) that are 0.3–1.3 cm in length. Leaf blades are obovate (egg-shaped, with the narrow end at the base) to elliptic to narrowly elliptic, the apex tapers gradually to a sharp point, the base is wedge-shaped to attenuate (gradually tapering) and the leaf margins are coarsely and irregularly serrate. Juvenile leaves are longer than adult leaves and are glabrous. New growth is pink to red in colour. Inflorescences (flower heads) are 4–20 cm in length, pinkish in colour and pendulous. Fruits are greyish, turning brownish, and 1.3–1.7 cm in length (Stanley & Ross 2002).

The Small-fruited Queensland Nut is endemic to Queensland. Historically, the species was recorded east of the Main Divide from Kin Kin, near Gympie; and south to the Pine River, north of Brisbane. Following extensive habitat clearing, the species is now considered extremely rare in the wild and is restricted to an area between Mount (Mt) Pinbarren (northern extent) and Mary Cairncross Park near Maleny (southern extent) (a distance of almost 50 km) (Barry & Thomas 1994).

The extent of occurrence of the Small-fruited Queensland Nut is estimated to be approximately 8000 km² and the area of occupancy of the species is approximately 500 ha (5 km²) (Costello et al. 2009).

The total population of the Small-fruited Queensland Nut is estimated to be between 1000–2000 mature individuals (Costello et al. 2009).

Approximately 20 small, distinct populations are known, including important clusters of populations in the Blackall Range, Gympie/Kin Kin and Nambour/Buderim. The area incorporating the Gympie/Kin Kin group (including Mothar Mountain, Woodum Range and Mt Pinbarren) is considered significant due to the genetic isolation of these populations from other species of Macadamia (Costello et al. 2009).

Identified populations and numbers of individuals, where known, are as follows (Costello et al. 2009):

Location Land Tenure Population Size
Northern Group  
Mt Wolvi Unknown Unknown
Beenham Range Private property <10
Kin Kin Private property Unknown
Mt Pinbarren near Pomona National Park <20
Mt Tinbeerwah, Tewantin Forest Reserve Unknown
Maroochy River, Eumundi Unknown Unknown
Mt Cooroy National Park <20
Mitchell Creek Road Unknown Unknown
Mt Ninderry Unknown Unknown
Central group  
Kureelpa Falls Council Reserve Unknown
Little Yabba Forest State Forest Unknown
Booloumba Creek National Park Unknown
Triunia National Park National Park 10–20
McIntyre property, Woombye Private property <20
Kondalilla Falls National Park Unknown
Walli State Forest State Forest <10
Cunnington property Buderim Private property Unknown
Montville, Blackall Range Unknown Unknown
Obi Obi Gorge Unknown Unknown
Hightor Reserve Con. Reserve Unknown
Mary Cairncross Park Nature Reserve <20
Mooloolah River headwaters Forest Reserve Unknown
Policeman Spur Con. Reserve <20
London Creek North-West Beerwah Unknown Unknown
Woodford Private property <10
Campbells Pocket Public land >20
Hughes property, Wamuran Private property Unknown
Southern Group  
Burpengary Creek Council Reserve <20
Moorina Public land 10–20
Lacey's Creek, Dayboro Unknown Unknown
Love Creek Falls, Mt Glorious National Park Unknown
Draper's Crossing Public land <10
Olsen's Scrub Private property >20
Goat Track at Manorina National Park Unknown
Mt Nebo Private property <20
Mt Glorious State Forest Unknown
Pine Ridge Road Unknown Unknown

Most remaining populations occur in small, isolated habitat patches in reserves and on freehold land (Barry & Thomas 1994).

The Small-fruited Queensland Nut is known from the following reserves (Costello et al. 2009):

  • Mount Pinbarren National Park, north of Pomona;
  • D'Aguilar National Park (Boombana section, Mt Glorious);
  • Mapleton Falls National Park;
  • Kondalilla National Park;
  • Triunia National Park; and
  • Conondale National Park.

The species can be found in cultivation (Barry & Thomas 1994; Wrigley & Fagg 1989) and in the Australian National Botanic Gardens in Canberra, and Rockhampton Botanic Gardens (Meredith & Richardson 1990).

The Small-fruited Queensland Nut's remaining habitat is fragmented and found within lowland warm complex notophyll vine forest and Araucarian notophyll vine forest on basic and intermediate volcanic soils and alluvia in higher rainfall areas of south-east Queensland (Costello et al. 2009).

The species generally occurs in south-facing gullies with fertile, basalt-derived krasnozem soils or the interface between sandstone and basalt krasnozems (Queensland CRA/RFA Steering Committee 1997). Soils based on volcanic parent material (mostly basalt, but also trachyte, andesite, tuff and rhyolite) are of high fertility but somewhat thin or skeletal with often extensive exposure of rock fragments at the surface. Surface soils tend to be dark, of varying textures (sandy loams to light clays), slightly acid (pH 5.5–7.0) and well drained (Barry & Thomas 1994).

A survey of seven populations in the Cooroy to Maleny district of the Sunshine Coast (Barry & Thomas 1994) found that the species was primarily located on moderate to steeply inclined hillslopes and footslopes as well as steep to very steep tor or talus slopes at 100–320 m (mostly less than 200 m) above sea level (asl) in altitude. The Mary Cairncross Park site is atypical in that the species grows on flat to gentle undulating plateau at 430 m asl (Barry & Thomas 1994).

Associated vegetation is subtropical rainforest, mostly complex notophyll vineforest of varying height and development (15–40 m). An emergent rainforest tree layer may be present. Most sites are associated with a White Booyong (Argyrodendron trifoliatum) - Red Heart (Dissilaria baloghioides) alliance, common throughout the Blackall Range area (Barry & Thomas 1994). The vegetation at Mt Pinbarren differs from the remaining sites as it involves Araucarian microphyll-notophyll mixed tall closed forest, though floristically the site shares many species in common with other recorded sites for this species (Barry & Thomas 1994).

The Small-fruited Queensland Nut can live for over 100 years, with a juvenile period of six years (Queensland CRA/RFA Steering Committee 1997).

Flowering in the species has been recorded from June to October with fruits from December to March (Barry & Thomas 1994; Forster et al. 1991). Pollination occurs via both native (Trigona spp.) and introduced European (Apis mellifera) honey bees (Costello et al. 2009).

The Small-fruited Queensland Nut reproduces from seed, which remains viable for one to six months, and seeds are dispersed by streams or rodents (Barry & Thomas 1994; Queensland CRA/RFA Steering Committee 1997).

Seedlings have only occasionally been recorded during surveys of wild populations (Barry & Thomas 1994). Adult plants are recorded to resprout when damaged (Queensland CRA/RFA Steering Committee 1997).

Hybridisation between the Small-fruited Queensland Nut and the Macadamia Nut (M. tetraphylla) has been recorded in Queensland. These records are from areas where the two species overlap, and also somewhat to the north of the distribution of the Macadamia Nut at: Goonabah Creek, at the foot of Tamborine Mountain; Walla Walla, Tamborine Creek; Numinbah Valley; and Beechmont (Johnson 1954; Peace 2005).

Threats to the Small-fruited Queensland Nut include clearing for agriculture and urban development (especially critical habitat linkages such as riverine corridors), inappropriate fire regimes, weed invasion and loss of genetic viability due to a lack of connectivity between populations and a lack of pollinators and dispersers (Costello et al. 2009; Queensland CRA/RFA Steering Committee 1997).

Following clearance, an indirect threat is the invasion of weeds into remnant patches of notophyll vine forests. In particular, Camphor Laurel (Cinnanmomum camphora) and Cat’s Claw Creeper (Macfadyena ungis-cati) are potential threats (Costello et al. 2009).

The following is a list of objectives identified in the Southern Macadamia Species Recovery Plan aimed at the recovery of the Small-fruited Queensland Nut (in conjunction with three other Macadamia species) (Costello et al. 2009):

  1. Identify and evaluate the extent and quality of southern macadamia species populations and their habitat.
  2. Reduce and manage the major threatening processes affecting southern macadamia species habitat.
  3. Increase knowledge of threatened southern macadamia species and their ecology to effect their conservation and management.
  4. Improve community awareness and understanding of threatened southern macadamia species, especially the management requirements of these species.
  5. Manage, monitor and evaluate the Southern Macadamia Species Recovery Plan.

Management documents for the Small-fruited Queensland Nut can be found at the start of this profile.

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Agriculture and Aquaculture:Land clearing, habitat fragmentation and/or habitat degradation Southern Macadamia Species Recovery Plan (Costello, G., M. Gregory & P. Donatiu, 2009) [Recovery Plan].
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Grazing pressures and associated habitat changes Southern Macadamia Species Recovery Plan (Costello, G., M. Gregory & P. Donatiu, 2009) [Recovery Plan].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Climate Change and Severe Weather:Climate change altering atmosphere/hydrosphere temperatures, rainfall patterns and/or frequency of severe weather events Southern Macadamia Species Recovery Plan (Costello, G., M. Gregory & P. Donatiu, 2009) [Recovery Plan].
Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Indirect Ecosystem Effects:Loss and/or fragmentation of habitat and/or subpopulations Southern Macadamia Species Recovery Plan (Costello, G., M. Gregory & P. Donatiu, 2009) [Recovery Plan].
Macadamia ternifolia in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006nt) [Internet].
Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Indirect Ecosystem Effects:Restricted geographical distribution (area of occupancy and extent of occurrence) Macadamia ternifolia in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006nt) [Internet].
Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Indirect Ecosystem Effects:Small isolated populations Southern Macadamia Species Recovery Plan (Costello, G., M. Gregory & P. Donatiu, 2009) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Lantana camara (Lantana, Common Lantana, Kamara Lantana, Large-leaf Lantana, Pink Flowered Lantana, Red Flowered Lantana, Red-Flowered Sage, White Sage, Wild Sage) Southern Macadamia Species Recovery Plan (Costello, G., M. Gregory & P. Donatiu, 2009) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Panicum maximum (Guinea Grass, Green Panic, Hamil Grass) Southern Macadamia Species Recovery Plan (Costello, G., M. Gregory & P. Donatiu, 2009) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Dolichandra unguis-cati (Cat's Claw Vine, Yellow Trumpet Vine, Cat's Claw Creeper, Funnel Creeper) Southern Macadamia Species Recovery Plan (Costello, G., M. Gregory & P. Donatiu, 2009) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation by weeds Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Macadamia ternifolia (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008adh) [Conservation Advice].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity) Southern Macadamia Species Recovery Plan (Costello, G., M. Gregory & P. Donatiu, 2009) [Recovery Plan].
Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Macadamia ternifolia (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008adh) [Conservation Advice].
Residential and Commercial Development:Commercial and Industrial Areas:Recreational, commercial and industrial development Southern Macadamia Species Recovery Plan (Costello, G., M. Gregory & P. Donatiu, 2009) [Recovery Plan].
Residential and Commercial Development:Housing and Urban Areas:Habitat loss, modification and fragmentation due to urban development Southern Macadamia Species Recovery Plan (Costello, G., M. Gregory & P. Donatiu, 2009) [Recovery Plan].
Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Macadamia ternifolia (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008adh) [Conservation Advice].
Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Low numbers of individuals Macadamia ternifolia in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006nt) [Internet].

Barry, S.J. & G.T. Thomas (1994). Threatened Vascular Rainforest Plants of South-east Queensland: A Conservation Review. Queensland Department of Environment and Heritage.

Costello, G., M. Gregory & P. Donatiu (2009). Southern Macadamia Species Recovery Plan. [Online]. Report to Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts, Canberra. Sydney, NSW: Horticulture Australia Limited. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/recovery/southern-macadamia-species.html.

Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria (CHAH) (2005). Australian Plant Census. [Online]. Australian National Herbarium, Australian National Botanic Gardens and Australian Biological Resources Study . Available from: http://www.anbg.gov.au/chah/apc/.

Forster, P.I., P.D. Bostock, L.H. Bird & A.R. Bean (1991). Vineforest Plant Atlas for South-East Queensland with Assessment of Conservation Status. Indooroopilly: Queensland Herbarium.

Gross, C.L. (1995). Macadamia. In: Orchard, A.E. & P.M. McCarthy, eds. Flora of Australia. 16:419-425. Canberra: ABRS and Melbourne: CSIRO.

Johnson, L.A.S. (1954). Macadamia ternifolia F.Muell. and a related new species. The Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales. 79:15-18. Sydney.

Meredith, L.D. & M.M. Richardson (1990). Rare or Threatened Australian Plant Species in Cultivation in Australia. Report Series No. 15. Page(s) 1-114. Canberra: Australian National Parks and Wildlife Service.

Peace, C.P. (2005). Genetic Characterisation of Macadamia with DNA Markers. Unpublished PhD Thesis. Ph.D. Thesis. University of Queensland, Brisbane.

Queensland CRA/RFA Steering Committee (1997). Forest taxa at risk, threats, conservation needs and recovery planning in south-east Queensland. Queensland Government & Commonwealth of Australia.

Stanley, T.D. & E.M. Ross (2002). Flora of south-eastern Queensland. Volume Two. Brisbane, Queensland: Department of Primary Industries.

Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC) (2008adh). Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Macadamia ternifolia. [Online]. Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/species/pubs/7214-conservation-advice.pdf.

Wrigley, J.W. & M. Fagg (1989). Banksias, Waratahs and Grevilleas and all other plants in the Australian Proteaceae family. Sydney, NSW: William Collins Publishers.

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This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Macadamia ternifolia in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Thu, 18 Sep 2014 11:28:36 +1000.