In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.
|EPBC Act Listing Status||Listed as Endangered|
|Recovery Plan Decision||
Recovery Plan required, this species had a recovery plan in force at the time the legislation provided for the Minister to decide whether or not to have a recovery plan (19/2/2007).
|Adopted/Made Recovery Plans||
Buxton Gum Eucalyptus crenulata - National Recovery Plan (White, M., A.H. Murphy & J. Downe, 2006) [Recovery Plan].
Federal Register of
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument].
Documents and Websites
|State Listing Status||
|Non-statutory Listing Status||
|Scientific name||Eucalyptus crenulata |
|Species author||Blakely & Beuzev.|
|Reference||Contributions from the New South Wales National Herbarium 1: 37 (8 Aug. 1939).|
This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.
From Australian Plant Image Index
View larger image
|Other illustrations||Google Images|
The Silver Gum is a small tree growing to 8 m high, usually with a widely spreading crown. It retains 'juvenile' foliage (that is, opposite and highly waxy) to maturity. It readily hybridises with Eucalyptus ovata with which it grows at both known sites (Jelinek 1991).
The Silver Gum is endemic to south-central Victoria. Two natural populations are known (although the species is widely grown as an ornamental tree). There are also a lot of naturalised and planted populations around Victoria (J.G.Eichler, J.A.Jeanes, D.G.Cook, G.W.Carr & K.Rule, Victorian Workshop 2000, pers. comm.) e.g. at Noogee (G.W.Carr 2000, pers. comm.).
The larger population, covering approximately 4 ha, is 2 km south of Buxton in the 16.9 ha Buxton Silver Gum Reserve, consisting of about 100 plants (J.G.Eichler, J.A.Jeanes, D.G.Cook, G.W.Carr & K.Rule, Victorian Workshop 2000, pers. comm.), occurring on 2 parcels of freehold land adjacent to the reserve (one of these occurs on the opposite side of the Maroondah Hwy). This population is near the Acheron River, a tributary of the Goulburn River, and ultimately the Murray River.
The second population consists of approximately 15-20 trees (J.G.Eichler, J.A.Jeanes, D.G.Cook, G.W.Carr & K.Rule, Victorian Workshop 2000, pers. comm.) scattered over 4 ha on the Yarra River flats at Yering. Two hectares of these are within the Spadonis Reserve (managed by NRE); the other 2 ha are on adjacent private grazing land.
In 1991 it was estimated that fewer than 500 plants grew in the wild (Jelinek 1991). However, in 2000 it was suggested that the Buxton site comprised approximately 600 adult trees (Adams & Simmons 2000).
Any of the gullies that come out of the western side of the Black Range could be suitable habitat (J.G.Eichler, J.A.Jeanes, D.G.Cook & K.Rule, Victorian Workshop 2000, pers. comm.).
There are some doubts about the population at Yering (20 or so plants). The morphology is different to typical E. crenulata. Diane Symons has published on the genetics, but it needs further research (J.G.Eichler, J.A.Jeanes, D.G.Cook & K.Rule, Victorian Workshop 2000, pers. comm.).
The Silver Gum occurs on flat and very gently sloping areas near watercourses, often swampy, usually more or less in pure stands in woodland (Chippendale 1988).
Both known sites occur in low-lying sites prone to inundation (although the channelisation of Olinda Ck at Yering has undoubtedly reduced the frequency of flooding at that site) (N.Walsh 2001, pers. comm.).
At the Buxton site, the low tree stratum includes Eucalyptus ovata and Acacia melanoxylon. Prominent shrub species are Coprosma quadrifida, and Leptospermum lanigerum. The ground layer includes Blechnum minus, Gahnia sieberiana, Hydrocotyle hirta, Hypericum japonicum, Lomandra longifolia, Poa tenera, Pteridium esculentum and Viola hederacea. Cassytha melantha is abundant as an aerial stem parasite (NRE 2000; N.Walsh 2001, pers. comm.)..
At Yering, the vegetation has been modified to a larger extent through past practices, but other trees there include Eucalyptus ovata, E. viminalis and Acacia dealbata. Shrubs include Hymenanthera dentata, Melaleuca ericifolia and Pomaderris vaccinifolia and the native ground layer is comprised mainly of Poa labillardierei and Carex appressa (NRE 2000; N.Walsh 2001, pers. comm.).
The Silver Gum flowers mainly in spring. Dense ground cover at both sites may be inhibiting recruitment (Jelinek 1991).
The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.
|Threat Class||Threatening Species||References|
|Agriculture and Aquaculture:Agriculture and Aquaculture:Land clearing, habitat fragmentation and/or habitat degradation||Buxton Gum Eucalyptus crenulata - National Recovery Plan (White, M., A.H. Murphy & J. Downe, 2006) [Recovery Plan].|
|Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Grazing pressures and associated habitat changes||Buxton Gum Eucalyptus crenulata - National Recovery Plan (White, M., A.H. Murphy & J. Downe, 2006) [Recovery Plan].|
|Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Indirect Ecosystem Effects:Loss and/or fragmentation of habitat and/or subpopulations||Buxton Gum Eucalyptus crenulata - National Recovery Plan (White, M., A.H. Murphy & J. Downe, 2006) [Recovery Plan].|
|Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Indirect Ecosystem Effects:Restricted geographical distribution (area of occupancy and extent of occurrence)|
|Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Recreational Activities:Soil disturbance and/or trampling due to bushwalking|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation||Crataegus monogyna (Hawthorn, May, Azzarola, Singleseed Hawthorn, English Hawthorn, Red Hawthorn, White Hawthorn, Whitethorn)|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation||Holcus lanatus (Yorkshire Fog)|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation by Doxk (Rumex spp.)|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation by weeds|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Infection by parasites|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Vegetation and habitat loss caused by dieback||Phytophthora cinnamomi|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:unspecified|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Problematic Native Species:plant|
|Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Low numbers of individuals|
|Species Stresses (suggest Reproductive Resilience?):Indirect Species Effects:Reduction of genetic intergrity of a species due to hybridisation|
Adams, R. & Simmons, D. (2000). Survival, health and recruitment of Eucalyptus crenulata (Buxton Gum). Threatened species network, NRE, Alexandra, Vic.
Carr, G.W. (2000). Personal Communication. Melbourne: Vic NRE.
Chippendale, G.M. (1988). Myrtaceae - Eucalyptus, Angophora. In: Flora of Australia. 19:1-540. Canberra: AGPS.
Department of Natural Resources and Environment (DNRE) (2000). VROTPOP database.
Jelinek, A. (1991). Action Statement No. 1 Buxton Gum Eucalyptus crenulata. [Online]. Melbourne: Dept. Natural Resources & Environment. Available from: http://www.nre.vic.gov.au/web/root/domino/cm_da/nrenpa.nsf/frameset/NRE+Plants+and+Animals?OpenDocument.
Simmons, D., Adams, R. & Lewis, C. (2001). Buxton Silver Gum Reserve: Using geographic information systems to investigate historic change in site integrity. Victorian Naturalist. 118:17-20.
Victorian Workshop Participants (2000). Personal communication.
Walsh, N.G. (2001). Personal Communication.
This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.
Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Eucalyptus crenulata in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Mon, 21 Apr 2014 20:58:16 +1000.