In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.
|EPBC Act Listing Status||Listed as Vulnerable as Baloskion longipes|
|Listing and Conservation Advices||
Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Baloskion longipes (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008at) [Conservation Advice].
|Recovery Plan Decision||
Recovery Plan not required, included on the Not Commenced List (1/11/2009).
|Adopted/Made Recovery Plans|
|Other EPBC Act Plans||
Threat Abatement Plan for Predation, Habitat Degradation, Competition and Disease Transmission by Feral Pigs (Australian Government Department of the Environment and Heritage (AGDEH), 2005p) [Threat Abatement Plan].
Federal Register of
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument] as Restio longipes.
Amendment to the list of threatened species under section 178 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (11/04/2007) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2007f) [Legislative Instrument] as Baloskion longipes.
Documents and Websites
|State Listing Status||
|Scientific name||Baloskion longipes |
|Species author||(L.A.S.Johnson & O.D.Evans) B.G.Briggs & L.A.S.Johnson|
|Reference||Telopea 8(1): 23 (1998).|
|Other names||Restio longipes |
This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.
Scientific name: Baloskion longipes
Common name: Dense Cord-rush
Conventionally accepted as Baloskion longipes (CHAH 2010).
The Dense Cord-rush is an erect perennial sedge with culms (flowering stems) growing up to 150 cm long arising from a compact rhizome (underground stem) (Meney & Pate 1999). Culms are narrow, 2–2.5 mm in diameter, and circular in cross section with 6–25 flowering spikelets produced on slender stalks (pedicels) up to 60 mm long towards the top of the culm, but not overly crowded. The flowering glumes (modified leaves or bracts) surrounding each flowering spikelet stalk are pointed, 4–6 mm long and closely pressed towards the apex (top) (Meney & Pate 1999; NSW OEH 2012b; Plantnet 2012).
Male and female flowers are borne on separate plants (dioecious) with male spikelets ovate (egg shaped), 4–8 mm long and with six tepals (modified flower petal) whilst female spikelets are ovate to elliptic in shape, 8.5–9.3 mm long with four tepals (Meney & Pate 1999; NSW OEH 2012b; Plantnet 2012).
The Dense Cord-rush is endemic to NSW where it is known from the Blue Mountains National Park (NP) 81 km west of Sydney; Kanangra-Boyd NP 100 km west of Sydney; in Hanging Rock Swamp at Penrose State Forest approximately 9 km west of Bundanoon; at The Vines in Morton NP west of Nowra; at the summit of The Pass, on the Braidwood-Nelligen Road; and the Clyde Mountain and Ballalaba areas south of Braidwood (NSW OEH 2012b).
No quantative data on population size is known, however, all populations of the species are recorded as 'small' (NSW OEH 2012b).
The Dense Cord-rush is known from Blue Mountains NP, Kanangra-Boyd NP, Morton NP and Penrose State Forest (NSW OEH 2012b).
The Dense Cord-rush grows in seasonally inundated peat, sandy wetland swamps (Meney & Pate 1999) or depressions in sandy alluvium (Harden 1993), sometimes growing with Sphagnum Moss (Sphagnum spp.) (NSW OEH 2012b). It also occurs in swales within tall forest and in Black Gum (Eucalyptus aggregata) woodland (NSW OEH 2012b).
The distribution of this species overlaps with the Temperate Highland Peat Swamps on Sandstone EPBC Act-listed endangered ecological community (DSEWPaC 2012u)
Little is known of the biology of the Dense Cord-rush other than it flowers in summer with seed maturation occurring 6–8 months later (Meney & Pate 1999). The species can resprout after fire (Meney & Pate 1999) and new shoots are produced from underground stems (rhizomes) (NSW OEH 2012b).
The main identified threats to the Dense Cord-rush include (ANRA 2009; NSW OEH 2012b):
- road works and weed spraying, particularly for the Clyde Mountain and Ballalaba populations due to their close proximity to roads
- the Pig (Sus scrofa) rooting for food, directly damaging the species and surrounding habitat.
Potential threats to the species are grazing pressure; fragmentation and loss of habitat; and alteration to hydrology and run-off into the swamp habitat (ANRA 2009; NSW OEH 2012b).
The NSW Office of the Environment and Heritage (2012b) identify the following priority actions to assist in protection of the Dense Cord-rush:
- Inform local and state government and the Rural Fire Service staff about populations adjoining roads and tracks to ensure that plants are considered when roadworks and fire suppression activities are planned.
- Mark sites and potential habitat onto maps used for planning road work.
- Ensure runoff from sites above population is controlled.
- Erect signs to alert management staff to the presence of populations.
Management documents relevant to Baloskion longipes are at the start of the profile. Other relevant documents include the Kanangra-Boyd National Park Plan of Management (NSW NPWS 2001u), Morton National Park Plan of Management (NSW NPWS 2001a), Blue Mountains National Park Plan of Management (NSW NPWS 2001v) and Blue Mountains National Park draft Pest Management Strategy (NSW NPWS 2007c).
The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.
|Threat Class||Threatening Species||References|
|Climate Change and Severe Weather:Habitat Shifting and Alteration:Habitat loss, modification and/or degradation||Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Baloskion longipes (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008at) [Conservation Advice].|
|Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Indirect Ecosystem Effects:Loss and/or fragmentation of habitat and/or subpopulations||Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Baloskion longipes (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008at) [Conservation Advice].|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, tramping, competition and/or habitat degradation||Sus scrofa (Pig)||The threat posed by pest animals to biodiversity in New South Wales (Coutts-Smith, A.J., P.S. Mahon, M. Letnic & P.O. Downey, 2007) [Management Plan].|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Predation, competition, habitat degradation and/or spread of pathogens by introduced species||Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Baloskion longipes (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008at) [Conservation Advice].|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Slashing and herbicide application for weed control|
|Transportation and Service Corridors:Roads and Railroads:Development and/or maintenance of roads|
Australian Government Department of the Environment and Heritage (AGDEH) (2005p). Threat Abatement Plan for Predation, Habitat Degradation, Competition and Disease Transmission by Feral Pigs. [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/tap/pig.html.
Australian Natural Resources Atlas (ANRA) (2009). Biodiversity Assessment - Species at risk and their Recovery Process. [Online]. Available from: http://www.anra.gov.au/topics/vegetation/assessment/index.html. [Accessed: 24-Apr-2010].
Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria (CHAH) (2010). Australian Plant Census. [Online]. Australian National Herbarium, Australian National Botanic Gardens and Australian Biological Resources Study . Available from: http://www.anbg.gov.au/chah/apc/.
Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC) (2012u). Temperate Highland Peat Swamps on Sandstone. Species Profile and Threats Database. [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/cgi-bin/sprat/public/publicshowcommunity.pl?id=32.
Harden, G.J. (ed) (1993). Flora of New South Wales, Volume Four. Kensington, NSW: University of NSW Press.
Meney, K.A. & J.S. Pate (1999). Australian Rushes. University of WA, Nedlands.
NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service (NSW NPWS) (2001a). Morton National Park, Budawang National Park Plan of Management. [Online]. Department of Environment and Conservation. Available from: http://www2.nationalparks.nsw.gov.au/PDFs/pom_final_morton_budawang.pdf. [Accessed: 10-May-2008].
NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service (NSW NPWS) (2001u). Kanangra Boyd National Park Plan of Management. [Online]. Department of Environment and Climate Change. Available from: http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/resources/parks/pomFinalKanangra.pdf.
NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service (NSW NPWS) (2001v). Blue Mountains National Park Plan of Management. [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/parkmanagement/BlueMountainsNPMgmtplan.htm.
NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service (NSW NPWS) (2007c). Blue Mountains Region Draft Pest Management Strategy 2007-2010. [Online]. Department of Environment and Conservation. Available from: http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/resources/parks/BMRPestManagementDraft07.pdf.
NSW Office of Environment and Heritage (NSW OEH) (2012b). Dense Cord-rush - profile. [Online]. Available from: http://www.threatenedspecies.environment.nsw.gov.au/tsprofile/profile.aspx?id=10088.
PlantNET (2012). The Plant Information Network System. [Online]. Sydney, Australia: The Royal Botanic Gardens and Domain Trust. Available from: http://plantnet.rbgsyd.nsw.gov.au.
Threatened Species Scientific Committee (2008at). Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Baloskion longipes. [Online]. Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/species/pubs/68511-conservation-advice.pdf.
This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.
Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Baloskion longipes in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Sun, 31 Aug 2014 22:18:08 +1000.