Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Vulnerable
Listing and Conservation Advices Commonwealth Listing Advice on Pristis clavata (Dwarf Sawfish) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009bl) [Listing Advice].
 
Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Pristis clavata (Dwarf Sawfish) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009bm) [Conservation Advice].
 
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan required, a recovery plan for Dwarf Sawfish is considered necessary to ameliorate the impacts of fishing pressure on the species. A multi-species recovery plan addressing threatened sawfish species may be appropriate. The main threat to the species is being caught as bycatch in commercial and recreational net fishing. The potential threats to the species include habitat degradation due to increasing human development in northern Australia (07/10/2009).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans
Policy Statements and Guidelines Survey guidelines for Australia's threatened fish. EPBC Act survey guidelines 6.4 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011i) [Admin Guideline].
 
Marine bioregional plan for the North Marine Region (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2012x) [Admin Guideline].
 
Marine bioregional plan for the North-west Marine Region (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2012y) [Admin Guideline].
 
Sawfish - A Vulnerability Assessment for the Great Barrier Reef (Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority (GBRMPA), 2011e) [Admin Guideline].
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Inclusion of species in the list of threatened species under Section 178 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (82) (07/10/2009) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2009h) [Legislative Instrument].
 
State Government
    Documents and Websites
NT:Threatened species of the Northern Territory: Dwarf sawfish Pristis clavata (Larson, H., J. Woinarski, S. Stirrat & S. Ward, 2012) [Internet].
Non-statutory Listing Status
IUCN: Listed as Endangered (Global Status: IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: 2013.1 list)
NT: Listed as Vulnerable (Indicative Conservation Status of Fish in the Northern Territory)
WA: Listed as P1 (Priority Flora and Priority Fauna List (Western Australia): April 2014 list)
Scientific name Pristis clavata [68447]
Family Pristidae:Rajiformes:Chondrichthyes:Chordata:Animalia
Species author Garman, 1906
Infraspecies author  
Reference  
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images

Scientific name: Pristis clavata

Common name: Dwarf Sawfish

Other names: Queensland Sawfish, Broad-billed Sawfish

This species is conventionally accepted (Garman 1906).

The Dwarf Sawfish is a small, robust, shark-like ray which is mostly greenish-brown on the dorsal surface and white underneath, with paler fins. Early recorded specimens were significantly smaller than other sawfish species, around 140 cm in length, hence the common name of Dwarf Sawfish; however, recently specimens have been recorded with total lengths up to 318 cm (Stevens et al. 2008). The head is flattened with a broad rostrum (snout or bill) bearing 18–22 pairs of evenly spaced, lateral teeth. These rostral teeth are slender, with a groove developing along the rear margin of the tooth in adults (Thorburn et al. 2007a). The nostrils are broad with large nasal flaps and are located behind the eyes. The pectoral fins are triangular with broad bases and the dorsal fins are tall and pointed, with the first dorsal fin positioned over or just forward of the pelvic fin origin. There is no distinct lower lobe of the tail fin and the margin of the tail fin is almost straight (Larson et al. 2006; Last & Stevens 1994).

There are no data available on the range and occurrence of the Dwarf Sawfish prior to European settlement in northern Australia. Since European settlement, the species' Australian distribution has previously been considered to extend north from Cairns around the Cape York Peninsula in Queensland, across northern Australian waters to the Pilbara coast in Western Australia (Last & Stevens 1994; McAuley et al. 2005; Stevens et al. 2008). A review of specimen records of Dwarf Sawfish has found no records of the species from the eastern coast of the Cape York Peninsula, although the species has been confirmed from the Pine River on the western coast of Cape York Peninsula (S.C. Peverell 2008, pers. comm., cited in TSSC 2009bm).

While eastern Queensland populations of Dwarf Sawfish cannot be confirmed, if the species was historically present in these waters, these populations may now have been extirpated, representing a contraction of range. This potential contraction of range would also represent a decline in numbers, but there are insufficient data to quantify this decline (TSSC 2009bm).

Thorburn and colleagues reported that between 2002–04, of the 44 Dwarf Sawfish reported captured, 41 were captured in estuarine waters of the Fitzroy, May and Robinson Rivers, and three were captured in marine waters of King Sound (Thorburn et al. 2007b).

Sawfish have a significant cultural and spiritual relevance to Indigenous Australians around the Gulf of Carpentaria. For example, communities on Groote Eylandt believe an ancestral sawfish was the creator of the Angurugu River (McDavitt 2005).

There are no confirmed records of the Dwarf Sawfish outside of Australian waters. It is possible that the species may occur, or may historically have occurred, more widely in adjacent Indo-Pacific waters, including Indonesian, Malaysian, the Philippines and Thailand waters (Cook et al. 2006). There are anecdotal and unconfirmed reports of the species being recorded around Borneo in Indonesia, but no specimens have been caught there in recent years. The Australian population of the species is therefore considered likely to comprise the majority or all of the total global population (Stevens et al. 2005; Thorburn et al. 2004a). The available evidence suggests that this species is an inshore species that does not move in or out of Australian waters.

The Dwarf Sawfish is known to be collected live for aquarium display purposes (Peverell 2007). Seitz (2008b) reports that one specimen of Dwarf Sawfish is held in the Shinagawa Aquarium in Tokyo and one specimen in the Hakkeijima Sea Paradise in Yokohama, Japan.

The Dwarf Sawfish has been the subject of one dedicated survey (Thorburn et al. 2007a) as well a small number of broader surveys of sawfish, elasmobranchs or fish fauna in northern Australia (Field et al. 2008; Morgan et al. 2004; S.C. Peverell n.d.; Stevens et al. 2008; Thorburn et al. 2004, 2004a).

There are insufficient data available to estimate the total numbers of mature individuals of Dwarf Sawfish in Australian waters (TSSC 2009bm).

The maximum age of the Dwarf Sawfish has been estimated at 50 years and the approximate age of maturity of the species is between 8–10 years (S.C. Peverell n.d.). Therefore, the generation length, the average age of mature breeding parents of the current cohort, is estimated to be 20 years.

The Dwarf Sawfish has been reported at a number of sites in Kakadu National Park (Larson et al. 2006).

The south-eastern edge of the range of the Dwarf Sawfish includes the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park and World Heritage Areas, in Queensland, however, there are no recent reports of the species occurring there.

Neither Kakadu National Park nor the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park are actively managed for the Dwarf Sawfish.

The Dwarf Sawfish usually inhabits shallow (2–3 m) coastal waters and estuarine habitats. Unlike the Freshwater Sawfish (P. microdon), the Dwarf Sawfish does not utilise any purely freshwater areas, as the species' range is restricted to brackish and salt water (Thorburn et al. 2007a). A study in north-western Western Australia found that estuarine habitats are used as nursery areas by Dwarf Sawfish, with immature juveniles remaining in these areas up until three years of age (Thorburn et al. 2007a). Adults are known to seasonally migrate back into inshore waters (Peverell 2007), although it is unclear how far offshore the adults travel, as captures in offshore surveys are very uncommon.

Thorburn and colleagues (2004a) captured 19 Dwarf Sawfish in their survey across northern Australia in 2002. All individuals were caught over fine substrates (mainly silt) in sections of the river channels almost completely devoid of instream structure. Excluding one specimen caught in the Victoria River (9.7 ppt), all dwarf sawfish were taken from saltwater (up to 41.1 ppt) at lower estuarine sites with high turbidity (where measured) and low dissolved oxygen. Capture sites ranged in depth from 0.7 to 7 m and water temperatures were between 25 and 32 °C. All Dwarf Sawfish were captured on silt/sand flats with low algal and macrophyte cover, low detrital levels and minimal large woody debris (Thorburn et al. 2004a).

The Dwarf Sawfish was encountered during sampling for Northern River Shark (Glyphis garricki) in Western Australia (Thorburn et al. 2004). Peverell (2005) and Stevens and colleagues (2008) suggests that the Dwarf Sawfish is also likely to be encountered in similar areas to the Green Sawfish (P. zijsron) and the Freshwater Sawfish (P. microdon).

There are no data on rates of reproduction in the Dwarf Sawfish. However, it is known that all sawfish species reproduce by aplacental viviparity, where eggs hatch and develop inside the female's body and the hatched pups feed on sibling embryos and unfertilised eggs (Stevens et al. 2005). Similar to other shark and ray species, sawfish species have low fecundity, a high age at first maturity and a low intrinsic rate of increase (TSSC 2009bm).

Peverell's (2005) observations on reproductive staging and the capture of neonate specimens suggest that pupping occurred through the wet season until the beginning of the dry season in May.

As with other sawfish species, the Dwarf Sawfish uses its rostrum to stun schooling fish by sideswiping or threshing while swimming through a school (Larson et al. 2006). The main prey species is Popeye Mullet (Rhinomugil nasutus) (Thorburn et al. 2007b).

Peverell (2005) found that Dwarf Sawfish may move into marine waters after the wet, and during the wet season enter estuarine or more fresh waters to breed.

Between 2005 and 2008, Stevens and colleagues (2008) actively tracked five Dwarf Sawfish in shallow coastal waters of Western Australia. All five Dwarf Sawfish moved the fastest during falling and rising tides with little or no movement at high and low tides. For approximately 100 minutes on either side of high tide individuals rested in inundated mangrove forests. High tide resting locations for individuals were often less than 100 m from the previous high tide resting site. While tidal flow can act in several different ways to affect habitat use, for sawfish decreasing depth appears to force the animals to move to other habitats as shallow areas are exposed at low tide. They stay in shallow water following the tide except at higher tidal stages when they occupy inundated mangrove stands and appear to move very little. Presumably, during the ebb and flood tides sawfish utilise the shallow turbid water on the receding or advancing front of water to prey on fish which are concentrated in this area (Stevens et al. 2008).

Stevens and colleagues (2008) reported that the sawfish studied appeared to move only small distances and occupy only a relatively restricted area and found little evidence of a diel movement pattern with average daytime swimming speeds ranging from 0.2–1.0 km/h and average night-time speeds ranging from 0–1.6 km/h.

Seitz (2008a) distinguishes between the Dwarf Sawfish and other species of the family Pristidae as follows:

  • Sawsharks (Pristiophorus spp.) - lack of barbels, ventrally located gills (versus laterally), and its similar-sized rostral teeth.
  • Narrow Sawfish (Anoxypristis cuspidata) - sharply pointed rostral teeth (versus blade-like), the location of the first pair of rostral teeth near the rostral base, its unicuspidate dermal denticles along the body (versus tricuspidate or lack of denticles), its tapering and broad rostrum, and the lack of a well-developed lower caudal fin lobe.
  • Freshwater Sawfish (P. microdon) - more posterior first dorsal fin position, the lack of a lower caudal fin lobe, and the spacing of the rostral teeth being slightly closer to each other towards the rostral tip (versus evenly spaced).
  • Largetooth Sawfish (P. perotteti) - geographic range, and by the same characteristics that separate it from the Freshwater Sawfish (see above).
  • Smalltooth Sawfish (P. pectinata) - fewer average number of rostral teeth per side, and the position of the first dorsal fin origin posterior to the pelvic fins.
  • Green Sawfish (P. zijsron) - fewer number of rostral teeth per side, the forward location of the first dorsal fin, and the second dorsal fin being smaller than the first dorsal fin. The dwarf sawfish also has a tapered rostrum and its inter-tooth space between the last two teeth is less than two times the inter-tooth space of the first two teeth.

Susceptibility to fishing pressure
The toothed rostrum, active hunting behaviour, and their dependence on inshore and estuarine areas for breeding and juvenile habitat, makes the Dwarf Sawfish highly susceptible to capture in fisheries using nets. Estuarine and nearshore gillnet fisheries, such as those targeting Barramundi (Lates calcarifer) and King Salmon (Eleutheronema tetradactylum) capture sawfish of all species as bycatch. Records of the Dwarf Sawfish in commercial fishery bycatch have been almost exclusively from inshore net fishing activities (Giles et al. n.d., unpublished report, cited in Salini et al. 2007).

The species' numbers may have been significantly reduced as a result of bycatch through commercial fishing in Australia (Pogonoski et al. 2002). The Northern Territory government assessed the eligibility of the Dwarf Sawfish for listing as threatened under Territory Parks and Wildlife Conservation Act 2000 in 2006. Under this assessment it was estimated that the Dwarf Sawfish had declined in Northern Territory waters by more than 30% within the last three generations of the species, based on potential levels of exploitation (Larson et al. 2006). This estimation was based on data describing the susceptibility of the species to various fishing practices in coastal and estuarine habitats, as described in Peverell and colleagues (2004).

Researchers studying the Dwarf Sawfish in the Gulf of Carpentaria have noted that survey catches of this species are lowest in areas where commercial fishing is concentrated. Population numbers are considered healthier in more remote areas, although total numbers of the species still appear to be low, as Dwarf Sawfish are encountered infrequently in surveys, and there is a high rate of recapture of tagged specimens (S.C. Peverell 2008, pers. comm., cited in TSSC 2009bm).

Recreational fishers are known to have collected sawfish rostra as souvenirs, but the extent of this activity is currently unquantified (Thorburn et al. 2004). Information on catch rates and post-release mortality following capture by recreational fishers is also unknown.

If the distribution of the Dwarf Sawfish does, or did once, extend outside Australia, the extra-limital populations are likely to have been subject to far more intensive fishing than the population in Australian waters. An assessment for the IUCN in 2006 inferred that if the species occurred outside Australian waters then it is likely to be nearing extirpation in those waters (Cook et al. 2006).

Indigenous harvest
The Australian Indigenous harvest of all sawfish species, including the Dwarf Sawfish, is generally unquantified (Thorburn et al. 2004).

Habitat disturbance and degradation
Habitat disturbance and degradation of coastal areas adjacent to coastal development has been identified as a threat to other sawfish species. However, this is currently considered a lesser threat to the Dwarf Sawfish, as its remote habitat has been subject to low levels of disturbance due to the relatively low levels of development in the areas of northern Australia where the species is found (Peverell 2005).

Minister's Reasons for Recovery Plan decision

A recovery plan for Dwarf Sawfish is considered necessary to ameliorate the impacts of fishing pressure on the species. A multi-species recovery plan addressing threatened sawfish species may be appropriate. The main threat to the species is being caught as bycatch in commercial and recreational net fishing. The potential threats to the species include habitat degradation due to increasing human development in northern Australia.

The Conservation Advice for Pristis clavata(Dwarf Sawfish) (TSSC 2009bl) list the following research priorities:

  • Design and implement a monitoring program or, if appropriate, support and enhance existing programs, with an appropriate emphasis on correct species identification.
  • More precisely assess population size, distribution, ecological requirements and the relative impacts of threatening processes.
  • Develop bycatch mitigation measures and gear technology to reduce threat.

In addition, the Conservation Advice for Pristis clavata(Dwarf Sawfish) (TSSC 2009bl) list the following priority actions:

  • Raise awareness of the Dwarf Sawfish within the local, Indigenous and fishing communities, including species identification and handling techniques for bycatch specimens (i.e. using fact sheets and information brochures).
  • Work with fishers to develop appropriate codes of conduct for handling sawfish to reduce mortality.
  • Protect remnant populations through the development of conservation agreements and covenants with the fishing community.
  • Investigate the closure of some estuarine and coastal habitats to fishing.
  • Identify populations and areas of high conservation priority.
  • Maintain liaison with Indigenous ranger groups and other appropriate groups patrolling waters in which populations occur.

Marine bioregional plans have been developed for four of Australia's marine regions - South-west, North-west, North and Temperate East. Marine Bioregional Plans will help improve the way decisions are made under the EPBC Act, particularly in relation to the protection of marine biodiversity and the sustainable use of our oceans and their resources by our marine-based industries. Marine Bioregional Plans improve our understanding of Australia's oceans by presenting a consolidated picture of the biophysical characteristics and diversity of marine life. They describe the marine environment and conservation values of each marine region, set out broad biodiversity objectives, identify regional priorities and outline strategies and actions to address these priorities. Click here for more information about marine bioregional plans.

The Dwarf Sawfish has been identified as a conservation value in the North-west (DSEWPaC 2012y) and North (DSEWPaC 2012x) marine regions. Maps of Biologically Important Areas have been developed for Dwarf Sawfish in the North-west (DSEWPaC 2012y) Marine Region and may provide additional relevant information. Go to the conservation values atlas to view the locations of these Biologically Important Areas. The "species group report card - sharks and sawfishes" in the North-west (DSEWPaC 2012y) Marine Region and the "species group report card - sawfishes and river sharks" for the North (DSEWPaC 2012x) Marine Region provide additional information.

The Conservation Advice for Pristis clavata (Dwarf Sawfish) (TSSC 2009bl) outlines a brief biological overview and management recommendations.

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Biological Resource Use:Fishing and Harvesting Aquatic Resources:Commercial harvest Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Pristis clavata (Dwarf Sawfish) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009bm) [Conservation Advice].
Biological Resource Use:Fishing and Harvesting Aquatic Resources:Habitat modification and negative impacts on species numbers due to recreational fishing Commonwealth Listing Advice on Pristis clavata (Dwarf Sawfish) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009bl) [Listing Advice].
Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Pristis clavata (Dwarf Sawfish) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009bm) [Conservation Advice].
Biological Resource Use:Fishing and Harvesting Aquatic Resources:Harvest by gill netting Commonwealth Listing Advice on Pristis clavata (Dwarf Sawfish) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009bl) [Listing Advice].
Biological Resource Use:Fishing and Harvesting Aquatic Resources:Illegal take Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Pristis clavata (Dwarf Sawfish) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009bm) [Conservation Advice].
Biological Resource Use:Fishing and Harvesting Aquatic Resources:Incidental capture and death due to trawling fishing activities Commonwealth Listing Advice on Pristis clavata (Dwarf Sawfish) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009bl) [Listing Advice].
Biological Resource Use:Fishing and Harvesting Aquatic Resources:Mortality due to capture, entanglement/drowning in nets and fishing lines Commonwealth Listing Advice on Pristis clavata (Dwarf Sawfish) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009bl) [Listing Advice].
Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Pristis clavata (Dwarf Sawfish) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009bm) [Conservation Advice].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Habitat Shifting and Alteration:Habitat loss, modification and/or degradation Commonwealth Listing Advice on Pristis clavata (Dwarf Sawfish) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009bl) [Listing Advice].
Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Habitat loss/conversion/quality decline/degradation Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Pristis clavata (Dwarf Sawfish) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009bm) [Conservation Advice].
Residential and Commercial Development:Residential and Commercial Development:Habitat modification (clearance and degradation) due to urban development Commonwealth Listing Advice on Pristis clavata (Dwarf Sawfish) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009bl) [Listing Advice].

Cook, S.F., L.J.V. Compagno & P.R. Last (2006). Pristis clavata: 2007 IUCN Red List of threatened Species. [Online]. www.iucnredlist.org. [Accessed: 25-Sep-2008].

Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC) (2011i). Survey guidelines for Australia's threatened fish. EPBC Act survey guidelines 6.4 . [Online]. EPBC Act policy statement. Canberra, ACT: DSEWPAC. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/epbc/publications/threatened-fish.html.

Field, I.C., R. Charters, R.C. Buckworth, M.G. Meekan and C.J.A. Bradshaw (2008). Distribution and abundance of Glyphis and sawfishes in northern Australia and their potential interactions with commercial fisheries. Canberra: Commonwealth of Australia.

Garman, S. (1906). New Plagiostomia. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology. 46:203-208.

Larson, H., J. Woinarski & S. Stirrat (2006). Threatened species of the Northern Territory: Dwarf sawfish Pristis clavata. [Online]. Darwin, Northern Territory: Northern Territory Department of Natural Resources, Environment, The Arts and Sport. Available from: http://www.nt.gov.au/nreta/wildlife/animals/threatened/pdf/fish/Dwarf_sawfish_VU.pdf. [Accessed: 25-Sep-2008].

Last, P.R. & J.D. Stevens (1994). Sharks and Rays of Australia. Melbourne, Victoria: CSIRO.

McAuley, R., R. Lenanton, J. Chidlow, R. Allison & E. Heist (2005). Biology and Stock Assessment of the Thickskin (Sandbar) Shark, Carcharhinus plumbeus, in Western Australia and Further Refinement of the Dusky Shark, Carcharhinus obscurus, Stock Assessment. Final Report to the Fisheries Research & Development Corporation for FRDC project no. 2000/134.

McDavitt, M. (2005). The cultural significance of sharks and rays in Aboriginal societies across Australia's top end. Marine Education Society of Australasia website. [Online]. Available from: http://www.mesa.edu.au/seaweek2005/pdf_senior/is08.pdf. [Accessed: 25-Sep-2008].

Morgan, D.L., M.G. Allen, P. Bedford & M. Horstman (2004). Fish fauna of the Fitzroy River in the Kimberley region of Western Australia - including the Bunuba, Gooniyandi, Ngarinyin, Nyikina and Walmajarri Aboriginal names. Records of the Western Australian Museum. 22:147-161.

Peverell, S. (2005). Distribution of Sawfishes (Pristidae) in the Queensland Gulf of Carpentaria, Australia - with notes on sawfish ecology. Environmental Biology of Fishes. 73:391-402.

Peverell, S. (2007). Dwarf Sawfish Pristis clavata. Marine Education Society of Australasia website. [Online]. Available from: http://www.mesa.edu.au/seaweek2008/info_sheet05.pdf. [Accessed: 25-Sep-2008].

Peverell, S., N. Gribble & H. Larson (2004). 'Sawfish'. In: National Oceans Office, Description of Key Species Groups in the Northern Planning Area. [Online]. Hobart, Tasmania: Commonwealth of Australia. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/coasts/mbp/publications/north/pubs/n-key-species.pdf.

Peverell, S.C. (n.d.). Sawfish (Pristidae) of the Gulf of Carpentaria, Queensland, Australia. James Cook University, unpublished MSc thesis. M.Sc. Thesis.

Pogonoski, J.J., D.A. Pollard & J.R. Paxton (2002). Conservation Overview and Action Plan for Australian Threatened and Potentially Threatened Marine and Estuarine Fishes. [Online]. Canberra, ACT: Environment Australia. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/coasts/publications/marine-fish-action/pubs/marine-fish.pdf.

Salini, J., R. McAuley, S. Blaber, R. Buckworth, J. Chidlow, N. Gribble, J. Ovenden, S. Peverell, R. Pillans, J. Stevens, I. Stobutzki, C. Tarca & C. Walker (2007). Northern Australian Sharks and Rays: the sustainability of target and bycatch species, Phase 2. Report to Fisheries Research and Development Cooperation for FRDC project no. 2002/064.

Seitz, J.C. (2008a). Biological Profiles: Dwarf Sawfish. Florida Museum of Natural History Ichthyology Department. [Online]. Available from: http://www.flmnh.ufl.edu/fish/gallery/descript/dwarfsawfish/dwarfsawfish.html. [Accessed: 10-Sep-2009].

Seitz, J.C. (2008b). Sawfish Conservation. [Online]. Available from: http://www.flmnh.ufl.edu/fish/education/questions/sawfishconservation.html. [Accessed: 10-Sep-2009].

Stevens, J.D., R.D. Pillans & J. Salini (2005). Conservation Assessment of Glyphis sp. A (Speartooth Shark), Glyphis sp. C (Northern River Shark), Pristis microdon (Freshwater Sawfish) and Pristis zijsron (Green Sawfish). [Online]. Hobart, Tasmania: CSIRO Marine Research. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/coasts/publications/pubs/assessment-glyphis.pdf.

Stevens,J.D., R.B. McAuley, C.A. Simpfendorfer & R.D. Pillans (2008). Spatial distribution and habitat utilisation of sawfish (Pristis spp) in relation to fishing in northern Australia. A report to the Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. [Online]. CSIRO and Western Australia Department of Fisheries. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/coasts/publications/pubs/sawfish-report.pdf.

Thorburn, D.C., D.L. Morgan, A.J. Rowland & H. Gill (2004). Elasmobranchs in the Fitzroy River, Western Australia. Report to the Natural Heritage Trust.

Thorburn, D.C., D.L. Morgan, A.J. Rowland & H.S. Gill (2007a). Freshwater sawfish Pristis microdon Latham, 1794 (Chondrichthyes: Pristidae) in the Kimberley region of Western Australia. Zootaxa. 1471:27-41.

Thorburn, D.C., D.L. Morgan, A.J. Rowland, H.S. Gill & E. Paling (2007b). Life history notes of the critically endangered dwarf sawfish, Pristis clavata, Garman 1906 from the Kimberley region of Western Australia. In: Environmental Biology of Fishes.

Thorburn, D.C., S. Peverell, S. Stevens, J.D. Last & A.J. Rowland (2004a). Status of Freshwater and Estuarine Elasmobranches in Northern Australia. Report to Natural Heritage Trust. [Online]. Canberra, ACT: Natural Heritage Trust. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/coasts/publications/elasmo-north.html. [Accessed: 04-Jul-2009].

Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC) (2009bl). Commonwealth Listing Advice on Pristis clavata (Dwarf Sawfish). [Online]. Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Canberra, ACT: Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/species/pubs/68447-listing-advice.pdf.

Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC) (2009bm). Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Pristis clavata (Dwarf Sawfish). [Online]. Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Canberra, ACT: Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/species/pubs/68447-conservation-advice.pdf.

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This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Pristis clavata in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Wed, 1 Oct 2014 05:58:30 +1000.