In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.
|EPBC Act Listing Status||Listed as Vulnerable|
|Recovery Plan Decision||
Recovery Plan required, this species had a recovery plan in force at the time the legislation provided for the Minister to decide whether or not to have a recovery plan (19/2/2007).
|Adopted/Made Recovery Plans||
Flame Spider-flower (Grevillea kennedyana) Recovery Plan 2001-2005 (NSW National Parks & Wildlife Service, 2000b) [Recovery Plan].
Federal Register of
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument].
Documents and Websites
|State Listing Status||
|Scientific name||Grevillea kennedyana |
|Reference||Transactions and Proceedings of the Royal Society of Victoria 24 (1888) 172.|
This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.
From Australian Plant Image Index
View larger image
From Australian Plant Image Index
View larger image
|Other illustrations||Google Images
Scientific name: Grevillea kennedyana
Common name: Flame Spider-flower
The Flame Spider-flower is an erect, multi-branched shrub, typically growing 1-1.5 m in height (occasionally to 2 m). The species has silver-green foliage with linear or (rarely) narrow, lanceolate, rigid leaves which grow 5-33 mm in length.
The Flame Spider-flower occurs over a restricted distribution in the extreme north-west of NSW and far south-west Queensland (BRI Rare and Threatened Plant Database 2001; Duncan 1992b; Makinson 2000b).
The linear geographic range of the species is less than 100 km (NSW NPWS 2000b).
A joint field survey between staff of Queensland Department of Environment (currently the QLD Department of Environment and Heritage Protection) and NSW NPWS in 1998 identified three separate populations on Grey Range (Naryilco Station and Bygrave Range) in Queensland:
- Five plants east of the Warrie Warrie gate, close to the NSW border (Bygrave Range).
- Approximately 1000 plants, 9 km north of the NSW border.
- Approximately 1000 plants, 28 km north of the NSW border (Naryilco Station).
Populations vary in size from very few to hundreds of plants. The total population was estimated in 1997 to be more than 13 000 plants (Enke & Mills cited in NSW NPWS 2000b).
Most individuals occur in Sturt National Park. Population estimations have attempted to take into account 'clumps' formed by connecting rhizomes (modified underground stems) and 'clumps' formed by seedling establishment, however, a group was often treated as an individual. Therefore, total population number is probably an underestimate. The report by NSW NPWS (2001b) contains census numbers at individual sites (from 1998).
The Flame Spider-flower occurs on scree slopes of mesas, steep jump-ups and rocky drainage lines. The species grows in loamy soils on weathered silcrete (Makinson 2000b) in areas which receive low annual rainfall. On lower slopes, the Flame Spider-flower is usually the only species of low shrub present with other low shrub and tree species occurring on higher slopes (BRI Rare and Threatened Plant Database 2001).
The species normally occurs in sparse shrubland or low woodland of Mulga (Acacia aneura), Gidgee (A. cambagei), Curara (A. tetragonophylla), Whitewood (Atalaya hemiglauca) and occasionally Black Oak (Casuarina pauper) with a chenopodiaceous ground cover (BRI Rare and Threatened Plant Database 2001; Duncan 1992b; NSW Herbarium undated). Other associated low shrubs include Limestone Fuchsia (Eremophila freelingii)(predominant upslope), Maroon Bush (Scaevola spinescens) and Senna spp. (Duncan 1992b). Ground layer species include Astrebla spp., Sclerolaena spp. and Yellow Tails (Ptilotus nobilis).
The species occurs at altitudes ranging from 140-200 m (NSW NPWS 2000b). Slopes range from almost level (c. 10°) to steep (c. 75°) (NSW NPWS 2000b).
Flowering has been observed throughout winter and spring (NSW NPWS 2000b) and appears to occur 2-4 months after a significant cool season rainfall event. Pollinators, particularly birds and insects, generally forage in a way that may facilitate both outcrossing and self-pollination (Collins & Rebelo 1987). Birds, mammals and arthropods have been identified as visitors to the inflorescences of many species of the Proteaceae family. Duncan (1992b) suggests that the red colour and long styles of the Flame Spider-flower indicates that it is likely to be bird pollinated and Olde and Marriott (1995) report it being tended by birds.
The fruits are thought to mature 6-8 weeks after fertilisation and seed would be dispersed shortly thereafter. Dispersal is likely to be wind-assisted (seeds are equipped with 'wings'). Dormancy characteristics are not known, but other species of Grevillea exhibit dormancy up to 3-4 years. Germination is thought to be similar to other arid-zone species, which require exceptional rainfall events in the appropriate season or above-average rainfall over successive years (NSW NPWS 2000b).
The Flame Spider-flower is also capable of vegetative reproduction via rhizomes.
The average life span of individual plants is not known, however, long life spans are observed in many other arid zone species.
The Flame Spider-flower inhabits a semi-arid environment that is remote and unsuitable for intensive agricultural development. However, there are still a number of threats, such as habitat degradation, browsing by introduced herbivores and inappropriate fire regimes, which may have had an impact on the species (NSW NPWS 2000b).
Although fire is not known to be required for breaking seed dormancy a change in fire regime since European arrival may have an impact on the reproduction and demographics of Flame Spider-flower populations. The introduction of stock and watering points in some areas is likely to have increased the grazing pressure on the species. Whilst it has been noted that Flame Spider-flowers grown in cultivation have demonstrated a high resilience to grazing pressure (NSW NPWS 2000b), resource constraints in situ may affect the species' ability to recover from grazing. One previously recorded population at Yandama Station is thought to have become extinct as a consequence of grazing pressure (Enke & Mills in NSW NPWS 2000b).
The National Recovery Plan for the Flame Spider-flower 2001-2005 remains in force for the species and identifies a number of actions designed to assist in the recovery of the species.
The specific recovery objectives of the plan are to:
- monitor and protect all known populations;
- identify and manage threats to the species survival and recruitment; and
- improve the management of any identified threats by involving the community in the conservation of the species and through liaison with relevant landholders.
The specific recovery actions for the species are to:
- monitor wild populations in order to evaluate the impacts of browsing;
- determine germination requirements;
- community liaison to raise awareness; and
- research on the species' response to fire.
Documents relevant to the management of the Flame Spider-flower can be found at the start of the profile.
The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.
|Threat Class||Threatening Species||References|
|Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Grazing pressures and associated habitat changes||Grevillea kennedyana in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006kq) [Internet].|
|Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Indirect Ecosystem Effects:Loss and/or fragmentation of habitat and/or subpopulations||Grevillea kennedyana in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006kq) [Internet].|
|Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Indirect Ecosystem Effects:Restricted geographical distribution (area of occupancy and extent of occurrence)||Grevillea kennedyana in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006kq) [Internet].|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation||Oryctolagus cuniculus (Rabbit, European Rabbit)||The threat posed by pest animals to biodiversity in New South Wales (Coutts-Smith, A.J., P.S. Mahon, M. Letnic & P.O. Downey, 2007) [Management Plan].|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, tramping, competition and/or habitat degradation||Capra hircus (Goat)||The threat posed by pest animals to biodiversity in New South Wales (Coutts-Smith, A.J., P.S. Mahon, M. Letnic & P.O. Downey, 2007) [Management Plan].|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, tramping, competition and/or habitat degradation||Bos taurus (Domestic Cattle)||Species threats data recorded on the SPRAT database between 1999-2002 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2012i) [Database].|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Problematic Native Species:Competition, predation and/or habitat degradation by kangaroos and wallabies|
|Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity)|
|Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Poor recruitment (regeneration) and declining population numbers||Flame Spider-flower (Grevillea kennedyana) Recovery Plan 2001-2005 (NSW National Parks & Wildlife Service, 2000b) [Recovery Plan].|
BRI Rare and Threatened Plant database (2001).
Collins, B.G. & T. Rebelo (1987). Pollination Biology of the Proteaceae in Australia and southern Africa. Australian Journal of Ecology. 12:387-421.
Duncan, A. (1992b). Aspects of the ecology of the rare Grevillea kennedyana (Proteaceae) in north-western New South Wales. Cunninghamia. 2(4):533-539.
Makinson, R.O. (2000b). Proteaceae 2 - Grevillea. In: Flora of Australia. 17A:1-524. Melbourne: ABRS/CSIRO.
NSW Herbarium (undated). New South Wales National Herbarium specimens.
NSW National Parks & Wildlife Service (2000b). Flame Spider-flower (Grevillea kennedyana) Recovery Plan 2001-2005. [Online]. Hurstville: NSW NPWS. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/recovery/g-kennedyana/index.html.
Olde, P.M. & N.R. Marriott (1995). The Grevillea Book; Volume 2. Kenthurst, NSW: Kangaroo Press.
This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.
Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Grevillea kennedyana in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Sat, 15 Mar 2014 11:15:48 +1100.