Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Endangered
Listing and Conservation Advices Commonwealth Listing Advice on Isoodon obesulus obesulus (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2001d) [Listing Advice].
 
Approved Conservation Advice for Isoodon obesulus obesulus (southern brown bandicoot (eastern)) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2014ba) [Conservation Advice].
 
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan required, included on the Commenced List (1/11/2009).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans
Policy Statements and Guidelines Draft referral guidelines for the endangered southern brown bandicoot (eastern), Isoodon obesulus obesulus (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011g) [Admin Guideline].
 
Survey guidelines for Australia's threatened mammals. EPBC Act survey guidelines 6.5 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011j) [Admin Guideline].
 
Information Sheets Southern brown bandicoot, Isoodon obesulus Threatened Species Day fact sheet (Department of the Environment and Water Resources (DEW), 2007c) [Information Sheet].
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Inclusion of species in the list of threatened species under section 178 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (29/03/2001) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2001h) [Legislative Instrument].
 
State Government
    Documents and Websites
NSW:Recovery Plan for the Southern Brown Bandicoot (Isoodon obesulus) (New South Wales Department of Environment and Conservation (NSW DEC), 2006) [State Recovery Plan].
NSW:Bandicoots - Fact sheet (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2002n) [Information Sheet].
NSW:Southern Brown Bandicoot (eastern) - profile (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2005gi) [Internet].
NSW:Environmental Impact Assessment Guidelines - Southern Brown Bandicoot (NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service (NSW NPWS), 2001k) [Internet].
NSW:Southern Brown Bandicoot Threatened Species Information (NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service (NSW NPWS), 2001l) [Information Sheet].
SA:Threatened Species - The Southern Brown Bandicoot (South Australian Department for Environment and Heritage (SA DEH), 2009i) [Internet].
VIC:Southern Brown Bandicoot prescription - Melbourne Strategic Assessment (Victoria Department of Sustainability and Environment (Vic. DSE), 2010g) [Management Plan].
VIC:Sub-regional Species Strategy for the Southern Brown Bandicoot - Melbourne Strategic Assessment (Victoria Department of Sustainability and Environment (Vic. DSE), 2011c) [Management Plan].
State Listing Status
NSW: Listed as Endangered (Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995 (New South Wales): December 2013 list)
SA: Listed as Vulnerable (National Parks and Wildlife Act 1972 (South Australia): June 2011 list)
VIC: Listed as Threatened* (Flora and Fauna Guarantee Act 1988 (Victoria): February 2014 list)
Non-statutory Listing Status
VIC: Listed as Near Threatened (Advisory List of Threatened Vertebrate Fauna in Victoria: 2013 list)
Scientific name Isoodon obesulus obesulus [68050]
Family Peramelidae:Polyprotodonta:Mammalia:Chordata:Animalia
Species author (Shaw, 1797)
Infraspecies author  
Reference  
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images
http://www.threatenedspecies.environment.nsw.gov.au/tsprofile/profile.aspx?id=10439

Victoria: At the species level, Isoodon obesulus is listed as Threatened under the Flora and Fauna Guarantee Act 1988.

Scientific name: Isoodon obesulus obesulus

Common name: Southern Brown Bandicoot (eastern subspecies)

Other common name: Short-nosed Bandicoot

The Southern Brown Bandicoot species, Isoodon obesulus, has five formally recognised subspecies, with each subspecies being geographically distinct (NSW DEC 2006; Van Dyck & Strahan 2008). These subspecies are I. obesulus obesulus (New South Wales, Victoria and South Australia), I. o. nauticus (common on Franklin Island but rare on St. Francis Island, Nuyts Island Archipelago Conservation Park, South Australia), I. o. peninsulae (Cape York Peninsula, Queensland), I. o. affinus (throughout Tasmania and Bruny Island, Maria Island and other Bass Strait Islands) and I. o. fusciventer (south-west Western Australia) (NSW DEC 2006). The subspecies I. o. nauticus is listed as Vulnerable under the EPBC Act.

The subspecies is referred to as the Southern Brown Bandicoot (eastern). Information in this document referring to Isoodon obesulus refers to the Southern Brown Bandicoot at the species level.

The Southern Brown Bandicoot (Isoodon obesulus) is a medium sized ground dwelling marsupial with a long tapering snout, a naked nose, a compact body and a short tail. Males weigh between 500–1850 g and females 400–1200 g (Van Dyck & Strahan 2008). They have an average body length of 33 cm for males and 30 cm for females, with an average tail length of 11.3 and 12.4 cm for females and males respectively (Van Dyck & Strahan 2008).

Southern Brown Bandicoots have small rounded ears and small black eyes. The dorsal surface of the body usually appears grey-brown at a distance but grizzled (with golden-brown flecks) at close range because of banded spiny guard hairs. The underparts and forefeet are creamy white or pale yellow in colour, and the tail brown above and creamy yellow below. The forelegs are short with curved claws on each of the five digits, and the hind limbs much longer. The hind feet have five toes, with the first digit small and clawless, while the second and thirds digits are fused (Brown & Main 2010).

The Southern Brown Bandicoot (eastern) is found in New South Wales (NSW), Victoria and South Australia (SA). The Southern Brown Bandicoot (eastern) was once believed to be the most common bandicoot in southern Australia (Krefft 1866), but by the 1920s it was considered rare (Jones 1924).

The Southern Brown Bandicoot's (eastern) range is fragmented by climatic factors, natural vegetation (and soil) patterns and anthropogenic clearing of native vegetation. Modeling indicates that very few places remain where optimal vegetation and suitable climate for the subspecies coincide (Paull et al. 2013). Natural fragmentation is masked by human-induced transformations to land cover and clearing has targeted most places that formerly had suitable climate and vegetation (Paull et al. 2013).

NSW

Within NSW, the Southern Brown Bandicoot (eastern) is apparently rare and almost exclusively restricted to the coastal fringe of the state, from the southern side of the Hawkesbury River in the north to the Victorian border in the south. More specifically, the subspecies is considered to occur primarily in two areas: (i) Ku-ring-gai Chase and Garigal National Parks just north of Sydney; and (ii) in the far south-east corner of the state including Ben Boyd National Park, East Boyd State Forest, Nadgee Nature Reserve, Nadgee State Forest, South East Forest National Park and Yambulla State Forest (NSW DEC 2006). In between these two areas the subspecies has been found in a small number of National Parks (Blue Mountains and Budderoo) and state forests (Maroota, Mumbulla, Nalbaugh, and Nullica) (NSW DEC 2006). Two records of the subspecies have been reported from private land in the Northern Sydney Metropolitan Area (Atkins 1999). The subspecies has been recorded in the Dharawal State Conservation Area and on adjacent land in the Appin area (Biosphere Environmental Consulting Pty Ltd 2009).

Victoria

The Southern Brown Bandicoot (eastern) is primarily distributed in coastal regions in Victoria, although isolated populations occur inland in the Dandenong Ranges, the Grampian Ranges and central western Victoria (Menkhorst & Seebeck 1990). The subspecies has a disjunct distribution across southern Victoria, with most records being clustered within parts of several southern Victorian bioregions, including the East Gippsland Lowlands, Gippsland Plain (Western section), Otway Plain (Anglesea section), Warrnambool Plain (Port Campbell section), Greater Grampians, Glenelg Plains and Wilsons Promontory (Coates et al. 2008).

South Australia

Since European settlement, the Southern Brown Bandicoot (eastern) has been recorded from four separate regions of South Australia: the Mount Lofty Ranges, the south-east, Kangaroo Island and Eyre Peninsula. Sub-fossil remains show that the subspecies also once occurred on the Yorke Peninsula but there is no evidence that it has existed there in modern times. In the lower south-east, all current records are located in Forestry SA Native Forest Reserves.

Extent of occurrence

The estimate of the extent of occurrence of the Southern Brown Bandicoot (eastern) is approximately 5000 km² and field surveys indicate that its range is contracting (TSSC 2001).

NSW

In September 2005, the NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service (NSW NPWS) conducted population surveys for the Southern Brown Bandicoot (eastern) in Ku-ring-gai Chase and Garigal National Parks to assess the impact of recovery actions on bandicoot survival through monitoring and comparing known populations and locating additional populations (NSW DEC 2005c). The surveys involved the participation of NSW NPWS staff, threatened species officers, community volunteers and university students (NSW DEC 2005c). The technique involved setting live cage traps for eight nights in both Ku-ring-gai Chase and Garigal National Parks with data such as weight, age, health, sex and breeding activity collected (NSW DEC 2005c).

Victoria

The south-central region of Victoria, in the Port Phillip-Western Port-West Gippsland areas, has been extensively surveyed for the Southern Brown Bandicoot (eastern) and assessed against historical data (Coates et al. 2008). This study has shown declines in known populations of the species in the greater Melbourne area but strong populations in the Koo-wee-rup, Bayles, Cardinia and Garfield-Longwarry areas. These areas are considered important to the continued viability of the subspecies in south-central Victoria (Coates et al. 2008).

South Australia

Field surveys were undertaken for the Southern Brown Bandicoot (eastern) in the Mount Lofty Ranges between 1986 and 1990, the south-east in April 1990, Kangaroo Island in June 1990 and Eyre Peninsula in August 1993 (Paull 1995). Southern Brown Bandicoots (eastern) were recorded in the Mount Lofty Ranges, the south-east and Kangaroo Island but not in Eyre Peninsula (Paull 1995). In a 2005 study, nine of 17 sites surveyed in the Mount Lofty Ranges recorded this subspecies (Bevin 2005).

A number of local extinctions of the Southern Brown Bandicoot (eastern) are known to have occurred during the last decade, particularly in NSW. Recent surveys provide evidence that the subspecies has declined in distribution and abundance in south-western Victoria (TSSC 2001d).

The apparent scale and rapidity of decline mean that all extant populations are considered important for the survival of the subspecies (Brown & Main 2010).

The potential for the Southern Brown Bandicoot (eastern) to recover from low population levels is, in theory, high. Their high fecundity suggests they are capable of rapid increases in numbers, given appropriate conditions (NSW DEC 2006). At a broad habitat scale these conditions appear to be absence of introduced predators, an adequate supply of subterranean food resources, dense understorey vegetation and sufficient area of contiguous habitat to contain a mosaic of seral stages (NSW DEC 2006). An important consideration in the ability of the species to recover is the degree of fragmentation of existing populations (NSW DEC 2006).

In NSW, the Southern Brown Bandicoot (eastern), occurs in the Ku-ring-gai Chase and Garigal National Parks just north of Sydney. It also occurs in the far south east corner of NSW in Ben Boyd National Park (NP), East Boyd State Forest (SF), Nadgee Nature Reserve (NR), Nadgee SF, South East Forests NP, Timbillica SF and Yambulla SF. In between these two areas the species has been found in a small number of National Parks (Blue Mountains and Budderoo) and State Forests (Maroota, Mumbulla, Nalbaugh and Nullica) (NSW DEC 2006).

In South Australia, the Southern Brown Bandicoot (eastern) is known from several state parks, the largest of which is Flinders Chase NP on Kangaroo Island (Seebeck et al. 1990). It also occurs in Morialta Conservation Park (CP), Mt Billy CP, Warren CP, Horsnell Gully CP, Kenneth Stirling CP, Cleland CP, Belair NP, Mark Oliphant CP, Scott Creek CP, Kyeema CP, Mt Magnificent CP, Cox Scrub CP, Myponga CP, Springmount CP, Deep Creek CP, Parndana CP, Latham CP, Flinders Chase NP, Western River CP, Kelly Hill Caves CP, Mt Taylor CP, Seddon CP, Dudley CP, Newland Head CP, Mylor CP, Bullock Hill CP, Mt George CP, Flinders Chase NP, Ravine des Casoars Wilderness Protection Area (WPA), Kelly Hill CP, Western River WPA, Parndana CP, Vivonne Bay CP, Seal Bay CP, Cape Gantheaume WPA, Lashmar CP, Telford Scrub CP and Lesueur CP (Brown & Main 2010).

In Victoria, the subspecies is found in Croajingolong NP, Cape Conran CP, Coopracambra NP, Wilsons Promontory NP, Wonthaggi Heathlands Nature Conservation Reserve (NCR), The Gurdies NCR, Quail Island Wildlife Reserve, Pines Flora and Fauna Reserve, Dandenong Ranges NP, Bunyip State Park (SP), Mornington Peninsula NP, Great Otway NP, Port Campbell NP, Grampians NP, Mt Napier SP, Mt Richmond NP, Cape Nelson SP, Discovery Bay CP, Lower Glenelg NP, Dergholm SP, Wilkin Flora and Fauna Reserve, Bemm SF, Wingan SF, Otways SF, Cobboboonee SF, Nangeela SF and Drajurk SF (Brown & Main 2010).

Southern Brown Bandicoots (eastern) are known to inhabit a variety of habitats including heathland, shrubland, sedgeland, heathy open forest and woodland and are usually associated with infertile, sandy and well drained soils, but can be found in a range of soil types (Coates et al. 2008; Menkhorst and Seebeck 1990; NSW DEC 2006; Paull 1993). Within these vegetation communities they typically inhabit areas of dense ground cover. Species experts define suitable habitat for Southern Brown Bandicoots (eastern) to be any patches of native or exotic vegetation, within their distribution, which contains understorey vegetation structure with 50–80% average foliage density in the 0.2–1 m height range. In areas where native habitats have been degraded or diminished, exotic vegetation, such as Blackberry (Rubus spp.), can and often does, provide important habitat (DSEWPaC 2011g).

Vegetation structure appears to be more influential than floristics in determining Southern Brown Bandicoot (eastern) abundance (Brown & Main 2010). In particular, the density of ground layer vegetation appears to be important - sites with greater vegetation density in the ground layer are generally preferred (Claridge & Barry 2000; Claridge et al. 1991; Lobert 1985; Lobert 1990; Opie 1980; Paull 1993; Paull 1999; Wilson 2004).

For a modeling exercise, Paull and colleagues (2013) identified the following optimal and suboptimal habitat types:

  Dominant species Structure Suitability
Tallest stratum Banksia spp. heathland Optimal
Casuarina spp. low woodland, low open woodland Optimal
Eucalyptus spp. tall open forest, open forest, low open forest, woodland, open woodland, low woodland, low open woodland, open scrub tall shrubland, tall open shrubland Optimal
Melaleuca spp. low woodland, low open woodland Optimal
Acacia spp. low open woodland Suboptimal
Mixed or other low woodland, low open woodland, tall shrubland, tall open shrubland, heathland, open heathland Suboptimal
Lower stratum   low shrubs <2 m Optimal
  low trees <10 m Suboptimal
  tall shrubs >2 m Suboptimal

Fire management

Many of the habitats occupied by Southern Brown Bandicoots (eastern) are prone to fire (Braithwaite 1983; Lobert 1990). Early investigations on habitat requirements conducted within the Royal Botanical Gardens in Cranbourne Victoria (RBGC) by Braithwaite and Gullen (1978) and by Stoddart and Braithwaite (1979) found Southern Brown Bandicoots (eastern) to prefer dry heath of a younger successional stage. However, subsequent studies by Opie (1980) and Lobert (1985), again at RBGC, indicated preferences for vegetation at mature successional stages. Menkhorst and Seebeck (1990) concluded that the ecological management of habitat to maintain a mosaic of different successional stages of vegetation created by controlled fires best serves their conservation.

Hope (2012) found that, after a low intensity fire, post-fire population's were stable for up to five months. Other studies have shown the negative impact of high intensity fire (Thompson et al. 1989) and there is evidence of local extinction following low intensity fire, possibly in response to feral predators or habitat loss (Hope pers. obs. cited in Hope 2012). There was a slight shift to non-combustible refuge sites post-fire. Animals were observed foraging in burnt areas, although it is unknown whether this was due to site fidelity, territoriality or supply of resources.

Nesting

Southern Brown Bandicoots (eastern) use dense, low vegetation for nest and shelter sites (Lobert & Lee 1990; Paull 1993; Stodart 1977; Wilson 2004), construct leaf/grass nests in depressions within this vegetation (Paull 1993; Paull 1995) and possibly also dig burrows (Long 2009, cited in Brown & Bain 2010). In south-eastern South Australia and near Sydney, Grass Tree (Xanthorrhoea spp.) was found to be particularly important for Southern Brown Bandicoots (eastern), with animals establishing their nests within the `skirts' of dead foliage that reach the ground (Paull 1995; Wilson 2004).

Coarse woody debris is also important, as logs may offer shelter and nesting sites (Claridge 1988). Southern Brown Bandicoots (eastern) in northern Sydney have also demonstrated opportunistic use of spaces under rocks and burrows created by other animals (Ecotone Ecological Consultants 2003, cited in Brown & Main 2010). The subspecies may dig its own burrows to avoid extreme weather conditions and fire (Long 2009, cited in Brown & Main 2010).

Life expectancy and sexual maturity

The near absence of long term population studies makes it difficult to estimate survivorship of individuals over time. On the Franklin Islands (South Australia), Copley and colleagues (1990) found that survivorship of I.o. nauticus individuals post birth was extremely low: approximately 20% of pouch young died before weaning, about 50% appeared to be lost as newly independent juveniles and few of the remaining 3% were later recorded as sexually mature animals. On the mainland, recruitment rates of Southern Brown Bandicoot (eastern) young into populations also appears to be low. Stoddart and Braithwaite (1979) found that between 12 to 18% of Southern Brown Bandicoot (eastern) young remained on their heathland study site. Thus, about 80% of new animals entering the trappable population came from elsewhere. On the same site, only several years later, Lobert (1985) found higher local recruitment rates (36%).

The Tasmanian subspecies, I. o. affinus, reaches reproductive maturity at a minimum of four and six months of age for females and males, respectively (Heinsohn 1966). This compares to a minimum of seven months in some Victorian populations of Southern Brown Bandicoot (eastern) (Lobert 1985; Lobert & Lee 1990). The average longevity of individuals in the wild is unknown. Using mark-recapture data, Heinsohn (1966) estimated that most bandicoots (Tasmanian subspecies) live for at least two years provided they first reach sexual maturity. Individuals up to 3.5 years of age have been reported from field based studies of Southern Brown Bandicoot (eastern) (Lobert & Lee 1990).

Reproduction

The breeding season for Southern Brown Bandicoots (eastern) varies across their range, with peak breeding occurring from winter through to late summer (Lobert 1985; Lobert & Lee 1990; Stoddart & Braithewaite 1979). Southern Brown Bandicoots (eastern) have also been recorded with pouch young throughout the year in Belair NP in the Mount Lofty Ranges SA (Haby & Long 2005). The timing of the peak in the breeding season results in the population size of Southern Brown Bandicoots (eastern) increasing in spring to summer, and peaking in late summer to autumn when juveniles are recruited into the population (Coates 2008; Lobert 1985).

The onset of breeding has been found to be highly predictable (Lobert & Lee 1990; Stoddart & Braithwaite 1979) with females entering oestrus synchronously. This synchronicity has been linked to predictable environmental factors such as sunrise and sundown, rather than unpredictable factors such as rainfall and prey abundance (Stoddart & Braithwaite 1979). Lobert and Lee (1990) found that breeding season of Southern Brown Bandicoots (eastern) was correlated with the annual peak in prey (soil invertebrate) abundance.

The species is thought to have a gestation period of less than 15 days (Lobert & Lee 1990). Neonates (newborns) have a pouch life of approximately two months (Stoddart & Braithwaite 1979), and it is during the latter stages of pouch life that juvenile mortality is greatest (Gordon 1974; Stodart 1966). Lobert and Lee (1990) determined that the weight of young at this time is between 105–140 g. Females bandicoots are capable of resuming oestrus and becoming pregnant before completion of suckling of the previous litter (Close 1977; Lyne 1964). This allows one litter to immediately follow another in the pouch, affording a potentially high reproductive capacity (NSW DEC 2006). Males continue to grow in size throughout life, whereas females finish growing at about 18 to 24 months of age (Lobert & Lee 1990).

Although adult females are capable of producing up to six young per litter (Braithwaite 1983), the mean litter size is typically between two to four young (Copley et al. 1990; Heinsohn 1966, Lobert & Lee 1990; Stoddart & Braithwaite 1979). Because the pouch has eight teats the unused teats allow one litter to immediately succeed another without waiting for used and enlarged teats to revert to normal size (Hall 1983a; Stodart 1977). Thus, bandicoots have the potential to produce multiple litters during the year with two to three litters per season (Lobert & Lee 1990; NSW DEC 2006). The number of such litters depends primarily on the duration of the breeding season.

Southern Brown Bandicoots demonstrate a high level of juvenile dispersal (Stoddart and Braithwaite 1979), a trait that, in combination with high reproductive output, could enable rapid colonisation of suitable habitat as it develops (Brown & Main 2010). However, the death rate of juveniles is high (Van Dyck & Strahan 2008).

The Southern Brown Bandicoot (eastern) is omnivorous, opportunistically exploiting a wide variety of food resources such as invertebrates (mainly insects but also earthworms and other invertebrates), plant material and fungi (Stoddart and Braithwaite 1979, Lee & Cockburn 1985). In south-eastern NSW, Claridge and colleagues (1991) found that sympatric populations of Southern Brown Bandicoots (eastern) and Long-nosed Bandicoots, Perameles nasuta, had very similar diets, feeding mainly on ants, beetle larvae and plant material. Seeds and the fruit-bodies of hypogeous fungi were also consumed on a seasonal basis. There was some partitioning of the fungal species eaten (NSW DEC 2006). Opie (1980) and Lobert (1985) reported that Southern Brown Bandicoots (eastern) in southern Victoria mainly fed on a range of invertebrates during summer and autumn while during winter and spring the fruit-bodies of hypogenous (underground fruiting) fungi were favoured. The availability of free water does not influence habitat use since Southern Brown Bandicoots may occur large distances from suitable sources (Moloney 1982). Instead, Southern Brown Bandicoots (eastern) obtain sufficient water from dew and dietary items such as fungal fruit-bodies (Lobert 1985). Water in food may completely account for the total daily water needs of the species (Nagy et al. 1991).

Southern Brown Bandicoots obtain food by searching and probing the litter and ground vegetation, or by digging in the soil (Gordon 1974; Stodart 1966). Food in the soil is located by smell (Moloney 1982).

The foraging activity of the Southern Brown Bandicoot is indicated by the presence of characteristic scratch marks in the soil, often conical in shape and several centimetres deep. These forage diggings cannot be distinguished from those made by other bandicoot species such as the Long-nosed Bandicoot (NSW DEC 2006). The holes are dug with the forefeet, and are usually large enough to accommodate the animal's snout when it is searching for food (Stodart 1983). A single animal may dig multiple holes in a small area if food is locally concentrated resulting in the soil litter cover being severely pock-marked (NSW DEC 2006).

Southern Brown Bandicoots (eastern) have been found to be active both day and night, with the activity period varying between location and habitat (NSW DEC 2006). Activity periods may vary seasonally, and be influenced by vegetation density providing refuge from predators or vary with outright predation pressure (Lobert 1990). They are mostly solitary, socially intolerant and aggressive toward conspecifics (Heinsohn 1966; Stoddart & Braithwaite 1979), and their aggressive behaviour in captivity may lead to the death of an individual (Heinsohn 1966).

Home Ranges

In studies on the Tasmanian subspecies and Eastern Barred Bandicoots (Perameles gunnii) in Tasmania, Heinsohn (1966) observed that newly independent bandicoots rapidly established themselves in home ranges away from their birth place. This pattern of juvenile dispersal is critical to the species being able to exploit spatially and temporally ephemeral habitats, such as those subject to episodic fire (Cockburn 1990). If local extinction of bandicoot populations is inevitable as habitat matures (Lee & Cockburn 1985), the survival of the species is enhanced by the dispersal of offspring into adjacent, better quality habitat. High dispersal rates have associated low survival rates, so the reproductive season is necessarily prolonged in order to maximize the likelihood of population survival (Lee & Cockburn 1985).

Home range studies of the Southern Brown Bandicoot, Isoodon obesulus, are limited and comparisons can be tenuous due to methodological biases (Lobert 1990). Ecological factors such as site productivity and habitat structure may also influence home range size (Moloney 1982). Despite these limitations, the majority of home range studies of the species have all reported estimates which range from 0.5 to 9.0 ha (Copley et al. 1990; Heinsohn 1966; Lobert 1990; McKenzie 1967; Moloney 1982; Paull 1993; Wilson 2004). There is evidence suggesting that differences in home range size vary according to gender and habitat use but the results are inconclusive (Heinsohn 1966; Lobert 1990, Wilson 2004).

The internal dynamics of home range of animals are not fully understood, although Gordon (1974) identified two functional units for the closely related Northern Brown Bandicoot (Isoodon macrourus): areas of high food abundance and nest sites. The local distribution of Southern Brown Bandicoots is thought to vary mainly with the distribution of food, with concentrations of individuals coinciding with abundant food supply.

Territories

It is unclear whether Southern Brown Bandicoots, Isoodon obesulus, establish territories. The results of Copley and colleagues (1990) and Lobert (1990), demonstrate overlap in home ranges of animals, while the findings of Heinsohn (1966) and McKenzie (1967), found that home ranges of bandicoots were non-overlapping. Moloney (1982) postulated that if the Southern Brown Bandicoot, Isoodon obesulus, exhibits territoriality at all, it is in the form of passive avoidance. The pugnacious behaviour of the species (Claridge 1988; Jones 1924; Moloney 1982) and the overlap of home ranges observed in the studies of Copley and colleagues (1990) and Lobert (1990), are consistent with this mode of spacing (Lobert 1985). Degree of overlap and size of territory is probably dependent on resources, with higher degrees of overlap and smaller home range in areas of greater food availability (Hope 2012).

The Southern Brown Bandicoot (eastern) is most easily confused with the Long-nosed Bandicoot and Long-nosed Potoroo (Potorous tridactylus), which share common habitat. However the Southern Brown Bandicoot (eastern) is generally smaller and has smaller ears. The feet fur of the Southern Brown Bandicoot (eastern) is brown and the Long-nosed Bandicoot has white feet fur. The Long-nosed Potoroo can be differentiated from the two bandicoots by its thick `wallaby-like' tail. (NSW DEC 2006).

Survey timing

The probability of detecting Southern Brown Bandicoots (eastern) is typically greatest in late summer to autumn coinciding with the peak in recruitment of juveniles into populations. Therefore surveys should preferably be conducted in autumn when the probability of detection is likely to be greatest. The subspecies' broad distribution, however, means that occupancy and use of habitat may vary considerably over time with local climatic conditions, rainfall and/or temperature and surveying should extend across several months and preferably occur following a significant increase in soil moisture levels (Southern Brown Bandicoot (eastern) Scientific Workshop 2010).

Survey methods

Areas should primarily be surveyed for the presence of Southern Brown Bandicoots (eastern) using a combination of active searches for diggings or other signs and the deployment of hair tunnels and remote infrared "game" cameras. Secondary survey techniques that may also be employed include predator scat analysis, raked soil plot analysis and anecdotal evidence from the community and surrounding landholders (Southern Brown Bandicoot (eastern) Scientific Workshop 2010).

The recommended survey methods to determine the presence of Southern Brown Bandicoots (eastern) are detailed in the table below (Southern Brown Bandicoot (eastern) Scientific Workshop 2010). Live trapping (using wire cage traps) is not recommended to determine presence due to its inefficiency (the subspecies is often considered to be "trap shy"), potential for injury and the tendency of females to eject pouch young when trapped.

  Method 1 Intensity Effort Timing
Primary Methods Hair tunnel Affected areas < 4 ha:
  • 20 hair tunnels per ha
  • set up in locations showing evidence of recent diggings or suitable habitat
Affected areas > 4 ha < 10 ha:
  • 10 hair tunnels per ha
  • set up in locations showing evidence of recent diggings or suitable habitat
Affected areas > 10 ha < 30 ha:
  • 10 hair tunnels per 2 ha
  • set up in locations showing evidence of recent diggings or suitable habitat
Affected areas > 30 ha:
  • minimum of 5 hair tunnels per 2 ha
  • 10 hair tunnels per transect spaced 50 m apart
  • minimum of 50% of affected area to be surveyed based on assessment of suitable habitat and recent diggings
Bait attractant: approx. 5:1:2 mixture of rolled oats, honey and peanut butter (optional to combine 20 ml/kg of truffle oil), secured in an inaccessible bait holder, to be set up with each hair tunnel.Mammal hairs should be identified by trained or experienced persons.

Minimum of two surveys, each of 14 day duration, timed at least one month apart and at least one following significant rainfall

For affected areas greater than 10 ha, survey effort may be split over the two surveys to cover the whole area

Autumn

Not to be conducted during spring or summer due to the detrimental by-catch of amphibians and reptiles

Remote infrared "game" camera Affected areas < 10 ha:
  • 1 camera per ha
  • set up in locations showing evidence of recent diggings or suitable habitat
Affected areas > 10 ha < 30 ha:
  • 1 camera per 2 ha
  • set up in locations showing evidence of recent diggings or suitable habitat
Affected areas > 30 ha:
  • minimum of 1 camera per 5 ha
  • set up in locations showing evidence of recent diggings or suitable habitat
  • minimum of 50% of affected area to be surveyed based on assessment of suitable habitat and recent diggings

Bait attractant: approx. 5:1:2 mixture of rolled oats, honey and peanut butter (optional to combine 20 ml/kg of truffle oil), secured in an inaccessible bait holder.

Camera setup 2 3: approx. 50 cm above ground level. Bait to be set up 1–3 m in front of each camera. If necessary, trim vegetation to ground level between the camera and bait and within a 1 m radius around the bait.

Minimum of two surveys, each of 14 day duration, timed at least one month apart and at least one following significant rainfall

Autumn preferred, but can be year round if validated with supporting evidence

Spring to Autumn within north-eastern distribution in NSW (region typically experiences moist summers)

Secondary Methods Diggings & scats Surveys of suitable habitat within the affected area can be conducted by suitably trained or experienced persons to search for diggings made by Southern Brown Bandicoots when foraging.However, Southern Brown Bandicoot diggings may be confused with a range of other species and therefore the presence of Southern Brown Bandicoots needs to be confirmed using more definitive survey techniques or supplemented by other evidence.

Southern Brown Bandicoot scats found during any of the above survey events should be identified by suitably trained or experienced persons.
As required Preferred when soils are moist
Raked soil plots Raked soil or sand plots can be set up along suspected Southern Brown Bandicoot traversing paths such as along natural or vehicle tracks, walking tracks, and fauna trails/runways to detect foot prints
  • 2 soil plots per hectare, each 1 m wide by width of track
However, tracks may be confused with a range of other species and therefore the presence of Southern Brown Bandicoots needs to be confirmed using more definitive survey techniques.
Survey over three consecutive nights, frequency as required Autumn preferred, but can be year round
Predator scats Predator scats found during any of the above survey events should be analysed by suitably trained or experienced persons for the existence of Southern Brown Bandicoot remains, especially hair. Routinely during the course of field work Year round
Other evidence
  • Live trapping using wire mesh cage traps 4 5
  • Review of the appropriate state agency wildlife sightings database for presence points within the affected area
  • Anecdotal evidence of presence from local experts and landholders
  • See footnote 4 and 5
  • As required
  • As required
  • See footnote 4 and 5
  • Year round
  • Year round

1. Permits may be required for some survey methods and should be sought from your state environment agency. Additionally, activities in commonwealth areas may require permits under Part 13 of the EPBC Act.
2. The terrain of the site, the camera being used and the vegetation at the site may require you to adjust these distances to maximise detection at the site in question.
3. Nelson and Scroggie (2009).
4. Not recommended by the department. If live trapping is to be conducted, consult your state environment agency for detailed approved survey methods, intensity, effort and timing.
5. Not recommended by the department. If live trapping is to be conducted, animal care and ethics considerations should follow the general recommendations for cage trapping in the department's survey guidelines for non-flying mammals (DSEWPaC 2011).

The major threats to the Southern Brown Bandicoot (eastern) are habitat loss or modification, fragmentation, inappropriate fire regimes and extensive wildfires, introduced predators, and isolation of populations (Claridge & Barry 2000; NSW DEC 2006; TSSC 2001d)

Introduced predators

The subspecies is preyed upon by European Red Foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and Wild Dogs (Canis lupus familiaris), and presumably by Feral and domestic cats (Felis catus) (Claridge et al. 1991; Paull 1999). Analysis of hair from predator scats has shown the Southern Brown Bandicoot (eastern) to be a regular prey item of introduced predators, especially dogs and foxes, in many areas (Brown & Main 2010). Evidence indicates that the impact of fox predation on Southern Brown Bandicoots (various sub-species) is serious in many locations while the significance of cat predation is not known (Brown & Main 2010). The absence of the foxes in Tasmania is thought to be a factor contributing to the widespread distribution and abundance of the species, while in South Australia the presence of this introduced predator coincided with the disappearance of bandicoots from several areas (Hornsby 1984). There is also some evidence to suggest that foxes affect the sex ratio of Southern Brown Bandicoot populations, with female animals being more susceptible to predation than male animals (Dickman 1988b). The Southern Brown Bandicoot (eastern) has demonstrated changes in foraging behaviour in response to fox predation (Coates 2008). Small terrestrial mammals, such as the Southern Brown Bandicoot (eastern), may often be restricted to sites that offer protection from predation through high levels of ground cover (Caughley 1994, cited in Brown & Bain 2010). Coates (2008) found that when fox control reduced predation pressure, Southern Brown Bandicoots (eastern) used new sites with sparser vegetation cover.

Activities that reduce or modify habitat structure, such as frequent prescribed burning and weed management, may expose Southern Brown Bandicoots (eastern), which rely on dense ground cover, to increased predation (Brown & Bain 2010). Predation is also likely to be exacerbated in areas where natural habitat is fragmented. The proximity of cleared areas could lead to increased fox densities in remnant habitat, and greater levels of predation of dispersing individuals because of reduced cover (Brown & Main 2010).

Predation by the European Red Fox and Feral Cats are listed as a key threatening process for the Southern Brown Bandicoot (eastern) under the EPBC Act and the Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995 (NSW).

Natural predators of the Southern Brown Bandicoot include quolls, snakes and a variety of diurnal and nocturnal raptors (Heinsohn 1966; Lobert 1985).

Habitat loss and modification

The clearance of native habitat for urban, agricultural and pastoral use has been implicated in the local extinction of populations of the Southern Brown Bandicoot across several states, including Victoria (Seebeck 1977; Menkhorst & Seebeck 1990), Tasmania (Moloney 1982) and South Australia (Aitken 1983). Habitat may also be made unsuitable through the loss of key habitat elements such as the modification or removal of the lower vegetation strata through inappropriate fire regimes or stock grazing (Brown & Main 2010). Wide scale clearing of native vegetation in the Bega Valley (in southern NSW) in the early part of this century led to massive decline in the number of bandicoots, although there is some question over whether these were Southern Brown or Long-nosed Bandicoots (Lunney & Leary 1988).

Weed invasion can also degrade Southern Brown Bandicoot (eastern) habitat complexity (Brown & Main 2010).

Dieback, caused by the plant pathogen Phytophthora cinnamomi, can alter the structural and floristic composition of habitats. This root-rot fungus causes disease and death in a variety of native plants, and therefore can affect the Southern Brown Bandicoot by destroying its shelter and food resources (Environment Australia 2001m; Haby & Long 2005). Dieback is listed as a key threatening process for the Southern Brown Bandicoot (eastern) under the EPBC Act. Grazing and trampling by domestic stock can also degrade bandicoot habitat (Brown 1989, cited in Brown & Main 2010; Haby & Long 2005).

Fragmentation

Isolation has negative effects on the distribution and occurrence of many species, due primarily to animals being restricted or prevented from dispersing between isolates (Bennett 1999, cited in Brown & Main 2010). Population modelling has indicated that the probability of extinction for a single population in continuous habitat is much less than for the multiple isolated populations of the same total size in a fragmented landscape (Reed 2004, cited in Brown & Main 2010).

A study in south-western Victoria found that fragmentation of forest habitat was one important reason for the decline and local extinctions of the local mammal fauna, including the Southern Brown Bandicoot being absent from smaller patches (Bennett 1990). Similar regional declines have been documented in south-eastern NSW (Lunney & Leary 1988).

Connectivity is likely to be an important factor in the subspecies' survival in fragmented and isolated habitats. Relatively small areas of habitat, such as linear strips along drains, roads and rail reserves, may be important in providing connectivity between larger habitat patches (Brown & Main 2010). For example, Southern Brown Bandicoots (eastern) use such habitat in the Western Port region of Victoria (Coates et al. 2008).

Fire regimes

The effects of wildfire on the species, Isoodon obesulus, are poorly known, although anecdotal information suggests that the species may respond positively to such disturbance in some instances. In Tasmania, populations of the subspecies (I. o. affinus) recovered well after wildfire (Hemsley 1967). Similarly, at Nadgee Nature Reserve in southern NSW, bandicoots (I. obesulus and/or Perameles nasuta) were seen to increase in numbers four to five years after a severe wildfire and then decrease (Catling & Newsome 1981). In the same general area, following a repeat fire of similar intensity, bandicoots did not reach peak abundance until 14–15 years post disturbance (P. Catling n.d., pers. comm. cited in NSW DEC 2006). To some extent, the rapidity with which bandicoots recover post fire may depend on how quickly ground vegetation re-establishes. In some cases ground cover does not develop quickly enough, leading to the decline of populations. For example in the Mount Lofty Ranges in South Australia, wildfire caused a long term reduction in the area of dense ground cover and localised extinctions of the Southern Brown Bandicoot (eastern) populations (Anon. 1989 cited in NSW DEC 2006; Thompson et al. 1989).

Braithwaite (1983) has hypothesised that the decrease in frequency of fire following European occupation of south-eastern Australia has led to an overall decline in the distribution and abundance of the species. This hypothesis contrasts with the recent listing of frequent fire as a threatening process for the Southern Brown Bandicoot under the Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995 (NSW). The view put forward by Braithwaite stems largely from observations made by Stoddart and Braithwaite (1979) at a single Victorian site, where animals were found to preferentially occupy young regenerating heathland. Research on the distribution and habitat preferences of the Southern Brown Bandicoot (eastern) in South Australia, conducted by Paull (1995), supports the observations of Stoddart and Braithwaite (1979), in so far as animals were more likely to be found in areas with recent (5–7 year) evidence of fire. However, this seral stage of habitat was by far the most commonly represented across study sites, and bandicoots were also present in very recently burnt (1–2 year) and long unburnt (> 20 year) habitats. Although it appears that the species may be favoured by the careful and strategic use of prescribed fire, more information is required on the scale, intensity and timing of burning for conservation of the subspecies.

Logging regimes

In south-eastern NSW, suitable habitat for the Southern Brown Bandicoot (eastern) is subject to intensive (integrated) logging practices. There have been no long term studies examining the effects of such practices on the species. Richards and colleagues (1990) considered that in the short term the species was potentially at risk immediately following logging through loss of ground cover and increased predation. Significantly, Claridge and colleagues (1991) noted anomalies in a population of the species in Yambulla State Forest, in unlogged patches of forest adjacent to recently logged areas. At the time of their study, the population mostly comprised old male animals and there was no indication of breeding activity among the only female sampled. This was in contrast to observations of a range of sex and age classes of animals from the same population made by the (then) Forestry Commission of NSW prior to logging. Later trapping at the same sites failed to record the presence of the subspecies (Mills 1999), although animals have recently been detected elsewhere in Yambulla State Forest by State Forests NSW. Other observations indicate that the Southern Brown Bandicoot (eastern) is capable of successfully recolonising previously logged forest, leading some authors to suggest lack of deleterious impact (Fanning & Mills 1989; Fanning & Rice 1989). Green (1982) reported the Tasmanian subspecies reinhabiting five year old regrowth forest. Significantly though, introduced predators were largely absent.

Road kill

There are several road kill records of the Southern Brown Bandicoot (eastern) within Ku-ring-gai Chase National Park, immediately north of Sydney, and a smaller number from elsewhere in the southern part of the state. This indicates that where roads intersects suitable habitat, animals may be harmed by vehicular traffic when moving around their home ranges. The level of road kill of the subspecies elsewhere throughout the greater Northern Sydney Metropolitan Area is unknown since relevant mortality registers have not been kept (NSW DEC 2006).

Risks faced by small populations

Small populations are typically at greater risk of extinction than larger ones because they are more susceptible to unpredictable events or changes to factors that influence population dynamics. In small populations this can cause irreversible changes to age structure and sex ratios of populations, which in turn can severely limit a population's ability to recover from a catastrophic event.

For example, habitat for the Southern Brown Bandicoot (eastern) within Garigal National Park (NSW) is small in area, highly fragmented, fire prone and within close proximity to residential development. When these attributes are taken together, the remaining habitat is potentially threatened by repeated habitat modification in the form of hazard reduction burning and/or wildfire, or erosion caused by land clearing. This population is also under threat from predation from the European Red Fox (NSW DEC 2006). In addition, animals within this population are showing signs of inbreeding depression (Johnston et al. 2002). Due to all of these factors, the Garigal National Park population is considered at high risk of extinction.

Studies on the genetic diversity of the Southern Brown Bandicoot (eastern) indicate low levels of mitochondrial DNA variability and divergence in Sydney, south-eastern NSW, East Gippsland and Mt Gambier (Zenger et al. 2005). The study also revealed a small effective population size of female bandicoots, most likely a consequence of large scale population contraction and recent population bottlenecks in some areas.

Site-specific fire management is appropriate for the Southern Brown Bandicoot (Eastern) (Hope 2012). Retention of nesting habitat will maximise post-fire survival. At a regional scale, a mix of vegetation classes across continuous habitat will maximise the chance of persistence. Small hazard-reduction burns adjacent to nesting habitat, and patchy large scale burns, may minimise the likelihood of localised extinction. Large high-intensity fires may have serious impacts on populations persisting in fragmented habitat (Hope 2012).

The NSW recovery plan for the Southern Brown Bandicoot (eastern), Isoodon obesulus obesulus (NSW DEC 2006) proposes the following recovery actions for the subspecies in this state:

  • Continue to support the state wide recovery team for the Southern Brown Bandicoot (eastern)
  • Establish regional working groups for the Southern Brown Bandicoot (eastern) in key areas of the state
  • Undertake intensive control of introduced predators around extant populations of the Southern Brown Bandicoot (eastern)
  • Monitor the response of Southern Brown Bandicoot (eastern) populations to intensive control of introduced predators
  • Establish mortality register for roads within Ku-ring-gai Chase National Park to assess whether signage is reducing level of road kill of Southern Brown Bandicoot (eastern)
  • Establish mortality register for public roads in the Northern Sydney Metropolitan Area to assess current level of impact on Southern Brown Bandicoot (eastern) outside of national parks
  • Ensure fire management activities are sympathetic to conservation requirements of the Southern Brown Bandicoot (eastern)
  • Ensure informed environmental assessment and planning decisions are made
  • Conduct postal survey in Northern Sydney Metropolitan Area
  • Examine response of Southern Brown Bandicoot (eastern) to fire
  • Identify genetic structure of extant populations
  • Collect basic information on life history attributes of Southern Brown Bandicoot (eastern)
  • Investigate the feasibility of establishing a captive breeding program
  • Conduct media publicity campaigns
  • Inform local communities of conservation significance of Southern Brown Bandicoot (eastern).
  • Involve local community groups in survey and monitoring for Southern Brown Bandicoot (eastern).
The draft national recovery plan for the Southern Brown Bandicoot (eastern) (Brown & Main 2010) outlines the following recovery objectives:
  • Ensure that existing bandicoot populations and their habitat are protected and managed
  • Identify threats and threat abatement management practices to assist the recovery of the Southern Brown Bandicoot
  • Determine the distribution, abundance and population structure of the Southern Brown Bandicoot
  • Identify the key attributes of existing or potential habitat that are important for the Southern Brown Bandicoot
  • Evaluate population responses of the Southern Brown Bandicoot to recovery actions, and adapt actions as required
  • Build a network of government and non-government organisations and individuals to facilitate recovery of the Southern Brown Bandicoot
  • Manage and review recovery plan implementation
  • Promote public awareness of and involvement in the Southern Brown Bandicoot recovery program
  • Assess the requirement for captive populations.

The following projects have received Government funding grants for conservation and recovery work benefiting the Southern Brown Bandicoot:

The Black Range Bandicoot Recovery Team received $11 100 through the Threatened Species Network Community Grants in 2005–06 for identification of threats and engagement of the local community in revegetation, fox control and monitoring to address decline in populations.

The Mornington Peninsula and Western Port Biosphere Reserve Foundation Ltd received $13 636 through the Threatened Species Network Community Grants in 2007–08. The project aimed to expand extant populations of Southern Brown Bandicoot in the Melbourne-Westernport region by establishing management strategies to ensure continuity of effort, reducing fox predation, extending habitat with understorey plantings and substantial community awareness programs. Distribution and abundance of bandicoots was monitored by local volunteers aided by scientific validation.

The Cardinia Environment Coalition Inc. received $9091 through the Threatened Species Network Community Grants in 2007–08. The project aimed to protect and enhance Bandicoot Corner (Bayles, Victoria), a core area of habitat for the Southern Brown Bandicoot managed by the Cardinia Environment Coalition Inc. Activities included habitat restoration, predator control including a fox baiting program, and community engagement through the development of education/interpretive facilities and field days for the community.

Project Platypus Association Inc (Victoria) received $23 318 through the Threatened Species Network Community Grants in 2008–09 for the `Black Range Bandicoot Highway' project. The project revegetated and enhanced existing vegetation that provides habitat for the Southern Brown Bandicoot. The project carried out stage one of activities for the proposed corridor between Black Range and the Grampians National Park.

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Agriculture and Aquaculture:Land clearing, habitat fragmentation and/or habitat degradation Commonwealth Listing Advice on Isoodon obesulus obesulus (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2001d) [Listing Advice].
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Grazing pressures and associated habitat changes Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Logging and Wood Harvesting:Habitat disturbance due to foresty activities Isoodon obesulus obesulus in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006me) [Internet].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Climate Change and Severe Weather:Climate change altering atmosphere/hydrosphere temperatures, rainfall patterns and/or frequency of severe weather events Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].
Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Indirect Ecosystem Effects:Loss and/or fragmentation of habitat and/or subpopulations Commonwealth Listing Advice on Isoodon obesulus obesulus (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2001d) [Listing Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation by weeds Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Vulpes vulpes (Red Fox, Fox) Commonwealth Listing Advice on Isoodon obesulus obesulus (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2001d) [Listing Advice].
Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Felis catus (Cat, House Cat, Domestic Cat) Commonwealth Listing Advice on Isoodon obesulus obesulus (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2001d) [Listing Advice].
Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Canis lupus familiaris (Domestic Dog) The threat posed by pest animals to biodiversity in New South Wales (Coutts-Smith, A.J., P.S. Mahon, M. Letnic & P.O. Downey, 2007) [Management Plan].
Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, tramping, competition and/or habitat degradation Sus scrofa (Pig) The threat posed by pest animals to biodiversity in New South Wales (Coutts-Smith, A.J., P.S. Mahon, M. Letnic & P.O. Downey, 2007) [Management Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Presence of pathogens and resulting disease Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity) Commonwealth Listing Advice on Isoodon obesulus obesulus (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2001d) [Listing Advice].
Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate prescribed regimes and/or vegetation management to control fire regimes Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].
Residential and Commercial Development:Housing and Urban Areas:Habitat loss, modification and fragmentation due to urban development Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].
Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Low numbers of individuals Commonwealth Listing Advice on Isoodon obesulus obesulus (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2001d) [Listing Advice].
Transportation and Service Corridors:Roads and Railroads:Vehicle related mortality Isoodon obesulus obesulus in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006me) [Internet].

Aitken, P.F. (1983). Mammals. In: M.J. Tyler, C.R. Twidale, J.K. Ling and J.W. Holmes, eds. Natural History of the South-East. Adelaide: Royal Society of South Australia.

Atkins, K. (1999). Review of the distribution and abundance of the Southern Brown Bandicoot Isodon obesulus in northern Sydney. Report prepared for the New South Wales National Parks and Wildlife Service, Sydney zone.

Bevin, E. (2005). Threatened species stages comeback. The Advertiser. 15 Aug:15.

Biosphere Environmental Consulting Pty Ltd (2009). Bulli Seam Operations Project - Terrestrial Fauna Assessment. Illawrra Coal and BHP Billiton, eds. Bulli Seam Operations - Appendix F - Terrestrial Fauna Assessment. EPBC Referral 2010/5350. Biosphere Environmental Consulting Pty Ltd.

Braithwaite, R.W. (1983). Southern Brown Bandicoot, Isoodon obesulus. In: R Strahan, ed. The Australian Museums Complete Book of Australian Mammals. Page(s) p. 94. Sydney: Angus and Robertson.

Braithwaite, R.W. & P.K. Gullan (1978). Habitat selection on a Victorian heathland. Australian Journal of Ecology. 3:109-127.

Brown, G.W. and M.L. Main (2010). Draft National Recovery Plan for the Southern Brown Bandicoot Isoodon obesulus obesulus. Department of Sustainability and Environment. Victoria, Department of Sustainability and Environment.

Catling, P.C., A.E. Newsome (1981). Responses of the Australian vertebrate fauna to fire: an evolutionary approach. In: A.M. Gill, R.H. Groves, I.R. Noble, ed. Fire and the Australian biota. Page(s) 273-310. Canberra: Australian Academy of Science.

Claridge, A.W. (1988). Diet and ecology of the Southern Brown Bandicoot and Long-nosed Bandicoots in South-eastern New South Wales. Hons. Thesis. Canberra: Department of Forestry, The Australian National University.

Claridge, A.W. & S.C. Barry (2000). Factors influencing the distribution of medium-sized ground-dwelling mammals in southeastern mainland Australia. Austral Ecology. 25:676-688.

Claridge, A.W., A. McNee, M.T. Tanton & S.M. Davey (1991). Ecology of Bandicoots in undisturbed forest adjacent to recently felled logging coupes: a case study form the Eden woodchip agreement area. In: D. Lunney, ed. Conservation of Australia's Forest Fauna. Page(s) 331-345. Mosman: Royal Zoological Society of NSW.

Close, R.L. (1977). The recurrence of breeding after cessation of suckling in the marsupial Perameles nasuta. Australian Journal of Zoology. 25:641-645.

Coates, T., D. Nicholls & R.Willig (2008). The distribution of the Southern Brown Bandicoot Isodon obesulus in south central Victoria. The Victorian Naturalist. 125(5):128-139.

Coates, T.D. (2008). The effect of fox control on mammal populations in an outer urban conservation reserve. Australian Mammalogy. 30:51-63.

Cockburn, A. (1990). Life history of the bandicoots: development rigidity and phenotypic plasticity. In: J.H. Seebeck, P.R. Brown, R.L. Wallis and C.M. Kemper, eds. Bandicoots and Bilbies. Page(s) 285-292. Sydney: Surrey Beatty and Sons.

Copley, P.B., V.T. Read, A.C. Robinson & C.H.S. Watts (1990). Preliminary studies of the Nuyts Archipelago bandicoot Isoodon obesulus nauticus on the Franklin Islands, South Australia. In: J.H Seebeck, P.R Brown, R.L. Wallis & C.M. Kemper, eds. Bandicoots and Bilbies. Page(s) 345-356. Chipping Norton, NSW: Surrey Beatty & Sons Pty Ltd.

Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC) (2011g). Draft referral guidelines for the endangered southern brown bandicoot (eastern), Isoodon obesulus obesulus. [Online]. EPBC Act policy statement. Canberra, ACT: DSEWPaC. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/epbc/publications/southern-brown-bandicoot.html.

Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC) (2011j). Survey guidelines for Australia's threatened mammals. EPBC Act survey guidelines 6.5. [Online]. EPBC Act policy statement: Canberra, ACT: DSEWPAC. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/epbc/publications/threatened-mammals.html.

Dickman, C.R. (1988b). Detection of physical contact interactions among free-living mammals. Journal of Mammalogy. 69:865-868.

Environment Australia (EA) (2001m). Threat Abatement Plan for Dieback Caused by the Root-rot Fungus Phytophthora cinnamomi. [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/tap/phytophthora.html.

Fanning, F.D. & B. Rice (1989). Natural Resource Survey of the Southern Portion of Rockton Section, Bondi State Forest. In: Forest resources Series No 7. Forestry Commission of NSW.

Fanning, F.D. & K. Mills (1989). Natural Resource Survey of the Southern Portion of Rockton Section, Bondi State Forest. . Forest Resources Series No 6. Forestry Commission of NSW.

Gordon, G (1974). Movements and activity of the short-nosed Bandicoot (Isoodon macrourus) Gould (Marsupialia). Mammalia. 38:405-431.

Green, R.H. (1982). The activity and movement of fauna in Compartment 2, MAggs Mountain, Tasmania, in the first five years of forest regeneration. Records of the Queen Victoria Museum. 75:1-24.

Haby, N. & K. Long (2005). Recovery Plan for the Southern Brown Bandicoot in the Mount Lofty Ranges, South Australia, 2004 to 2009. Department of Environment and Heritage. Adelaide: Department of Environment and Heritage.

Hall, L.S. (1983a). Observations on body weights, and breeding of the northern brown bandicoot, Isoodon macrourus, trapped in south-east Queensland. Australian Wildlife Research. 10:467-476.

Heinsohn, G.E. (1966). Ecology and reproduction of the Tasmanian bandicoots, Perameles gunnii and Isoodon obesulus. University of California Publications in Zoology. 80.

Hemsley, J.H. (1967). Bushfires - South-east Tasmania 7th February 1967. Some Aspects of the Fire in relation to Animal and Plant Life. Report to the Tasmanian Forestry Commission.

Hope, B. (2012). Short-term response of the long-nosed bandicoot, Perameles nasuta, and the southern brown bandicoot, Isoodon obesulus obesulus, to low-intensity prescribed fire in heathland vegetation. Wildlife Research. 39:731-744.

Hornsby, P.E. (1984). Fauna survey of Douglas Scrub. South Australian Naturalist. 59:14-17.

Johnston, P.G., K.R. Zenger & M.D.B. Eldridge (2002). Genetic Variation in Southern Brown Bandicoot Populations and a Rapid Molecular Technique for Identifying Bandicoot Species in New South Wales.

Jones, F.Wood (1924). The Bandicoots and Herbivorous Marsupials. In: The Mammals of South Australia: Part II. Adelaide: Government Printer.

Krefft, G. (1866). On the vertebrated animals of the lower Murray and Darling, their habits, economy and geographical distribution. Transactions of the Philosophical Society of New South Wales. 65:1-33.

Lee, A.K. & A. Cockburn (1985). Evolutionary Ecology of Marsupials. Cambridge : Cambridge University Press.

Lobert, B. (1985). The Ecology of the Southern Bandicoot in South-eastern Australian Heathland. M.Sc. Thesis. Department of Botany and Zoology, Monash University.

Lobert, B. (1990). Home range and activity period of the southern brown bandicoot (Isoodon obesulus) in a Victorian heathland. In: J.H. Seebeck, P.R. Brown R.L. Wallis, and C.M. Kemper, eds. Bandicoots and Bilbies. Page(s) 319-325. Sydney: Surrey Beatty and Sons.

Lobert, B. & A.K. Lee (1990). Reproduction and life history of Isoodon obesulus in Victorian heathland. In: Seebeck, J.H., P.R. Brown, R.L. Wallis & C.M. Kemper, eds. Bandicoots and Bilbies. Page(s) 311-318. NSW, Surrey Beatty & Sons Pty Ltd.

Lunney, D. & T. Leary (1988). Effect of European Man on Fauna in the South-east of New South Wales. Australian Journal of Ecology. 25:332-339.

Lyne, A.G. (1964). Observations on the breeding and growth of the marsupial Perameles nasuta (Geoffroy), with notes on other bandicoots. Australian Journal of Zoology. 12:332-339.

McKenzie, N.L. (1967). Some Ecological Aspects of the Behaviour of the Short-nosed Bandicoot (Isoodon obesulus). Hons. Thesis. Honours thesis, Department of Zoology, Melbourne, Monash University.

Menkhorst, P.W. & J.H.Seebeck (1990). Distribution and conservation status of bandicoots in Victoria. In: Seebeck, J.H., P.R. Brown, R.L. Wallis & C.M. Kemper, eds. Bandicoots and Bilbies. Page(s) 51-60. Chipping Norton, NSW: Surrey Beatty & Sons.

Mills, D.J. (1999). Distribution and conservation status of the Southern Brown Bandicoot (Isoodon obesulus) in the Eden Region, south-east New South Wales: a preliminary investigation. Unpublished consultancy report to the NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service.

Moloney, D.J. (1982). A Comparison of the Behaviour and Ecology of the Tasmanian Bandicoots, Perameles gunnii (Gray 1838) and Isoodon obesulus (Shaw and Nodder 1797). Hons. Thesis. Hobart: University of Tasmania.

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This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Isoodon obesulus obesulus in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Sat, 26 Jul 2014 18:35:24 +1000.