In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.
|EPBC Act Listing Status||Listed as Critically Endangered as Miniopterus schreibersii bassanii|
|Listing and Conservation Advices||
Listing Advice for Miniopterus schreibersii bassanii, Southern Bent-wing Bat (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2008aaac) [Listing Advice].
Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Miniopterus schreibersii bassanii - Southern Bent-wing Bat (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008acs) [Conservation Advice].
|Recovery Plan Decision||
Recovery Plan required, a number of key ongoing threats and the low level of formal protection currently afforded, particularly to the maternity caves, can be better managed with a recovery plan in place (05/05/2008).
|Adopted/Made Recovery Plans|
|Policy Statements and Guidelines||
Survey Guidelines for Australia's Threatened Bats. EPBC Act survey guidelines 6.1 (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2010m) [Admin Guideline].
Federal Register of
Inclusion of species in the list of threatened species under section 178 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (14/07/2001) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2001g) [Legislative Instrument] as Miniopterus schreibersii (southern form).
Inclusion of species in the list of threatened species under section 178 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (57) (07/12/2007) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2007a) [Legislative Instrument] as Miniopterus schreibersii bassanii.
Amendment to the list of threatened species under section 178 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (11/04/2007) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2007f) [Legislative Instrument] as Miniopterus schreibersii bassanii.
|State Listing Status||
|Non-statutory Listing Status||
|Scientific name||Miniopterus schreibersii bassanii |
|Infraspecies author||Cardinal & Christidis (2000)|
|Other names||Miniopterus schreibersii (southern form) |
This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.
Victoria: At the species level, Miniopterus schreibersii is listed as Threatened under the Flora and Fauna Guarantee Act 1988.
Scientific Name: Miniopterus schreibersii bassanii
Common Name: Southern Bentwing Bat
Other common name: Common Bent-wing Bat (southern subspecies)
Two independent studies have addressed the systematics of the Australian Miniopterus species. Both studies concurred that three separate taxa could be described in Australia. Based on DNA and morphological analysis, Cardinal and Christidis (2000), recognised these three taxa as subspecies of Bent-wing Bat (M. schreibersii), and named the southern-most form, M. s. bassanii. A study by Reinhold and colleagues (2000) on Australo-Papuan Miniopterus, using allozyme data as well as DNA sequencing and morphology, suggests that the subspecies recognised in Cardinal and Christidis (2000) should be recognised as a full species.
Currently, however, three subspecies of Miniopterus schreibersii are recognised (Churchhill 2008 cited in Kerr & Bonifacio 2009):
- M. s. bassanii, which occurs in south-east South Australia and western Victoria.
- M. s. orianae, which occurs in northern Western Australia and Northern Territory.
- M. s. oceanensis, which occurs along the east coast from Cape York to southern Victoria.
In Pomborneit and Lorne, Victoria, M. s. bassanii and M. s. oceanensis occur as one group and roost together in caves (Appleton n.d. pers. comm. cited in Kerr & Bonifacio 2009).
The Southern Bent-wing Bat is an insectivorous cave dwelling bat. The subspecies has dark reddish-brown to dark-brown fur on the back, grey-brown fur underneath and pale brown areas of bare skin. It has a distinctive short muzzle, a high crowned/domed head and small eyes. The ears are short, rounded and roughly triangular. Head and body length is 52–58 mm, with a forearm length of 45–49 mm. It has the longest wing length of all the Vespertilionidae, being nearly two and half times longer than the head and body. The last phalanx on the third finger of the wing is about four times the length of the middle phalanx, giving a bent wing appearance (Churchill 1998; Hall & Woodside 1989; Menkhorst & Lumsden 1995).
The Southern Bent-wing Bat is found in south-east South Australia and western Victoria (Cardinal & Christidis 2000).
In South Australia, the Southern Bent-wing Bat largely occurs between Robe and Naracoorte, south to Port MacDonnell and north to Marcollat (Kerr & Bonifacio 2009). The population is centred around the Naracoorte Bat Cave, the key maternity cave for the subspecies, with a further 48 overwintering caves identified (15 in the Upper South East and 33 in the Lower South East of South Australia) (Mott & Aslin 2000 cited in Kerr & Bonifacio 2009). Records outside of the core range have been made from Melrose (Flinders Ranges), Mount Lofty, Port Adelaide and Brentwood (Yorke Peninsula). Records north of these areas are few, with some proving difficult to verify. It is considered unlikely that the distribution of Southern Bent-wing Bat now extends very far north of Naracoorte, as there have been no records in northern South Australia since the 1970s (Kerr & Bonifacio 2009).
In Victoria, the Southern Bent-wing Bat has been recorded at Heywood, Portland, Hamilton, Warnambool and Pomborneit (Cardinal & Christidis 2000). A significant maternity site was recorded at Mt Widderin Cave near Skipton in 1866, but disappeared soon after its discovery (Hamilton-Smith 1968; Simpson & Smith 1964). Thunder Point Blowhole, at Warrnambool, was used as a maternity site until its partial collapse in the late 1990s. Starlight Cave, also near Warrnambool, is currently used as a maternity site but its historic use is unclear — it may have served mainly as a temporary or transient site (Duncan et al. 1999).
The Southern Bent-wing Bat's extent of occurrence and area of occupancy have diminished since European settlement, with the number of breeding colonies declining from five documented breeding sites (and possibly more) to two breeding caves. Likely factors contributing to the decline include clearance of native bush including open woodlands in south-east South Australia, and human disturbance. No recolonisation of previous breeding caves has occurred despite the considerable period since abandonment, highlighting the potential precariousness of the last two remaining breeding caves (DEWHA 2008aaac).
In the first week of January 2000, a mark-recapture study was conducted over three nights at Naracoorte Bat Cave (Reardon 2001). The Lincoln Index method was used to estimate the total population, although this method has large potential error that can result in overestimation.
In the summer of 2001, the total exit flight at Naracoorte Bat Cave on two nights was video taped. These tapes were replayed at slow speed and the number of bats leaving the cave were counted. The cave was checked after the flight to ensure that all or most of the bats had left the cave (Reardon 2001).
The total population of the Southern Bent-wing Bat has been estimated at 40 870 (DEWHA 2008aaac). The population has declined by 67% since the mid 1990s, when the subspecies was estimated to be 134 500, consisting of 122 500 from Naracoorte Bat Cave and 12 000 from Starlight Cave (Reardon 2001). In 1925, the subspecies was described as 'by no means uncommon' (Wood Jones 1925).
Since 2000, Naracoorte Bat Cave fly outs have been filmed regularly with a 2008/9 population estimate of 20 000 (Kerr & Bonifacio 2009). The population in 1963/64 was 75 000–150 000 and remained stable until the mid 1990s (Reardon 2001). In the late 1990s, literature on the Naracoorte Caves Reserve claimed that the Southern Bent-wing Bat population using the cave exceeded 400 000 (Bourne 2009 pers. comm. cited in Kerr & Bonifacio 2009), although Naracoorte Caves Reserve staff agree that this figure is an over exaggeration (Gray 2001).
The Starlight Cave population is estimated at 10 000–15 000 in 2004 (Grant & Reardon 2004 cited in Kerr & Bonifacio 2009) and 12 000 in 2001 (Grant 2001 cited in Kerr & Bonifacio 2009). In 1963/64, the population was estimated at 100 000–200 000 (Dwyer & Hamilton-Smith 1965). All estimates include juveniles (Kerr & Bonifacio 2009).
Maternity roosts at Mt Widderin and Robertson Cave have disappeared due to guano mining in the 1800s while Thunder Point Blowhole has ceased as a maternity roost since its collapse (Kerr & Bonifacio 2009).
The Naracoorte Bat Cave occurs within Naracoorte Caves National Park which has World Heritage status (DEWHA 2008aaac).
Habitat preference is associated with the availability of foraging areas and proximity to suitable roosting caves.
Foraging areas include forested areas, volcanic plains, wetlands, coastal vegetation (including beaches) and urban areas. Primary habitat is predominantly woodlands near large natural wetlands, river basins and agricultural areas (Churchhill 1998). The bat is likely to be associated with several EPBC-listed ecological communities, including the Seasonal Herbaceous Wetlands (Freshwater) of the Temperate Lowland Plains, which is listed as Critically Endangered under the EPBC Act (DSEWPaC 2012t).
The Southern Bent-wing Bat roosts underground, predominantly in caves and mines, however, coastal cliff rock crevices, tunnels and road culverts are also used in some areas (Churchill 2008 cited in Kerr & Bonifacio 2009). The species is likely to be dependent upon the only two known maternity caves (Naracoorte Bat Cave and Starlight Cave) for its survival (Duncan et al. 1999).
Each cave has structural characteristics which allow heat and humidity to build up so that conditions are suitable for the nursing of young bats (Dwyer & Hamilton-Smith 1966 cited in Kerr & Bonifacio 2009). Naracoorte Bat Cave is a large dome with high relative humidity (80%) and temperatures of around 30 °C; which is 10 °C above temperatures in the remainder of the cave (Baudinette et al. 1994 cited in Kerr & Bonifacio 2009). Heat production of the bats seems to be the prime factor affecting the microclimate necessary for breeding (Baudinette et al. 1994 cited in Kerr & Bonifacio 2009).
Dispersal from maternal caves is probably related to a decrease in prey availability, although some bats remain in maternal caves (Kerr & Bonifacio 2009). Overwintering caves are cool, facilitating entry into torpor and reducing the bats' net energy expenditure (Kerr & Bonifacio 2009).
During the colder months of the year (April–August) the Southern Bent-wing Bat is dispersed over a wide region of south-east South Australia and western Victoria. Over 50 caves are known to be used as overwintering sites, although surveys of these caves have only accounted for a portion of the total population suggesting that there are further sites (Mott & Aslin 2000 cited in Kerr & Bonifacio 2009). During the winter torpor period, bats are particularly affected by disturbance during cooler periods due to their reliance on body fat reserves (Kerr & Bonifacio 2009).
Over the winter months, when insect activity is low and food is not readily available, the bats go into a deep hibernation and select the coolest parts of the coolest caves. During this time their body temperature can be down to 2°C, which limits the loss of body fat through winter (Speakman & Thomas 2003).
The generation length for the Southern Bent-wing Bat is estimated to be five to seven years. Lumsden and Gray (2001) recaptured a banded individual 20.5 years after it was banded. When recaptured, it was healthy and had recently bred (Lumsden & Gray 2001).
Around late August, the bats commence their annual migration to one of two maternity caves, Bat Cave at Naracoorte in South Australia, and Starlight Cave at Warrnambool, Victoria. Almost the entire population, including males and females, will make the journey from overwintering caves to the two maternity sites, stopping at transition caves along the way. By October, the migration is complete. The majority of the bats (70% to 90% depending on the year) will go to Bat Cave (DEWHA 2008aaac).
Births occur from late October to late November at Bat Cave and in early December at Starlight Cave. After four to five weeks, the young are fully furred and able to fly. From birth to this stage, the young are vulnerable - a fall from the ceiling means almost certain death. The young are fully weaned by their third month, and, together with the adults, begin their dispersal to the overwintering sites (DEWHA 2008aaac).
On the return of Southern Bent-wing Bats to their roosting caves, they cluster within the cave with suitable microclimates. During this time they carry out grooming and rest by lowering their body temperature to the ambient temperature and go into a torpor state for a period of hours (Speakman & Thomas 2003). In autumn, they have been observed resting 62% of the time, grooming 16% and actively moving 22%. Microclimate and position in caves seem to affect behaviour of bats at roost. Activity in autumn is bimodal with bats leaving caves at sunset to feed, returning at midnight and leaving again to forage just before dawn (Codd et al. 2003 cited in Kerr & Bonifacio 2009).
The Southern Bent-wing Bat is nocturnal and uses echolocation (emission of ultrasonic sounds) for navigation and feeding. Feeding is carried out during flight and prey is caught in the tail or wing membrane and transferred to the mouth whilst in flight; sometimes insects are caught in the mouth (Hall & Woodside 1989). Diet consists of a range of night flying insects such as Diptera (mosquitos, midges), Lepidoptera (moths), Orthoptera (crickets), Coleoptera (beetles), Hemiptera (bugs) and Hymenoptera (ants) species. It is estimated the Southern Bent-wing Bat can consume about 25% of its 15 g body weight per meal and may eat two or three meals per night. Therefore a population of 1000 bats could consume several kilograms of insects per night (SWIFFT 2007).
Known foraging sites include: Deadmans Swamp (eucalypt scrubland and swamp); east, south and north-east of Russet Ridge (Sparse Red Gum over pasture and remnant scrub); Kay Swamp (ephemeral swamp); Kay Park; Wirreebilla/Durr Swamp; Stoney Point; and Prospect Pines (Grant 2004 cited in Kerr & Bonifacio 2009).
The Southern Bent-wing Bat has three main movement patterns: movement to a limited number of maternity caves, dispersal to a larger number of overwintering caves and foraging movements (Kerr & Bonifacio 2009).
Distances travelled from roosting caves are often less than several kilometres for small microchiropterans and are dependent upon reproductive condition, for instance lactating females travel shorter distances than pregnant females or non-breeding females. Where roost sites are located in sub-optimal foraging habitat, the distances travelled may increase by up to 30 km. Pregnant females undertake much longer journeys when they fly to maternity caves for giving birth (Kunz & Lumsden 2003; SWIFFT 2007).
Flight is usually fast, typically in open spaces (Dwyer 1969). Where there are trees, the species flies just above the canopy to many times the height of the canopy. However, in open country, flight may be 6 m above the ground (Churchill 2008 cited in Kerr & Bonifacio 2009).
The Survey Guidelines for Australia's Threatened Bats (DEWHA 2010m) includes survey methodology for the Southern Bent-wing Bat.
A number of threats to the Southern Bent-wing Bat have been identified, but the severity of their impact is not well understood. Threats include:
|Habitat damage or loss||Includes loss of wetlands (including over-exploitation of groundwater), degradation of rivers, loss of foraging habitat (including clearing of linear elements) and agriculture intensification (DEWHA 2008aaac; Kerr & Bonifacio 2009). Ninety percent of native vegetation in the subspecies' range has been cleared (DEWHA 2008aaac).
Revegetation programs to provide feeding habitat and corridors could mitigate the decline (DEWHA 2008aaac).
|Drought||Extended low rainfall and impacts on prey availability may cause impacts (DEWHA 2008aaac).|
|Pesticide ingestion||The discovery of insecticides in bat guano in Naracoorte Bat Cave, as well as DDT and its metabolites in the bats themselves, suggest that declines may be linked to pollutants. This accumulation may be the result of ingestion of insects exposed to insecticides (Racey & Entwistle 2003; SWIFFT 2007).|
|Maternity roost loss or damage||Loss of either one or both maternity roosts, or significant disturbance at critical times, could be catastrophic for the entire population of Southern Bent-wing Bats. Disturbance at maternity caves is considered a major threat because it could cause cave abandonment or impact on the breeding success of the population (DEWHA 2008aaac; Duncan et al. 1999).|
|Roost disturbance||During a state of torpor, and particularly over winter when the bats are in a deep hibernation, human disturbance in the form of noise, lights and handling can cause a rise in body temperature and metabolism of body fat, which may reduce survival rates over the period (SWIFFT 2007).
During summer, tourists may enter caves causing bats to flee caves in daylight. Repeated disturbance can result in abandonment of the cave. Some areas along the coast have been rendered unsuitable, sometimes forcing bats to use smaller caves that are in marginal habitat (Lumsden 1998; SWIFFT 2007).
Cave abandonment most likely causes mortality (rather than dispersal to other caves) (SWIFFT 2007).
|Predation||Owls, rats (Rattus spp.), the Feral Cat (Felis catus) and the Fox (Vulpes vulpes) may predate the Southern Bent-wing Bat (SWIFFT 2007).|
|Windfarms||Wind turbines located near roosting caves (particularly near a maternity cave) can kill significant numbers of bats, particularly if the caves attract bats from around the region and there is frequent flying to and from the maternity cave. A full assessment of potential impacts on bats should be part of any development proposal, which includes assessment of flight paths between the maternity cave and roost sites, between maternity cave and feeding sites, and between roost sites and feeding areas (SWIFFT 2007).|
Minister's reason for recovery plan decision
A recovery plan has been recommended due to a number of key ongoing threats and the low level of formal protection currently afforded, particularly the maternity caves used by the species.
Regional action plan for the Southern Bent-wing Bat
Kerr and Bonifacio (2009) identify objectives for recovery, including:
- determine causes for decline
- establish population monitoring
- research biology, ecology and management requirements
- increase awareness of general public
- coordinate long term management.
Commonwealth Conservation Advice
The Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Southern Bent-wing Bat (TSSC 2008acs) recommends recovery actions for habitat loss and distribution of conservation information.
Action plan for Australian bats
The action plan for Australian bats recommends the following recovery actions (Duncan et al. 1999):
- Repair the collapse of Thunder Point Blowhole and encourage its management by Parks Victoria.
- Develop methods for population monitoring at the maternity sites. Methods should be non-intrusive and provide annual estimates with defined levels of precision and accuracy. When methods are developed, monitor numbers at the two currently used maternity sites, and undertake regular assessments at Thunder Point Blowhole to monitor any recolonisation of this site subsequent to restoration.
- Re-assess known wintering caves to document:
- current state of preservation
- land tenure / ownership
- land owners attitudes / conditions on cave access.
- Continue education programs for cave visitors about conservation issues, particularly the effect of cave disturbance.
- Complete genetic studies to determine the eastern limits of the distribution of this subspecies.
Conservation of disused mines
Management of disused mines may provide suitable habitat for bats and can play a role in expanding or substituting roosting habitat. Assessment of disused mines for bat presence and gauging levels of human interference are necessary steps in determining effective protection measures. A comprehensive publication by the Australian Centre for Mining Environmental Research (Thompson 2002) provides guidelines on how to identify and protect bat conservation values in disused mines (SWIFFT 2007).
Government funding grants
Friends of Parks Incorporated – Friends of Naracoorte Caves (South Australia) received $14 745 through the Threatened Species Network Community Grants in 2008–09 for determining Southern Bent-wing Bat habitat requirements. The project aimed to gain an understanding of the foraging grounds and dispersal of the Southern Bent-wing Bat from its two maternity sites using radio tracking techniques and genetic analysis.
Management documents relevant to the Southern Bent-wing Bat are at the start of the profile. The Action Plan for Australian Bats (Duncan et al. 1999) and the Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Miniopterus schreibersii bassanii- Southern Bent-wing Bat (TSSC 2008acs) provide guidance on threat abatement and management strategies for the Southern Bent-wing Bat.
The Australian handbook for the conservation of bats in mines and artificial cave-bat habitats (Thomson 2002) provides management guidelines for cave-dwelling species that may inhabit disused mine sites.
The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.
|Threat Class||Threatening Species||References|
|Agriculture and Aquaculture:Agriculture and Aquaculture:Land clearing, habitat fragmentation and/or habitat degradation||Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Miniopterus schreibersii bassanii - Southern Bent-wing Bat (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008acs) [Conservation Advice].|
|Climate Change and Severe Weather:Droughts:Drought||Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Miniopterus schreibersii bassanii - Southern Bent-wing Bat (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008acs) [Conservation Advice].|
|Energy Production and Mining:Renewable Energy:Habitat modification due to wind farm development and operation||Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Miniopterus schreibersii bassanii - Southern Bent-wing Bat (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008acs) [Conservation Advice].|
|Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human induced disturbance due to unspecified activities||Listing Advice for Miniopterus schreibersii bassanii, Southern Bent-wing Bat (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2008aaac) [Listing Advice].|
|Pollution:Pollution:Pestitcide application and runoff|
Cardinal, B.R. & L. Christidis (2000). Mitochondrial DNA and morphology reveal three geographically distinct lineage of the large bentwing bat (Miniopterus schreibersii) in Australia. Australian Journal of Zoology. 48:1-19.
Churchill, S.K. (1998). Australian Bats. Sydney: Reed New Holland.
Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC) (2012t). Seasonal Herbaceous Wetlands (Freshwater) of the Temperate Lowland Plains. Species Profile and Threats Database. [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/cgi-bin/sprat/public/publicshowcommunity.pl?id=97.
Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA) (2008aaac). Listing Advice for Miniopterus schreibersii bassanii, Southern Bent-wing Bat. [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/species/pubs/352961-listing-advice.pdf.
Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA) (2010m). Survey Guidelines for Australia's Threatened Bats. EPBC Act survey guidelines 6.1. [Online]. Canberra: DEWHA. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/epbc/publications/threatened-bats.html.
Duncan, A., G.B. Baker & N. Montgomery (1999). The Action Plan for Australian Bats. [Online]. Canberra: Environment Australia. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/action/bats/index.html.
Dwyer, P. & E. Hamilton-Smith (1965). Breeding caves and maternity colonies of the Bent-winged Bat in south-eastern Australia. Helictite. 4:3-21.
Dwyer, P.D. (1969). Population ranges of Miniopterus schreibersii (Chiroptera) in south-eastern Australia. Australian Journal of Zoology. 17:665-686.
Gray, P. (2001). Cave microclimate and population estimates of Southern bent-wing bats (Miniopterus schreibersii bassanii) at Starlight Cave, Warrnambool. Report to South-West TAFE, Warrnambool.
Hall, l.S. & D.P. Woodside (1989). Vespertilionidae. Walton, D.W. & B.J. Richardson, eds. Fauna of Australia. Mammalia. 1B:871-886. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service.
Hamilton-Smith, E. (1968). The Insect Fauna of Mt. Widderin Cave, Skipton, Victoria. Victorian Naturalist. 85:294-6.
Kerr, G.D. & R.S. Bonifacio (2009). Regional Action Plan for the Southern Bent-wing Bat Miniopterus schreibersii bassanii in the South East of South Australia. Mount Gambier, South Australia: Department for Environment and Heritage.
Kunz, T.H. & L.F. Lumsden (2003). Ecology of Cavity and Folage Roosting Bats. Kunz, T.H. & M.B. Fenton, eds. Bat Ecology. Page(s) 3-89. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago and London.
Lumsden, L. (1998). Inspection of the Cumberland River Cave and its Colony of Common Bent-wing Bats, Miniopterus schreibersii, with Management Recommendations, A Report to Parks Victoria, Angahook - Lorne State Park, July 1998.
Lumsden, L. & P. Gray (2001). Longevity record for a Southern Bent-wing Bat Miniopterus schreibersii bassanii. The Australasian Bat Society Newsletter. 16:43-4.
Menkhorst, P.W. & L.F. Lumsden (1995). Common Bent-wing Bat. In: Mammals of Victoria. Oxford University Press, South Melbourne, Australia.
Racey, P.A. & A.C. Entwistle (2003). Conservation Ecology. Kunz, T.H. & M.B. Fenton, eds. Bat Ecology. 680-743. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago and London.
Reardon, T.B. (2001). Population size estimates and conservation of the Southern bentwing bat (Miniopterus bassanii) in South Australia. Report to Wildlife Conservation Fund Committee.
Reinhold, L., T. Reardon & M. Lara (2000). Molecular and morphometrical systematics of the Australo-Papuan Miniopterus (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae). In: Spoken paper 9th Australasian Bat Conference.
Simpson, K.G. & G.T. Smith (1964). Bat mandible from Mt. Widderin Cave, Skipton. Victorian Naturalist. 81:78-79.
South West Integrated Flora & Fauna Team (SWIFFT) (2007). Common Bent-wing Bat. [Online]. Available from: http://bird.net.au/bird/index.php?title=Common_Bent-wing_Bat. [Accessed: 02-Jun-2008].
Speakman, J.R. & D.W. Thomas (2003). Physiological Ecology and Energetics of Bats. Kunz, T.H. & M.B. Fenton, eds. Bat Ecology. Page(s) 430-489. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago and London.
Thomson, B. (2002). Australian Handbook for the Conservation of Bats in Mines and Artificial Cave-Bat Habitats. [Online]. Melbourne: Australian Centre for Mining Environmental Research. Available from: http://www.acmer.uq.edu.au/publications/attachments/BatReportAmeef15.pdf.
Threatened Species Scientific Committee (2008acs). Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Miniopterus schreibersii bassanii - Southern Bent-wing Bat. [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/species/pubs/76606-conservation-advice.pdf.
Victoria Department of Sustainability and Environment (Vic. DSE) (2005a). Advisory List of Rare or Threatened Plants in Victoria - 2005. [Online]. East Melbourne, Victoria: Department of Sustainability and Environment. Available from: http://www.dse.vic.gov.au/dse/nrenpa.nsf/93a98744f6ec41bd4a256c8e00013aa9/cfd982b7b4c0bc93ca256fa2007affbc/$FILE/Advisory%20List%20of%20Rare%20or%20Threatened%20Plants%20in%20Victoria%20-%202005.pdf.
Wood Jones, F. (1925). The Mammals of South Australia, part III. Page(s) 271-458. Adelaide, Government Printer.
This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.
Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Miniopterus schreibersii bassanii in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Wed, 3 Sep 2014 04:30:59 +1000.