Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Vulnerable as Conospermum hookeri
Listing and Conservation Advices Commonwealth Listing Advice on Conospermum hookeri (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2007m) [Listing Advice].
 
Approved Conservation Advice for Conospermum hookeri (variable smoke-bush) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2014bb) [Conservation Advice].
 
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan not required, the primary threats to the species (fire regimes and the exotic fungus phytophthera cinnamomi) are already being actively managed through other mechanisms (05/05/2008).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans
Other EPBC Act Plans Threat abatement plan for disease in natural ecosystems caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi (Department of the Environment, 2014a) [Threat Abatement Plan].
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Inclusion of species in the list of threatened species under section 178 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (53) (07/12/2007) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2007e) [Legislative Instrument] as Conospermum hookeri.
 
State Government
    Documents and Websites
TAS:Threatened Species Notesheet - Corunastylis brachystachya (Tasmanian Department of Primary Industries, Parks, Water and Environment (Tas. DPIPWE), 2010) [Information Sheet].
TAS:Draft Listing Statement, Conospermum hookeri, Tasmanian smoke-bush (Threatened Species Section, 2005) [Wildlife Conservation Plan].
TAS:Conospermum hookeri (Variable Smoke-bush): Species Management Profile for Tasmania's Threatened Species Link (Threatened Species Section (TSS), 2014fx) [State Action Plan].
State Listing Status
TAS: Listed as Vulnerable (Threatened Species Protection Act 1995 (Tasmania): September 2012 list) as Conospermum hookeri
Scientific name Conospermum hookeri [68161]
Family Proteaceae:Proteales:Magnoliopsida:Magnoliophyta:Plantae
Species author (Meissner) E.M.Benn.
Infraspecies author  
Reference Bennett, E.M. in McCarthy, P.M. (Ed) (1995), Flora of Australia 16: 485
Other names Conospermum taxifolium var. hookeri [36985]
Conospermum taxifolium var. leianthum [36999]
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images

Scientific name: Conospermum hookeri

Common name: Variable Smoke-bush, Tasmanian Smoke-bush

The Variable Smoke-bush is considered to be conventionally accepted. The Variable Smoke-bush was raised to species rank by Bennett (1995) and this treatment has been followed in the Tasmanian Census (Buchanan 2005). More recently, the working group on Australian plant names accepted this name for the Australian Plant Census (CHAH 2010).

Bennett (1995) noted that Conospermum hookeri was the only representative of the genus in Tasmania, and considered the species to be endemic to Tasmania. However, the National Herbarium of Victoria considers collections from Cape Barren Island in eastern Bass Strait to be attributable to C. taxifolium, a species recorded from Victoria, NSW and Queensland (Bennett 1995; Walsh & Entwisle 1996). Comparative studies of Conospermum material from Tasmania, Victoria and NSW are currently underway at the Tasmanian Herbarium in an attempt to resolve the status of Conospermum in Tasmania; pending resolution, all Conospermum material from mainland Tasmania is considered here to be C. hookeri.

The species is a woody shrub, mostly 1-2 m high. Its branches are slender, erect and pubescent, while its leaves are spathulate or linear-oblong, 2-3 cm long and 1-3 mm wide, spreading and somewhat incurved, glabrescent to densely pilose. The inflorescence is a spike or few-branched panicle that terminates in a spike of up to 20 flowers. The perianth is two-lipped, creamy-white, 5-7 mm long, the tube longer than the lobes; tube 3-4 mm long, sparsely hairy; upper lip broad and concave with an acuminate, recurved apex; lower lip slightly longer than the upper and divided into three narrow spreading lobes. The fruit is a cone-shaped nut about 2 mm long, with a fringe of reddish-brown hairs (Bennett 1995; Curtis 1967).

The Variable Smoke-bush occurs along the east coast of Tasmania in four areas: Great Northern Plains to Scamander in the north, Freycinet Peninsula to Schouten Island in the central east, Bruny Island in the south, and an 'inland' subpopulation near Avoca in the Fingal Valley. The linear range of the species is approximately 270 km.

There is also an unreliable record from the Prosser River near Orford; this subpopulation is presumed to be extinct (data held by the Threatened Species Section, Tasmanian Department of Primary Industries and Water (DPIW), Hobart).

Conospermum hookeri in Tasmania.

Subpopulation
Tenure No. of sites NRM 1:25 000 mapsheet Year last seen Area occupy (ha) No. of mature plants Specific threats
1 Private Land   South Great Bay 2006 0.0001 7-8
RE
Land clearance; Phytophthora cinnamomi (PC)
2 Private?   South Orford 1959 Presumed extinct  
3 Freycinet National Park 10 South Schouten 2005   140+
AC & RE
PC
4 Freycinet National Park   South Graham 1987 < 1 'Few' PC
5 Freycinet National Park   South Graham 1985     PC
6 Freycinet National Park   South Coles Bay 1989 0.1 20-100
RE
PC
7 Freycinet National Park 6 South Coles Bay 1999 > 0.25 < 45
AC & RE
PC
8 Freycinet National Park 4 South Coles Bay 2002 1.5 90
AC
PC
9 Freycinet National Park   South Coles Bay 2002     PC
10 Coles Bay Conservation Area, Gravel Reserve   South Coles Bay 2004   > 10
RE
PC
11 Coles Bay Conservation Area 15 South Coles Bay 2004 c. 1 230
AC & RE
PC
12 Freycinet National Park 7 South Coles Bay
Friendly
2002 3.7 > 389
AC & RE
PC
13 Crown Land/ Private Land   North St. Pauls Dome 2005 0.4 827-920
AC
Land clearance
14 Private Reserve   North Falmouth 2001 0.03 10-15
RE
PC
15 Private Land   North St Helens 1998 0.06 7
RE
Land clearance (subdivision)
16 Private Land   North St Helens 1998 0.01 6
RE
Land clearance (subdivision)
17 Private Land   North St Helens 2002 0.5 > 200
RE
Land clearance (subdivision)
18 Unallocated Crown Land 2 North St Helens 2001 < 0.01 180
AC
PC and edge effects
19 State Forest   North Pyengana 2003 1.0 46
AC & RE
Forestry activities
20 Unallocated Crown Land   North Pyengana 2003 < 0.01 12 PC
21 Private Land   North Binalong 2003 4.0 150-200
RE
Land clearance
22 Humbug Point Nature Recreation Area   North Binalong 1998 < 0.001 1 PC
23 Mt Pearson State Reserve, Private Land* 3 North Binalong 2003 0.6 38
AC
PC
24 Mt Pearson State Reserve   North Binalong 2003 0.08 20
AC
PC
25 Bay of Fires Conservation Area   North The Gardens 2002 < 0.001 1 PC
26 Mt William National Park   North Ansons Bay 1999 < 0.001 1 PC
27 Mt William National Park 2 North Eddystone
1995 0.25 < 20
RE
PC
28 Private   North Lanka 1983 Status uncertain  
29 Private   North Gladstone 1971 Status uncertain  
30 Cameron Regional Reserve   North Musselroe 1970s? Status uncertain  



Data source: Threatened Species Section, Tasmanian Department of Primary Industries and Water, Hobart. Subpopulations are ordered arbitrarily from south to north; for the number of mature plants AC represents an absolute count and RE a recorder estimate.

* = Private land protected by a conservation covenant under the Tasmanian Nature Conservation Act 2002.

The extent of occurrence is 10 220 km². This figure is based on herbarium and field survey records held by the Threatened Species Section, DPIW, Hobart; the estimate is based on the minimum convex polygon encompassing extant subpopulations.

There is insufficient data to indicate past declines in extent of occurrence.

The three northernmost subpopulations in Tasmania have not been seen in recent years; extension surveys are required to determine their status. If they cannot be verified then the extent of occurrence will be reduced to approximately 8500 km².

The area of occupancy for the Variable Smoke-bush is 0.15-0.25 km². The lower bound of 0.15 km² is based on quantitative estimates of the area of occupancy for 22 of the 29 extant subpopulations (data held by the Threatened Species Section, DPIW). Quantitative data for the other seven subpopulations are not available, but based on the patchy nature of the species an estimate in the order of 0.1 km² is considered likely, giving an upper bound for the area of occupancy of 0.25 km².

No quantitative data is available, but past declines in the area of occupancy may be inferred from: (1) the loss of the recorded Prosser River subpopulation; (2) residential development of prime habitat in the St Helens area since European settlement; and (3) the impact of Phytophthora cinnamomi throughout the range of the species. P. cinnamomi is expected to result in a continuing decline in the area of occupancy (and number of plants), while clearance of private land has the potential to impact upon at least five known subpopulations (with a total area of occupancy of approximately 0.04 km²).

The Variable Smoke-bush occurs in four geographically distinct areas: Bruny Island, Schouten Island-Freycinet Peninsula, Scamander to Great Northern Plains, and near Avoca in the Fingal Valley. All near-coastal subpopulations are threatened by Phytophthora cinnamomi though spatial and temporal variability in the disease's expression means that the notion of a 'single threatening event' is inappropriate. The small spatial scale of known subpopulations means that the number of locations may be considered to be of the same order, viz. 20-30.

Subpopulations of the Variable Smoke-bush in the St Helens area are considered to have been fragmented as a result of past residential development of the near-coastal strip.

There has been a considerable botanical activity in the species' heathland and heathy woodland habitat in eastern Tasmania in the past 30 years (Kirkpatrick 1977), augmented in more recent years by environmental impact studies required by DPIW for proposed developments in both the Central East and Northern regions (data held by the Threatened Species Section, DPIW, Hobart). Formal and informal reserves along Tasmania's east coast and Bruny Island were surveyed for the Variable Smoke-bush during the Phytophthora cinnamomi project (Schahinger et al. 2003).

The current known distribution of the species is considered to be representative of its actual distribution. However, the actual population size may well be greater than the lower bound estimate of 2500-2800 mature individuals. The uncertainty arises from the species' naturally patchy distribution in expanses of seemingly ideal habitat, and the often rugged nature of the terrain that makes comprehensive surveys difficult (for instance, the granite boulder country characteristic of the southern parts of the Central East region). In addition, there are potential occurrences in the Northern region on private land, Crown land and State Forest that have not been surveyed to date, as evidenced by the discovery of new subpopulations near St Helens in 2003.

The total population size for the Variable Smoke-bush is estimated to be approximately 2500-2800 mature individuals spread across 23 subpopulations; there is no quantitative data for the remaining six extant subpopulations. This figure should be considered a conservative lower bound due to survey constraints and the species' patchy nature.

The Variable Smoke-bush is considered to occur in 29 subpopulations. Of the 23 subpopulations for which quantitative data are available, 13 have fewer than 50 mature plants (including three with only single plants). Details for the four main regions of occurrence are as follows.

  • South: Seven to eight plants in one subpopulation on private land.
  • Central East: 1000+ mature plants in 10 subpopulations, all in the Freycinet National Park and Coles Bay Conservation Area within relatively undisturbed vegetation.
  • Inland: 800-900 plants in one subpopulation, with c. 30% of plants on private land.
  • Northern: 700+ plants in 17 subpopulations, with more than 50% of plants on private land.

The 'Inland' subpopulation near Avoca is the largest known in terms of mature plant numbers, though it should be noted that this site is atypical in that recruitment is an apparent consequence of major soil disturbance during gravel extraction activities (with only a few mature plants surviving in their 'natural' habitat). The largest 'natural' subpopulations have in the order of 400 plants.

Subpopulations have been taken to be occurrences of plants separated by discontinuities of at least 1 km (Keith 2000), an approach followed for the Variable Smoke-bush in the development of the Draft Greater Freycinet Recovery Plan (Threatened Species Unit 2004). However, the species tends to occur in naturally small patches within more-or-less continuous habitat, meaning that the number of subpopulations will tend to reflect - at least, in part - the degree of search effort. It is considered highly likely that additional survey work in the Central East region will show that currently recognised subpopulations do in fact meld into one another, the consequence being a reduction in the total number of subpopulations.

Past declines in mature plant numbers may be inferred from:

  • the loss of the recorded Prosser River subpopulation;
  • residential development of prime habitat in the St Helens area since European settlement; and
  • the impact of Phytophthora cinnamomi throughout the range of the species. There are, however, insufficient data to quantify the decline over the past 10 years.
There is insufficient data to indicate future changes in size of populations. Approximately 400 plants in five subpopulations are at risk from land clearance on private land. An unknown number of plants are likely to be lost to P. cinnamomi.

The generation length for the Variable Smoke-bush is 10-25 years. This figure presumes that the generation length may be inferred from the fire frequency required to maintain the species' heathland and heathy woodland habitat (Parks and Wildlife Service 2002).

The Variable Smoke-bush occurs in four geographically disjunct areas, each separated by at least 50 km; gene flow is assumed to be zero between these areas because of the restricted nature of pollen and seed dispersal. Representative subpopulations from each area are thus considered important to maintain genetic diversity.

The Variable Smoke-bush occurs within two National Parks (Freycinet and Mt William), one State Reserve (Mount Pearson), two Conservation Areas (Bay of Fires and Coles Bay), and one Nature Recreation Area (Humbug Point).

Proposed activities within Tasmania's formal reserve system are subject to The Tasmanian Reserve Management Code of Practice (Parks & Wildlife Service et al. 2003); activities are considered systematically to ensure a reserve's values (including threatened species) are not compromised. However, active management for individual threatened species tends to be governed by the availability of species-specific management plans. This approach is typified by the Freycinet National Park, Wye River State Reserve - Management Plan (Parks & Wildlife Service 2000): the main flora-based objective is to 'protect, maintain and monitor natural flora diversity and threatened flora species', while recommended actions include the implementation of management programs for threatened flora species of conservation significance. In the absence of such plans, management for the Variable Smoke-bush has consisted of ecological burning of a small portion of its heathy woodland habitat within Freycinet National Park (Parks & Wildlife Service 2002).

The Variable Smoke-bush occurs in coastal heath or heathy woodland on granite or sandy, acid, low nutrient soils; associated eucalypts include the Tasmanian endemics Eucalyptus amygdalina (Black Peppermint) and E. tenuiramis (Silver Peppermint). The species has an altitudinal range from near sea level to 460 metres (Curtis 1967; Threatened Species Unit 2004).

Populations of the Variable Smoke-bush in Freycinet National Park are associated with the EPBC-listed plants Epacris barbata, Philotheca freyciana and Stenanthemum pimeleoides.


The main flowering period for the Variable Smoke-bush is from September to November; fruit is set by early to mid summer. Morrison and colleagues (1994) observed a variety of flies, beetles and ants visiting the four East Australian Conospermum species under study, concluding that the only ones likely to be effective pollinators were flies and clerid beetles; a similar situation is presumed to apply for the Variable Smoke-bush.

The Variable Smoke-bush has been observed to resprout following fire, though its response to fire intensity is unknown. Prolific germination of seed has been observed in the wake of wholesale gravel extraction at the Avoca site, though the species' germination cues in more natural situations are unknown.

The Variable Smoke-bush can be readily distinguished from other shrubs in its typical heathy woodland habitat due to its upward-directed grey-green leaves on emergent slender branches, while its floral features are unique in the Tasmanian flora.

Surveys may be undertaken at any time of year due to the species' distinctive appearance, though it is recommended that wetter conditions be avoided to minimise the risk of spreading Phytophthora cinnamomi. Any survey efforts need to take into account the species' patchy distribution and the generally small population sizes.

Habitat modification:
Habitat modification threatens a number of subpopulations on private land, particularly through ongoing coastal subdivision for housing. Coastal developments are being proposed that may result in the destruction of a small number of plants at several of the northern sites, while increased activity in coastal areas threaten some subpopulations through an increased usage of adjacent native bush (via weed invasion, tracks, rubbish dumping and the spread of soil-borne diseases).

Gravel extraction:
The species' natural habitat at the Avoca site has been decimated by past gravel extraction with the loss of an unknown number of plants, though paradoxically the Variable Smoke-bush has proven to be an effective coloniser of areas stripped of all top soil (with localised prolific germination of seed apparently flowing into disturbed areas from a few surviving plants or from soil-stored seed).

Phytophthora cinnamomi:
The Variable Smoke-bush is known to be moderately susceptible to the introduced soil-borne pathogen Phytophthora cinnamomi (Schahinger et al. 2003), with most near-coastal populations considered to be at risk due to the presence of nearby infestations. The Avoca subpopulation occurs in an area that is climatically unsuited to P. cinnamomi expression due to its low rainfall (Podger et al. 1990) though even this site could be susceptible in unusually warm and wet seasons. In the short term at least, this site is considered the most secure in Tasmania in terms of P. cinnamomi management.

Changed fire regime:
Fire is presumed to be a crucial factor in the ecology of the Variable Smoke-bush and in the maintenance of subpopulations. The preferred fire regime for the Variable Smoke-bush may be inferred from that of its heathy woodland habitat, viz., 10-25 years (Parks and Wildlife Service 2002). The species has been observed to resprout following fire, though its response to varying intensities is unknown. Similarly, little is known of the time required for new seedlings to establish, mature, and replenish the soil seed bank. (Ironically, increased soil temperatures in recently burnt areas may heighten the risk of infection from Phytophthora cinnamomi.) The fire regime for native vegetation adjacent to coastal developments is likely to be altered through the implementation of fire protection measures, with a probable detrimental impact upon the Variable Smoke-bush.

In the absence of fire for c. 20 years, much of the heathy woodland habitat in the Freycinet National Park has been predicted to be replaced by a dense, tall shrubland dominated by Leptospermum glaucescens (Parks and Wildlife Service 2002), leading to a possible decline in the Variable Smoke-bush. Most subpopulations within formal reserves are considered to be at risk due to a lack of fire, though ecological burns are planned for some subpopulations within Freycinet National Park (Parks and Wildlife Service 2002).

Stochastic effects:
Thirteen of the 22 subpopulations for which data is available support fewer than 50 mature plants, thus exposing them to unforeseen stochastic events.
Lack of fecundity may in part explain the patchy occurrence of the species in an expanse of seemingly ideal habitat. Low germination rates are a feature of Conospermum in general (Fox et al. 1987), while many species are known to produce fruit that do not contain viable seed (George 1984e).

Minister's reasons for recovery plan decision
The primary threats to the species (fire regimes and the exotic fungus Phytophthera cinnamomi) are already being actively managed. Therefore the approved conservation advice for the species now provides sufficient direction to implement priority actions and mitigate against key threats. A recovery plan is not considered to be necessary at this time.

Proposed recovery actions for Conospermum hookeri in the draft Greater Freycinet Recovery Plan (Threatened Species Unit 2004) included the following:

  • undertake extension surveys in areas with confirmed sites to increase the knowledge of population numbers and areas occupied, and survey potential habitat for new populations;
  • undertake research to understand the role of fire in the ecology of the species and identify populations for priority fire management;
  • monitor key populations of the Variable Smoke-bush for signs of recruitment and responses to disturbance;
  • participate in long-term programs for the management of Phytophthora cinnamomi in the Greater Freycinet Region;
  • provide adequate information and extension to relevant Natural Resource Management Committees, Local Councils, Government Agencies and the local community on the locality, significance and management of known populations and the management of potential habitat of the Variable Smoke-bush;
  • provide technical assistance to the Private Forests Reserve Programme (PFRP) and the Protected Areas on Private Land Programme (PAPL) for the protection and management of known sites on private land; and
  • clarify the taxonomic status of the Variable Smoke-bush in Tasmania.

A number of these actions have been implemented on an opportunistic basis:

  • surveys of known potential habitat on Schouten Island were undertaken by DPIW personnel in 2004 and 2005, with a number of additional Variable Smoke-bush plants recorded;
  • the Variable Smoke-bush was added to the list of RFA priority species for the (Tasmanian) PFRP in 2002, and included in their Strategic Reserve Design analysis. No properties supporting the Variable Smoke-bush populations have been secured to date, due in part to the association of the Variable Smoke-bush with a plant community of 'low' priority (Coastal Eucalyptus amygalina forest); and
  • the Tasmanian Herbarium is now involved with studies to resolve the taxonomic status of the Variable Smoke-bush on mainland Tasmania.

Development assessments:
The Conservation Assessment Section (DPIW) and the Forest Practices Authority (Tasmanian Department of Infrastructure, Energy & Resources) are required to consider the impacts of proposed developments on any species listed under the Tasmanian Threatened Species Protection Act 1995.

Proposed actions which would benefit the Variable Smoke-bush are outlined below.

Additional formal and informal reserves:
Unallocated Crown land near St Helens is earmarked for inclusion in the adjoining St Helens Conservation Area; part of the area was fenced off specifically for C. hookeri by the Tasmanian Parks and Wildlife Service in 1998 in an attempt to mitigate impacts associated with increasing recreational activity (e.g. rubbish dumping, new tracks, spread of soil-borne diseases). In addition, part of another subpopulation on private land has been protected from clearance by a Conservation Covenant under the Tasmanian Nature Conservation Act 2002 (promulgated by PAPL).

Phytophthora management:
The Variable Smoke-bush is present within two designated Phytophthora cinnamomi Management Areas (Schahinger et al. 2003), one in the Bay of Fires Conservation Area and the other in the Mt Pearson State Reserve, though neither population is considered secure due to the nearby presence of P. cinnamomi infestations. Any newly-found Variable Smoke-bush populations in formal reserves will be considered for P. cinnamomi management on the basis of their 'manageability' (Schahinger et al. 2003); such areas will be considered for inclusion as P. cinnamomi Management Areas, with appropriate management prescribed to maintain their Phytophthora-free status (Parks and Wildlife Service et al. 2003).

Fire management and monitoring:
The requirement for ecological burning to maintain natural flora diversity and the monitoring of threatened species such as the Variable Smoke-bush are stated objectives in management plans prepared for Tasmania's formal reserves (Parks and Wildlife Service 2000; 2002). Some ecological burning of known the Variable Smoke-bush habitat has been undertaken in Freycinet National Park in the past five years, though no formal monitoring has been undertaken; responsibility lies with DPIW and the Tasmanian Parks and Wildlife Service (PWS 2002). Formal monitoring to determine the response of the Variable Smoke-bush to fire and Phytophthora cinnamomi is considered fundamental to the future management of the species, as is an understanding of the species' germination requirements.

The Variable Smoke-bush was one of a number of flora species considered in the draft Greater Freycinet Recovery Plan (Threatened Species Unit 2004). The species was also targeted in the Conservation of Tasmanian Plant Species and Communities threatened by Phytophthora cinnamomi: Strategic Regional Plan for Tasmania (Schahinger et al. 2003).

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Vegetation and habitat loss caused by dieback Phytophthora cinnamomi Commonwealth Listing Advice on Conospermum hookeri (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2007m) [Listing Advice].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity) Commonwealth Listing Advice on Conospermum hookeri (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2007m) [Listing Advice].
Residential and Commercial Development:Residential and Commercial Development:Habitat modification (clearance and degradation) due to urban development Commonwealth Listing Advice on Conospermum hookeri (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2007m) [Listing Advice].
Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Low numbers of individuals Commonwealth Listing Advice on Conospermum hookeri (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2007m) [Listing Advice].

Bennett, E.M. (1995). Conospermum. In: Orchard, A.E. & P.M. McCarthy, eds. Flora of Australia. 16:214-271. ABRS, Canberra/CSIRO, Melbourne.

Buchanan, A.M. (2005). A Census of the Vascular Plants of Tasmania & Index to the Students Flora of Tasmania. Fourth Edition. Tasmanian Herbarium Occasional Publication No. 7. Hobart, Tasmania: Tasmanian Museum and Art Gallery.

Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria (CHAH) (2010). Australian Plant Census. [Online]. Australian National Herbarium, Australian National Botanic Gardens and Australian Biological Resources Study . Available from: http://www.anbg.gov.au/chah/apc/.

Curtis, W.M. (1967). The Students Flora of Tasmania. Part 3. Government Printer, Hobart.

Department of the Environment (2014a). Threat abatement plan for disease in natural ecosystems caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi. [Online]. Canberra; ACT: Department of the Environment. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/resource/threat-abatement-plan-disease-natural-ecosystems-caused-phytophthora-cinnamomi.

Fox, J., B. Dixon & D. and Monk (1987). Germination in other plant families. In: Langkamp, P., ed. Germination of Australian native seed. Inkata Press, Melbourne.

George, A.S. (1984e). An Introduction to the Proteaceae of Western Australia. Page(s) 112 pp. Kangaroo Press, Kenthurst, NSW.

Keith, D.A. (2000). Sampling designs, field techniques and analytical methods for systematic plant population surveys. Ecological Management & Restoration. 1(2):125-139.

Kirkpatrick, J.B. (1977). The Disappearing Heath - A study of the conservation of the coastal heath communities of North and East Tasmania and the Furneaux Group. Tasmanian Conservation Trust, Hobart.

Morrison, D.A., M. McDonald, P. Bankoff, P. Quirico & D. and Mackay (1994). Reproductive isolation mechanisms among four closely-related species of Conospermum (Proteaceae). Botanical Journal of the Linnaean Society. 116:13-31.

Parks and Wildlife Service (2000). Freycinet National Park, Wye River State Reserve Management Plan. Department of Environment and Land Management, Hobart.

Parks and Wildlife Service (2002). Freycinet Reserves Fire Management Plan. Department of Primary Industries, Water and Environment, Hobart.

Parks and Wildlife Service, Forestry Tasmania and Department of Primary Industries, Water and Environment (2003). Tasmanian Reserve Management Code of Practice. [Online]. Hobart, Tasmania: Department of Tourism, Parks, Heritage and the Arts. Available from: http://www.parks.tas.gov.au/file.aspx?id=6901.

Podger, F.D., D.C. Mummery, C.R. Palzer & M.J. and Brown (1990). Bioclimatic analysis of the distribution of damage to native plants in Tasmania by Phytophthora cinnamomi. Australian Journal of Ecology. 15:281-289.

Schahinger, R., T. Rudman & T. Wardlaw (2003). Conservation of Tasmanian Plant Species & Communities threatened by Phytophthora cinnamomi. Strategic Regional Plan for Tasmania. Technical Report 03/03. Hobart, Tasmania: Nature Conservation Branch, Department of Primary Industries, Water and Environment.

Threatened Species Section (TSS) (2004). Draft Greater Freycinet Region Threatened Species Recovery Plan 2004-2008. Department of Primary Industries, Water and Environment, Hobart.

Walsh, N.G., & T.J. Entwisle. (eds) (1996). Dicotyledons: Winteraceae to Myrtaceae. In: Flora of Victoria. Three. Melbourne: Inkata Press.

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This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Conospermum hookeri in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Mon, 22 Sep 2014 22:49:23 +1000.